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1870-1914 Scramble for Africa. European race to carve up Africa into their colonies Made possible by the use of the steamboat and quinine.

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Presentation on theme: "1870-1914 Scramble for Africa. European race to carve up Africa into their colonies Made possible by the use of the steamboat and quinine."— Presentation transcript:

1 1870-1914 Scramble for Africa

2 European race to carve up Africa into their colonies Made possible by the use of the steamboat and quinine

3 North Africa Took over Algeria in 1831 and took over Tunisia in 1881 Italy took Libya in1911


5 Egypt After Napoleon’s defeat in Egypt, British restored power in 1805 to Muhammad Ali He set about modernizing Egypt Modernized army, set up public education, and created industrial areas In 1854, Ferdinand de Lesseps (French) built the Suez canal Left Egypt in debt and had to rely on foreign assistance

6 Brits establish a protectorate Rebels revolted in Egypt against foreign influence and in 1881, the British intervened The British wanted to establish a protectorate to insure their investments

7 Khartoum and Gordon’s head A revolt in the Sudan led by the Mahdi brought much of it under his control British General Gordon led a military force to Khartoum to restore Egyptian authority, but ended up becoming besieged Mahdi’s troops destroyed Gordon and his forces. They also cut off Gordon’s head - 1885


9 The Mahdi’s Tomb Humiliated by the death of Gordon and his army, the British vow revenge General Kitchener used a new railway to by pass lower cataracts and reach Omdurman. On Sept. 2. 1898, the Battle of Omdurman occurs. Easy British victory. 10,000 of the Mahdi’s army are killed and the Brits lose only 47 men Kitchener and Get revenge but are sent to Fashoda


11 Fashoda Incident -1898 The British want an uninterrupted line of British territory in Africa from “Cairo to Cape Town” The French want an uninterrupted line from Dakar to the Horn of Africa The two crossing points of these lines are roughly around the island of Fashoda in the Nile The French under Marchand reach the fort followed closely by Kitchener. The mood is tense and is the closest the powers came to war over the Scramble The French leave because they knew they could not win a war against the British navy


13 West Africa France, Germany, and Great Britain compete for territory In 1884, the Brits declare Nigeria a protect because they are worried about French encroachment on the Niger River. At the same time the Germans gobble up Cameroon

14 French and British recognition of territory in W. Africa - 1890 France – Madagascar, western Sudan, Morocco, Senegal, Guinea, Gabon, the French Congo British – Gambia, Sierra Leone, the Gold Coast, and Nigeria


16 German SW Africa Germans take it in 1884 before other European countries claimed it. Felt colonies lead to national prestige

17 East Africa Island of Zanzibar was a massive Arab slave market and was a reason for the rise of western interest. Brits take it over and end slave trade



20 Brits and Germans Agree to partition mainland between them in East Africa in 1886 will become Tanzania Germany received German East Africa British get the area called British East Africa known as Uganda and Kenya


22 Italians and East Africa Italy tries to invade Ethiopia from Eritrea and our soundly defeated by Emperor Menelik at the Battle of Adowa. In exchange for Italian POWs, the Italians recognize Ethiopian independence Italy already had obtained Somalia in the 1880s

23 Battle of Adowa

24 King Menelik II


26 South Africa Boers – Dutch speaking inhabitants of South Africa were forced to migrate East by the British after the Napoleonic Wars Set up colonies of Transvaal, Orange Free State and Natal In 1842, the British take over Natal and in 1877 the Brits annex Transvaal

27 Battle of Isandlwana-1879 Brits invade Zulu land under pretense that the Zulus were committing atrocities on to European farmers 1300 British troops are attacked by 20,000 Zulus armed with spears It was an massive British defeat


29 Results British end up sending in a larger invasion force and ultimately defeat the Zulus and take over Zululand The Zulu chief is not able to negotiate a peace Boer nationalism begins to grow


31 Transvaal Independence - 1880 Boers declare independence Brits go on in to crush Boers and are defeated at the Battle of Majuba Hill Transvaal obtains its independence



34 Cecil Rhodes Rhodes expands British territory North, outflanking the Boers territory in 1890 He has commercial interest at stake, especially diamonds and gold – founder of DeBeers diamonds Brits also want to prevent the Portuguese from joining Mozambique and Angola


36 The Congo Both the French and Belgians vie for territory by moving up the Congo river The French explorer is Brazza and the Belgian explorer is Stanley French up claiming territory north of the Congo River and the Belgians claim territory to the south of the river Rest of story can be found in the Ghost of Leopold

37 Brazza Stanley The explorers


39 Conference of Berlin - 1885 - meeting of European nations to divide up Africa - 14 nations total - 1884-1885 in city of Berlin - said any European country can claim land in Africa by notifying other nations in Europe - they divided the continent without thought for African cultures - Africa provided mineral resources & plantation style farming

40 Resistance The Boers in South Africa Hereros rebellion – SW Africa, German territory Maji, Maji rebellion – East Africa, German territory

41 Herero rebellion - 1904 Hereros were semi-nomadic with heavy reliance on cattle Rinderpest virtually wiped out all the cattle and malaria hit More and more Germans arrived Hereros revolted and attacked cities and besieged German garrisons German General Trotha overreacted to the threat. He cornered the Herero at Waterberg but left a route of escape into the desert

42 Herero rebellion - 1904 Hereros fled, around 16,000 men, women, and children. Because of these atrocities, the Nama revolted The Nama put down their arms in 1905 Half the Nama and 75% of the Herero would be killed outright or die in labor camps




46 “Maji, Maji” – Water, Water - 1905 In German held territory of East Africa, there are revolts of several tribes against the German rule Tribal leaders promised medicine “Maji” which would protect them against German bullets Spread south and west – very difficult for tribes to unite into one large force Recognized very quickly that “Maji” did not work and brought about an “every tribe for itself” mentality

47 “Maji, Maji” Governor von Gotzen issued a “famine strategy” to destroy the fields of the tribes This led to sever famine that persisted long after the rebellion was over in July 1906 Estimated 250,000 to 350,000 Africans died

48 Milner – Governor of Cape Colony Kruger – Transvaal leader Boer War, 1899-1902



51 Boer Guerilla Fighters

52 British Blockhouse

53 Concentration Camps for Boer women and children



56 Colonialism in Africa Primarily used indirect rule in Africa, it was the least expensive method European officials would maintain central administration, but local authority was assigned to local chiefs Local authorities were expected to maintain control and collect taxes

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