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An Optical / IR Observatory on The Antarctic Plateau Lifan Wang George Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy Texas A&M University Cook’s.

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Presentation on theme: "An Optical / IR Observatory on The Antarctic Plateau Lifan Wang George Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy Texas A&M University Cook’s."— Presentation transcript:

1 An Optical / IR Observatory on The Antarctic Plateau Lifan Wang George Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy Texas A&M University Cook’s Branch, April 12, 2012

2 The Site Dome A Elevation4,091 m (13,422 ft) Coordinates: -80d22m, E77d 21m

3 The highest peak on the Plateau A team of Pioneers led by Yuanshen Li of Polar Research Institute Of China arrived at Dome Argus, Antarctica on Jan 18, 2005.

4 Dome A China/Australia/USA

5 CSTAR 2008 - 2011

6 Kunlun Station Jan 27, 2009

7 Scientific Considerations Time Domain Astronomy – Requires Clear Sky High Spatial Resolution, Wide Field Astronomy – Requires Clear Sky, Good Seeing Wide Field Infrared Survey – Requires Clear Sky, Good Seeing, and Low Sky Background Terahertz Telescope – Requires Low PWV

8 Continuous observing time for more than 3 months Low temperature, low sky background in thermo IR Low turbulence boundary layers, good seeing Dry air, high transmission in IR Large Isoplanatic Angle Aurora High relative humidity Difficult to access Less dark time Major Relevant Features

9 Zou et al. 2010

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12 OH (near IR) O 2 (IR+Herzberg, Chamberlain bands) NO 2 (pseudocont.) Na (seas. variation); Hg, Na lines Weak continuum

13 [OI]6300,6364 (300km) N 5200 (258km) Zodiacal Light; Diffuse Milky Way light; Faint stars and galaxies

14 Sonic Radar – SNODAR, UNSW, CCAA

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17 Dome C Dome A Height of Turbulence Layer at Dome A & C Boner et al. 2010

18 Precipitable Water Vapor

19 Nigel at Dome A – An instrument for sky emission Nigel Black spectrum: Hill & Jones JGR 105, 9421 (2000)

20 IR Background It is also noteworthy that there are summer time IR background measurement at Dome C (Walden et al. 2005). The summer time 3-20 m backgrounds were found to be very stable and at levels comparable to the measurements at South Pole during the winter.

21 Example Science CSTAR Data An Exoplanet Candidate Black dots: Raw data Red dots: Data binned to 10 min interval CSTAR – an array of cm telescopes

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24  Scuti star Uninterrupted 4.5-d light curve (representing 3.5% of the entire data). Folded light curve using P = d; the photometric uncertainty is 1.5 mmag/bin. Lingzhi Wang, Lucas Macri et al. 2011

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26 Survey Efficiency Define the survey efficiency k as the sky area a telescope can survey to a given S/N for a resolved source in a specific exposure time: For an unresolved diffuse source: D-Diameter of the telescope  -Field of view of the camera q -fwhm of the image (seeing or diffraction limit)  -Sky surface brightness If the background is lower by a factor of , as is the case for 2.4 micron at Dome A, a 0.5 meter telescope can survey as fast as a meter telescope at a temperate site A single KDUST field is 2 sq degree.

27 Antarctica Survey Telescopes

28 AST3 68/50cm Diameter FoV 4.2 Sq Deg 1”/pix

29 Standard Candles

30 Sensitivity

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33 The first AST3 telescope was installed on Jan. 24, Astronomical operation began on March 15.

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35 AST3 SN Survey/ DES Overlap Schedule: Installation in Survey Operation: 2012 – 2017 Data Products: >2000 SNIa to z ~ 0.15 Core-collapse SNe; GRB; Orphan GRB afterglow LMC continuous monitoring –variable stars/microlensing/dark matter Galactic center continuous monitoring – variable stars/microlensing/transients Galactic structure – RR Lyrae/Cepheids SPT overlap area SDSS Southern Equatorial Stripe Tie region

36 Supernova Cosmology More precise Hubble diagram Peculiar motion of nearby galaxies Measurement of s 8 Dark matter and neutrino properties 36 Wang, 2007

37 Microlensing toward the LMC

38 Pop III SNe

39 AST3!!! KDUST4.0 KDUST2.5

40 Survey Efficiency Define the survey efficiency k as the sky area a telescope can survey to a given S/N for a resolved source in a specific exposure time: For an unresolved diffuse source: D-Diameter of the telescope  -Field of view of the camera q -fwhm of the image (seeing or diffraction limit)  -Sky surface brightness If the background is lower by a factor of , as is the case for 2.4 micron at Dome A, a 0.5 meter telescope can survey as fast as a meter telescope at a temperate site A single KDUST field is 2 sq degree.

41 z=7 Quasar and VISTA Filters May, 2010 VISTA bands SDSS bands

42 IR Background It is also noteworthy that there are summer time IR background measurement at Dome C (Walden et al. 2005). The summer time 3-20 m backgrounds were found to be very stable and at levels comparable to the measurements at South Pole during the winter.

43 AST3 NIR Synoptic Infrared Survey Telescope In KDARK, compared to 2MASS, an increase of efficiency by (2048/256) 2 * (0.5/1.3) 2 * 50 = 473 times GRBs at z ~15 !? Comparable to VISTA for point source 3 times faster than VISTA for diffuse source

44 Kunlun Dark Universe Telescope Intermediate Scale Project Supernovae Weak Lensing Strong Lensing BAO?

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46 PILOT/KDUST Sensitivity

47 UltraVISTA is an Ultra Deep, near-infrared survey with the new VISTA surveys telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Over the course of 5 years, UltraVISTA will repeatedly image the COSMOS field in 5 bands resulting in three key surveys: VISTA surveys telescope of the European Southern Observatory (ESO). Over the course of 5 years, UltraVISTA will repeatedly image the COSMOS field in 5 bands resulting in three key surveys: anultra-deep broad-band (Y, J, H, Ks) survey (1408hr) covering 0.73 deg²ultra-deep broad-band (Y, J, H, Ks) survey (1408hr) covering 0.73 deg² a deep broad-band (Y, J, H, Ks) survey (212hr) covering the full 1.5deg² fielddeep broad-band (Y, J, H, Ks) survey (212hr) covering the full 1.5deg² field a narrow-band (180hr) survey covering the same region as the ultra-deep broad-band survey. ultra-deep broad-band survey.

48 UltraVISTA The position of the UltraVISTA ultra-deep broad band and narrow band survey overlaid on the KPNO Ks image of the COSMOS field. The x and y axes are RA and Dec respectively. The coloured outlines are as follows: Green: ACS I band Blue: CFHTLS Red: UltraVISTA ultra-deep strips Yellow: UltraVISTA ultra-deep strips with 1 arcmin trimming (trimmed due to incomplete coverage from dithering) The coordinates of the corners of the ultra-deep field (yellow boxes) are (in decimal RA and Dec): strip4: , 2.76, , 2.76, , 1.66, , 1.66 strip3: , 2.76, , 2.76, , 1.66, , 1.66 strip2: , 2.76, , 2.76, , 1.66, , 1.66 strip1: , 2.76, , 2.76,150.57, 1.66, , 1.66 Column 2 (as labelled on the plot) is the location of the deep IRAC strip.

49 Hubble Ultra Deep Field One Single KDUST Exposure For Comparison: KDUST Reaches HUDF Depth at 750nm in 83 Hours for point sources and 251 hours for diffuse source

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51 Supernova Survey in Antarctica 4 meter Aperture micron coverage 5000 supernovae up to z ~ 2 (rest frame NIR) 2000 supernovae with z ~ 2-4 (unexplored territory) JWST target feeder for spectroscopy and photometry E-ELT/GSMT target feeder for spectroscopy (photometry?)

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55 Zhao et al. 2010, PASP

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58 The exposure time required to obtain S/N = 5 five rest frame days after explosion for a canonical supernova using an 8- m telescope at Dome A. Note the change in scale between the two plots. 10 rest frame days after explosion

59 The exposure time required to type a canonical supernova using an 8-m telescope at Dome A, with S/N = 5 in a λ/δλ = 150 element for the restframe μm SiII feature. The restricted redshift range corresponds to when the line is within the Kdark window.

60 Summary 1.Dome A site survey is going on, so far so good 2.The first of the AST3 triplet is installed and is in science operation 3.A pathfinder telescope is needed before we can build a larger telescope 4.KDUST2.5 can make a significant contribution to cosmology 5.KDUST4.0 working primarily in the NIR will provide deep maps of the universe

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62 SiteYearS 10.7cm UBVRI MJy La Silla Kitt Peak CTIO Calar Alto La Palma Mauna Kea Paranal mag arcsec -2 Dark time zenith night sky brightness measured at various observatories Mattila et al. 1996; Pilachowski et al. 1989; Walker 1987, 1988; Leinert et al. 1998; Krisciunas 1997.


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