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Data and Computer Communications Digital Data Communications Techniques

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A conversation forms a two-way communication link; there is a measure of symmetry between the two parties, and messages pass to and fro. There is a continual stimulus-response, cyclic action; remarks call up other remarks, and the behavior of the two individuals becomes concerted, co-operative, and directed toward some goal. This is true communication. —On Human Communication, Colin Cherry

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Asynchronous and Synchronous Transmission timing problems require a mechanism to synchronize the transmitter and receiver receiver samples stream at bit intervals receiver samples stream at bit intervals if clocks are not precisely aligned, drifting will sample at wrong time after sufficient bits are sent if clocks are not precisely aligned, drifting will sample at wrong time after sufficient bits are sent two solutions to synchronizing clocks:

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Asynchronous Transmission ddddata are transmitted one character at a time eeeeach character is 5 to 8 bits in length rrrreceiver has the opportunity to resynchronize at the beginning of each new character s s s simple and cheap rrrrequires overhead of 2 or 3 bits per character (~20%) tttthe larger the block of bits, the greater the cumulative timing error ggggood for data with large gaps (keyboard)

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Synchronous Transmission block of bits transmitted in a steady stream without start and stop codes clocks must be synchronized to prevent drift can use separate clock line can use separate clock line embed clock signal in data embed clock signal in data need to indicate start and end of block use preamble and postamble bit patterns frame is data plus preamble, postamble, and control information more efficient than asynchronous for large blocks of data

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Types of Error an error occurs when a bit is altered between transmission and reception binary 1 is transmitted and binary 0 is received or binary 0 is transmitted and binary 1 is received binary 1 is transmitted and binary 0 is received or binary 0 is transmitted and binary 1 is received single bit errors isolated error that alters one bit but not nearby bits caused by white noise burst errors contiguous sequence of B bits where first and last bits and any number of intermediate bits are received in error caused by impulse noise or by fading in wireless effects greater at higher data rates

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Error Detection regardless of design you will have errors can detect errors by using an error- detecting code added by the transmitter code is also referred to as check bitscode is also referred to as check bits recalculated and checked by receiver still chance of undetected error parity parity bit set so character has even (even parity) or odd (odd parity) number of ones parity bit set so character has even (even parity) or odd (odd parity) number of ones even number of bit errors goes undetected even number of bit errors goes undetected

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Parity Check the simplest error detecting scheme is to append a parity bit to the end of a block of data if any even number of bits are inverted due to error, an undetected error occurs

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Error Detection Process

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Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) oooone of most common and powerful checks ffffor block of k bits transmitter generates an n bit frame check sequence (FCS) ttttransmits k+n bits which is exactly divisible by some predetermined number rrrreceiver divides frame by that number if no remainder, assume no error

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Error Correction correction of detected errors usually requires data block to be retransmitted not appropriate for wireless applications bit error rate is high causing lots of retransmissions bit error rate is high causing lots of retransmissions propagation delay long (satellite) compared with frame transmission time, resulting in retransmission of frame in error plus many subsequent frames propagation delay long (satellite) compared with frame transmission time, resulting in retransmission of frame in error plus many subsequent frames need to correct errors on basis of bits received codeword on the transmission end each k-bit block of data is mapped into an n-bit block (n > k) using a forward error correction (FEC) encoder on the transmission end each k-bit block of data is mapped into an n-bit block (n > k) using a forward error correction (FEC) encoder

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Error Correction Process

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How Error Correction Works adds redundancy to transmitted message redundancy makes it possible to deduce original message despite some errors redundancy makes it possible to deduce original message despite some errors block error correction code

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Line Configuration - Topology refers to the physical arrangement of stations topology such as between two routers / computers point to point - two stations traditionally mainframe computer and terminals now typically a local area network (LAN) multi point - multiple stations

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Line Configuration - Topology

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Line Configuration - Duplex data exchanges classified as half or full duplex half duplex (two-way alternate)half duplex (two-way alternate) only one station may transmit at a timeonly one station may transmit at a time requires one data pathrequires one data path full duplex (two-way simultaneous)full duplex (two-way simultaneous) simultaneous transmission and reception between two stationssimultaneous transmission and reception between two stations requires two data pathsrequires two data paths separate media or frequencies used for each directionseparate media or frequencies used for each direction

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Summary asynchronous & synchronous transmission asynchronous asynchronous data transmitted one character at a timedata transmitted one character at a time synchronous synchronous block of bits transmitted in steady stream without start and stop codesblock of bits transmitted in steady stream without start and stop codes error detection and correction single bit error and error burst single bit error and error burst error detecting codes error detecting codes parity and cyclic redundancy check (CRC)parity and cyclic redundancy check (CRC) line configurations topology topology full duplex and half duplex full duplex and half duplex

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