Presentation on theme: "Haim Ginott 1972-1973: teacher, child psychologist I’ve come to a frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom…my personal approach."— Presentation transcript:
Haim Ginott : teacher, child psychologist I’ve come to a frightening conclusion that I am the decisive element in the classroom…my personal approach creates the climate…my daily mood makes the weather. As a teacher, I possess tremendous power..I can be a tool of torture or an instrument of inspiration. I can humiliate or humor, hurt or heal..it is my response that decides whether a..child [is] humanized or de-humanized.
Chief Dan George , Chief of the Coast Salish Tribe If you talk to the animals, they will talk with you and you will know each other. If you do not talk to them, you will not know them. And, what you do not know you will fear. What one fears one destroys.
Teaching excellence with diverse learners RCDE Faculty Retreat, February 3-4, 2011 Carol Rosenthal, Director Academic Resource Center, Logan campus Finding our students’ stories
Teaching excellence… Ensures engaged, active learning experiences ▫ Weave instruction with students’ “stories” Hones teaching basics. ▫ Simple, yet elegant solutions Embraces fresh perspectives and methods.
diverse learners…. Represent richness and heterogeniety. Need their “stories” known and integrated into instruction. ▫ Encourages trust, rapport, motivation, effort ▫ Discourages fear, anxiety, isolation, pessimism, (learned) helplessness
Discovering richness First week exercise: Learn student stories ▫ “What are some of your family and cultural strengths?” ▫ “What are some talents and skills evident in your family?” ▫ “If I were to walk into your home, describe what I would find that helps me know (you) (what you are most proud of) (how you are unique).”
Weave stories into content instruction Applications, metaphors, examples that fit students’ stories ▫ Displaced worker Chemistry, Microbiology, Economics, USU 1300, etc. ▫ Time and self-management Project cycles, customer flow, inventory cycles, family management, self-employment Cultural approaches to time: compare/contrast ▫ Other examples?
KWL: “stories” to prepare for learning ▫W▫What do you already K now about _____? (and how did you come to know it?) ▫W▫What do you W ant to know about _____? ▫W▫What did you L earn about _____? HHow will you Use what you learned?
What drives students’ stories about learning? Dr. Marlene Schommer-Aikins, Wichita State University Beliefs about knowledge and learning affect: active participation persistence reading comprehension learning in complex or poorly structured environments
Fixed Ability Quick Learning Certain Knowledge Fact bits < Concepts & relationships Professor responsible self-responsibility One time Time/effort Innate effort: learn how to learn ProductiveCounterproductive Simple Knowledge Omniscient Authority Static Dynamic Beliefs about learning
Think-Pair-Share What beliefs do you see most prevalent in your students? ▫ In what ways do the beliefs show? Guiding students through teaching methods
All-knowing authority Certain, unchangeable knowledge Simple knowledge Quick learning Fixed, innate ability Collaborative, active learning Problem-solving tasks Structured controversy Exposure to evolution of view points Teach about Bloom’s Think Alouds In-class demonstration of complex tasks Reflection writing Share your experiences Explicit and implicit study strategies instruction Role models Scaffolding learning Tap into current abilities (use their “stories”)
…Think Time Essential teaching strategies Wait time
“Wait time” as an instructional tool Dr. Mary Budd Rowe, study Average wait time < 2 seconds Increase to >3 seconds = improved Logic Language
Length & correctness of responses Volunteered answers Variety of questions Higher level of thinking “I don’t know” No response Amount (quality vs quantity )
“Wait time” is “think time” ▫ uninterrupted silence by teacher and students so both can complete necessary information processing (Stahl, 1990) ▫ the primary purpose and activity: complete on- task thinking
Information processing Multiple cognitive tasks take time We need uninterrupted time to ▫ Process, reflect, think of response Exercise: cats and dogs How often are students typically provided sufficient time?
Types of “think time” silence 1.After teacher asks a question Clear question with adequate cues “What is the difference between a change on the demand curve and a shift of the entire curve”? 2.During a student’s response Allow hesitation as student continues 3.After a student responds Other students need time before they comment 4.Teacher pause time Consider what your next statement or behavior will be
Effects of increased think time More questions asked More accurate and complex responses Students initiated discussions more frequently. Teachers’ questions = fewer and higher quality Think time works with all learners. Especially effective for certain cultures.
Questioning Techniques “Always the beautiful answer/who asks a more beautiful question.” ee cummings “The most powerful technology we have in education is the ability to ask good questions”. (including those questions we ask ourselves!)
Beautiful Questions help students “dive deep” Beautiful questions move students from “Beginner” to “Expert” thinking levels: ▫ Knowledge ▫ Comprehension ▫ Application ▫ Analysis, Synthesis, Evaluation
How do we learn: beginner to expert Knowledge: (memorize) Can you recognize and recall information? Comprehend Can you put information into your own words, explain to others accurately Apply Can you apply what you know to “real life” situations? Analyze Can you break info. into parts and examine? Evaluate Can you evaluate, judge, make informed opinion? Bloom’s Taxonomy of Thinking & Learning Deep learning Shallow learning
How do students typically respond to these types of questions – and why? Do you have any questions? Are there any questions? What questions do you have?
Students don’t always know what they don’t know or understand. Or they need a specific focus. Do you have any questions? Okay, so summarize why it’s important to use Think Time. (a great Think/Pair/Share) Which of the following is the better example of an application level question and why? Are there any questions? What questions do you have? In the past two lectures, I covered the following concepts. What parts are still confusing for you? What would you like me to explain better ? What can I clarify? I know this topic can be really confusing. What things are still unclear or don’t make sense to you? Give students permission to be confused.
Beautiful questions Take effort, time, practice. Questioning is a skill that must be learned and practiced. Models for your students how they need to think. Don’t just happen.
Brief, active learning exercises that require students to process information individually and collaboratively Effective for beginning and ending class ▫ Helps you avoid the “What questions do you have?” trap Great during lectures (with Think-Pair-Share)
Select the best response. Select the best answer for a M/C test question. Example Jean stole a loaf of broad in order to feed his starving family. What level of moral development would say that what he did was “OK”? A. Pre-Conventional B. Conventional C. Post-Conventional D. Les Miserables is a sweet musical, I don’t care if it makes me less of a man!
Correct the error Instructor poses a test item that contains an error; students must find the error. Example next slide
The Equilibrium Constant K = 1K 1 [Products] [Reactants] K = ReactantProduct
Complete a sentence starter Instructor provides a sentence stem for students to complete (not just at knowledge level) Example: The three strikes mandatory sentencing laws might result in __________.
Compare or contrast Instructor poses a comparison or contrast item to the class. Example: Compare Alpha vs Beta Decay relative to radioactive decay. Relative sizeParticle charge Alpha decay Beta decay
Reorder the steps Given a set of randomly ordered steps, students are asked to correctly sequence them. Example Drawing stereo-images 1. Identify the molecule as R or S. 2. Create a 3-D drawing of the molecule. 3. Draw the mirror image of your 3-D molecule. 4. Draw a "mirror".
Support a statement Students are given a statement and, based on their reading, assignments, or lecture notes, are asked to provide support for the statement. Example Criminal behavior is a rational choice made by a motivated offender who perceives that the chances of gain outweigh any possible punishment or loss. (Criminological Choice Theory)
Teaching students how to learn Note taking systems: how to “dive deep” ▫Summaries ▫Self-test questions Cornell system/adaptations
Strategic reading Think Aloud textbook tour ▫“architecture” of their text
Teaching students how to learn Visual organizers: match how information is organized to the learning task
Why teach visual organizers? Elaborative rehearsal = long term memory Humans seek patterns Words alone not sufficient How we organize information affects comprehension!
Patterns help us learn & remember
CAT s Classroom Assessment Techniques: Thomas Angelo & Patricia Cross 2 nd ed., 1993, Jossey Bass ▫ What are students capable of now? ▫ How well are students learning? ▫ How effectively am I teaching? Informal, consistent monitoring of students’ learning Feedback: Are they getting it? >>> teaching effectiveness
Minute Paper Excellent for large classes Quickly assesses student learning vs teacher’s perceptions More than recall: students evaluate and self-assess ▫ How well did I understand? Examples ▫ What was most confusing about ____________? ▫ What is the single most significant reason Italy became a center of the Renaissance? ▫ List the 3 most important points from today’s lecture?
Class opinion poll Step 1: Please respond to each of the following statements: strongly agree (1)……..I’m neutral (3)………I strongly disagree(5): 1. I need to change my teaching methods to improve students’ critical thinking. 2. I can’t take time in class to add activities or discussion. 3. I’m reluctant to create any more I have to respond to. 4. If students don’t take responsibility, what I do doesn’t matter. Step 2: Discuss answers with your partner. Step 3: Show of hands poll (I-Clicker). Discuss with class.
Defining Features Matrix Teaching goal: distinguish between theories, systems, processes, etc. ▫ Develops : Analytical skills Conceptual and factual understanding Implicit and explicit study strategy (how to organize information to see relationships)
Example CAT Institutional assessment Teacher-directed+ Standardized & validated+ Focused on classroom teaching and learning + Replicable+ Useful to administrators+ Feedback for teachers and students ++
“Misconceptions/Preconceptions” Gauge where students are at Develop students’ ability to distinguish between fact and opinion Determine/develop openness to new ideas
Question: What makes the seasons change on Earth? 1.Sort explanations into categories (e.g., correct; “weather”, “distance”, “other”) Perfect for I Clicker! 2.Quick discussion to explain choices - Think-Pair-Share 3.Assignment: Students research which answer is correct and explain in short paper.. Class discusses evidence for each position. 4.Professor concludes explaining why other models are reasonable, though incorrect.
Muddiest Point What was the muddiest point in……lecture, video, lab, discussion, presentation? Prof. responds in next class with discussion, activity, additional simulation ▫ Advantages: Excellent for large classes Safe alternative to asking questions Focuses future lectures and assignments Teaches metacognitive behavior (self-testing) ▫ Disadvantages Students may have difficulty expressing what they don’t know.
One more…. What do you want your professor to Start, Stop, Keep Doing? Source: Teaching Professor: Magna Publication Start DoingStop DoingKeep Doing