1 Haim Ginott1972-1973: teacher, child psychologist I’ve come to a frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom…my personal approach creates the climate…my daily mood makes the weather. As a teacher, I possess tremendous power..I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal..it is my response that decides whether a ..child [is] humanized or de-humanized.
2 Chief Dan George 1899-1981, Chief of the Coast Salish Tribe If you talk to the animals, they will talk with you and you will know each other. If you do not talk to them, you will not know them. And, what you do not know you will fear. What one fears one destroys.
3 Teaching excellence with diverse learners Finding our students’ storiesTeaching excellence with diverse learnersRCDE Faculty Retreat, February 3-4, 2011Carol Rosenthal, Director Academic Resource Center, Logan campus
4 Teaching excellence… Ensures engaged, active learning experiences Weave instruction with students’ “stories”Hones teaching basics.Simple, yet elegant solutionsEmbraces fresh perspectives and methods.
5 diverse learners…. Represent richness and heterogeniety. Need their “stories” known and integrated into instruction.Encourages trust, rapport, motivation, effortDiscourages fear, anxiety, isolation, pessimism, (learned) helplessness
6 Discovering richness First week exercise: Learn student stories “What are some of your family and cultural strengths?”“What are some talents and skills evident in your family?”“If I were to walk into your home, describe what I would find that helps me know (you) (what you are most proud of) (how you are unique).”
7 Weave stories into content instruction Applications, metaphors, examples that fit students’ storiesDisplaced workerChemistry, Microbiology, Economics, USU 1300, etc.Time and self-managementProject cycles, customer flow, inventory cycles, family management, self-employmentCultural approaches to time: compare/contrastOther examples?
8 KWL: “stories” to prepare for learning What do you already Know about _____? (and how did you come to know it?)What do you Want to know about _____?What did you Learn about _____?How will you Use what you learned?
9 What drives students’ stories about learning? Dr. Marlene Schommer-Aikins, Wichita State UniversityBeliefs about knowledge and learning affect:active participationpersistencereading comprehensionlearning in complex or poorly structured environments
10 Beliefs about learning Omniscient AuthorityProfessor responsible < > self-responsibilityCertain KnowledgeStatic < > DynamicSimple KnowledgeFact bits < Concepts & relationshipsFixed AbilityInnate < > effort: learn how to learnQuick LearningOne time < > Time/effortCounterproductiveProductive
11 Think-Pair-ShareWhat beliefs do you see most prevalent in your students?In what ways do the beliefs show?Guiding students through teaching methods
12 Collaborative, active learning Problem-solving tasks All-knowing authorityCertain, unchangeable knowledgeSimple knowledgeQuick learningFixed, innate abilityCollaborative, active learningProblem-solving tasksStructured controversyExposure to evolution of view pointsTeach about Bloom’sThink AloudsIn-class demonstration of complex tasksReflection writingShare your experiencesExplicit and implicit study strategies instructionRole modelsScaffolding learningTap into current abilities (use their “stories”)
14 “Wait time” as an instructional tool Dr. Mary Budd Rowe,1972 studyAverage wait time < 2 secondsIncrease to >3 seconds = improvedLogicLanguage
15 Higher level of thinking Length & correctness of responsesVolunteered answersVariety of questionsHigher level of thinking“I don’t know”No responseAmount (quality vs quantity)
16 “Wait time” is “think time” uninterrupted silence by teacher and students so both can complete necessary information processing (Stahl, 1990)the primary purpose and activity: complete on- task thinking
17 Information processing Multiple cognitive tasks take timeWe need uninterrupted time toProcess, reflect, think of responseExercise: cats and dogsHow often are students typically provided sufficient time?
18 Types of “think time” silence After teacher asks a questionClear question with adequate cues“What is the difference between a change on the demand curve and a shift of the entire curve”?During a student’s responseAllow hesitation as student continuesAfter a student respondsOther students need time before they commentTeacher pause timeConsider what your next statement or behavior will be
19 Effects of increased think time More questions askedMore accurate and complex responsesStudents initiated discussions more frequently.Teachers’ questions = fewer and higher qualityThink time works with all learners.Especially effective for certain cultures.
20 Questioning Techniques “The most powerful technology we have in education is the ability to ask good questions”.(including those questions we ask ourselves!)“Always the beautiful answer/who asks a more beautiful question.” ee cummings
21 Beautiful Questions help students “dive deep” Beautiful questions move students from “Beginner” to “Expert” thinking levels:KnowledgeComprehensionApplicationAnalysis, Synthesis, Evaluation
22 How do we learn: beginner to expert Bloom’s Taxonomy of Thinking & LearningEvaluate Can you evaluate, judge, make informed opinion?AnalyzeCan you break info. into parts and examine?ApplyCan you apply what you know to “real life” situations?Deep learningComprehendCan you put information into your own words, explain to others accuratelyKnowledge: (memorize)Can you recognize and recall information?Shallow learning
23 Do you have any questions? Are there any questions?What questions do you have?How do students typically respond to these types of questions – and why?
24 Give students permission to be confused. Students don’t always know what they don’t know or understand. Or they need a specific focus.Do you have any questions?Okay, so summarize why it’s important to use Think Time. (a great Think/Pair/Share)Which of the following is the better example of an application level question and why?Are there any questions? What questions do you have?In the past two lectures, I covered the following concepts. What parts are still confusing for you?What would you like me to explain better ? What can I clarify?I know this topic can be really confusing. What things are still unclear or don’t make sense to you?Give students permission to be confused.
25 Models for your students how they need to think. Beautiful questionsTake effort, time, practice. Questioning is a skill that must be learned and practiced.Models for your students how they need to think.Don’t just happen.
26 Quick ThinksBrief, active learning exercises that require students to process information individually and collaborativelyEffective for beginning and ending classHelps you avoid the “What questions do you have?” trapGreat during lectures (with Think-Pair-Share)
27 Select the best response. Select the best answer for a M/C test question.ExampleJean stole a loaf of broad in order to feed his starving family. What level of moral development would say that what he did was “OK”? A. Pre-Conventional B. Conventional C. Post-Conventional D. Les Miserables is a sweet musical, I don’t care if it makes me less of a man!
28 Correct the errorInstructor poses a test item that contains an error; students must find the error.Example next slide
29 The Equilibrium Constant K =[Products][Reactants]ReactantProductK = 1 K < K > 1
30 Complete a sentence starter Instructor provides a sentence stem for students to complete (not just at knowledge level)Example: The three strikes mandatory sentencing laws might result in __________.
31 Compare or contrastInstructor poses a comparison or contrast item to the class.Example: Compare Alpha vs Beta Decay relative to radioactive decay.Relative sizeParticle chargeAlpha decayBeta decay
32 Reorder the stepsGiven a set of randomly ordered steps , students are asked to correctly sequence them.ExampleDrawing stereo-images 1. Identify the molecule as R or S. 2. Create a 3-D drawing of the molecule. 3. Draw the mirror image of your 3-D molecule. 4. Draw a "mirror".
33 Support a statementStudents are given a statement and, based on their reading, assignments, or lecture notes, are asked to provide support for the statement.ExampleCriminal behavior is a rational choice made by a motivated offender who perceives that the chances of gain outweigh any possible punishment or loss. (Criminological Choice Theory)
34 Teaching students how to learn Note taking systems: how to “dive deep”SummariesSelf-test questionsCornell system/adaptations
43 CATsClassroom Assessment Techniques: Thomas Angelo & Patricia Cross 2nd ed., 1993, Jossey BassWhat are students capable of now?How well are students learning?How effectively am I teaching?Informal, consistent monitoring of students’ learningFeedback: Are they getting it? >>> teaching effectiveness
44 Minute Paper Excellent for large classes Quickly assesses student learning vs teacher’s perceptionsMore than recall: students evaluate and self-assessHow well did I understand?ExamplesWhat was most confusing about ____________?What is the single most significant reason Italy became a center of the Renaissance?List the 3 most important points from today’s lecture?
45 Class opinion pollStep 1: Please respond to each of the following statements: strongly agree (1)……..I’m neutral (3)………I strongly disagree(5):I need to change my teaching methods to improve students’ critical thinking.I can’t take time in class to add activities or discussion.I’m reluctant to create any more I have to respond to.If students don’t take responsibility, what I do doesn’t matter.Step 2: Discuss answers with your partner.Step 3: Show of hands poll (I-Clicker). Discuss with class.
46 Defining Features Matrix Teaching goal: distinguish between theories, systems, processes, etc.Develops :Analytical skillsConceptual and factual understandingImplicit and explicit study strategy (how to organize information to see relationships)
47 Example CAT Institutional assessment Teacher-directed + Standardized & validatedFocused on classroom teaching and learningReplicableUseful to administratorsFeedback for teachers and students
48 “Misconceptions/Preconceptions” Gauge where students are atDevelop students’ ability to distinguish between fact and opinionDetermine/develop openness to new ideas
49 Question: What makes the seasons change on Earth? Sort explanations into categories (e.g., correct; “weather”, “distance”, “other”) Perfect for I Clicker!Quick discussion to explain choices - Think-Pair-ShareAssignment: Students research which answer is correct and explain in short paper.. Class discusses evidence for each position.Professor concludes explaining why other models are reasonable, though incorrect.
50 Muddiest Point Advantages: Disadvantages What was the muddiest point in……lecture, video, lab, discussion, presentation?Prof. responds in next class with discussion, activity, additional simulationAdvantages:Excellent for large classesSafe alternative to asking questionsFocuses future lectures and assignmentsTeaches metacognitive behavior (self-testing)DisadvantagesStudents may have difficulty expressing what they don’t know.
51 One more…. What do you want your professor to Start, Stop, Keep Doing? Source: Teaching Professor: Magna PublicationStart DoingStop DoingKeep Doing