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Increasing the Efficiency of UPS Systems – And Proving It! Richard L. Sawyer Director, Critical Facilities Assurance EYP Mission Critical Facilities www.eypmcf.com.

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Presentation on theme: "Increasing the Efficiency of UPS Systems – And Proving It! Richard L. Sawyer Director, Critical Facilities Assurance EYP Mission Critical Facilities www.eypmcf.com."— Presentation transcript:

1 Increasing the Efficiency of UPS Systems – And Proving It! Richard L. Sawyer Director, Critical Facilities Assurance EYP Mission Critical Facilities

2 Conference name Conference date The Problem | 60% of US Energy bill is in buildings. | Energy consumed by data centers more than doubled between 2000 and 2005 – J. Koomey, Stanford University. | U.S. Data center electrical bills totaled $2.7 Billion in | A single, moderate size server in a data center has the same carbon foot print as a SUV that gets 15 MPG (R.Muirhead, Data Center Journal). | A single rack with 6 Blade Server units consumes as much power as 3 kitchen electric ranges (24-30Kw)!

3 Conference name Conference date Relative Power Densities

4 Conference name Conference date 21 st Century Computing – Blade Servers Power = Up to 6 kW per Blade chassis or 30 kW per rack

5 Conference name Conference date Where does the power go? UPS = 18% Actual IT Load is 30% of Power Consumed APC-MGE: Neil Rasmussen

6 Conference name Conference date DISTORTION SPIKE SWELL SAG OUTAGE Lightning Strikes Faulty Switchgear Storms High Winds Falling Trees Traffic Accidents Faulty Switchgear Heavy Loads Poor Distribution Switching Operations Poor Filters Faulty Load Eq. Static Electricity RF Interference Harmonics/ Electronic Loads Poor Distribution FREQUENCY Major Utility Problems Faulty Generator INPUT POWER FROM UTILITY/GENERATOR UPS OUTPUT POWER PURPOSES OF UNINTERRUPTIBLE POWER SUPPLY 1.Maintain clean, uninterrupted power during utility events 2.Power Conditioning 3.Isolation from other electrical loads 4.Separately Derived Source of Power

7 Conference name Conference date Strategy to Improve UPS Efficiency | Technology: Make the units more efficient. | Selection: Size the units more closely to the load. | Application: Use redundancy only where it is needed. IBM Blue Gene 1.2 Megawatt

8 Understanding UPS Inefficiency Factors No-Load Losses Proportional Losses Square-Law Losses Paying the price to process power!

9 Conference name Conference date EPRI Efficiency Curves for UPS Products

10 Conference name Conference date 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% 100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0% UPS Efficiency Nominal 92% efficiency only applies when UPS load is over 70% Below 30% load efficiency drops rapidly UPS Load % of full power rating Typical UPS efficiency curve

11 Conference name Conference date UPS Bypass B Static Switch PDU Primary Bus A Primary Bus B UPS Bypass A UPS Output 2AUPS Output 2B 13.5 KV KV 480 Load Bank Subsystem Bus ASubsystem Bus B Critical Load Bus ACritical Load Bus B Static Switch PDU Each side must have capacity to support both critical loads but maintain redundancy. Total load cannot exceed capacity of 2 UPS Modules. EFFECTIVE DESIGN LOAD = 33% of total capacity, maximum. Critical Load 2(N+1) System

12 Conference name Conference date Aggregate UPS Power Losses No-load portion of loss stays constant from full load all the way down to zero load { } No-load loss is present even at no load Many data centers operate in this range UPS load % of full power rating 100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0% Power delivered to load UPS internal power consumption (loss) 93.4% 93.3% 93.1% 92.8% 92.4% 91.8% 90.7% 88.9% 85.5% 76.4% 0% EFFICIENCY } Proportional and square losses

13 Conference name Conference date No Load Losses | Definition: The power consumed by the UPS at 0% load just to keep the UPS operating. | Sources – Transformers, capacitors, logic systems, fans, communications cards. | Sometimes referred to as “tare”, “constant”, “fixed”, “shunt” and “parallel” losses. | Most significant inefficiency: Accounts for up to 40% of UPS losses.

14 Conference name Conference date Proportional Losses | Definition: The power needed to process more power through the UPS. | Sources – Switching losses, capacitor and inductor impedance, internal resistance | Proportional losses increase as the output load the UPS support increases. | Proportional losses are directly related to the topology (internal design) of the UPS.

15 Conference name Conference date Square - Law Losses | Definition: Losses related to the amount of current flowing through the UPS. | Power is the result of voltage times the current. | Current does the work, and power is lost as the amount of current flowing increases, by a square factor, hence “square – law losses”. | Power loss is in the form of heat. | Square-Law losses are 1% to 4% at higher load levels.

16 Conference name Conference date Power Loss Component Graph No Load Electrical Loss in kW (Waste due to inefficiency) Equipment Loading Full Load 50%10%30%90%70% NO-LOAD NO-LOAD loss PROPORTIONAL PROPORTIONAL loss SQUARE-LAW SQUARE-LAW loss

17 Conference name Conference date 0 kW 10 kW Equipment Loading UPS A TOTAL LOSS UPS B TOTAL LOSS Example: Two different 100kW UPSs with 92% nameplate (full-load) efficiency 50% UPS A No-load loss UPS B No-load loss UPS B has higher proportional loss (steeper line) but lower no-load loss 10%30%90%70% Loading where most data centers operate Electrical Loss (Waste due to inefficiency) Two devices with same nameplate efficiency can have significantly different losses in actual operating range, due to the particular characteristics of their PROPORTIONAL and NO-LOAD losses No Load Full Load Same nameplate efficiency (full-load loss) But different performance at actual operating load

18 Conference name Conference date 0 kW 10 kW Equipment Loading UPS A TOTAL LOSS UPS B TOTAL LOSS Example: Two 100kW UPSs with same 92% nameplate (full-load) efficiency 50% UPS A No-load loss UPS B No-load loss UPS B has higher proportional loss (steeper line) but lower no-load loss 10%30%90%70% Loading where most data centers operate Electrical Loss (Waste due to inefficiency) No Load Full Load One device can even have WORSE nameplate efficiency than another, yet have lower loss in actual operating range, if it has a low NO-LOAD loss A UPS A has better nameplate efficiency (lower full-load loss) B But UPS B performs better at actual operating load A B

19 Improving Efficiency Technology Selection Application

20 Conference name Conference date Total loss before improvement Total loss after improvement Loading where most data centers operate 0 kW 10 kW Electrical Loss (Waste due to inefficiency) Equipment Loading NO-LOAD LOSS Effect of lowering NO-LOAD LOSS Original No-load loss Lowered No-load loss Example: 100kW UPS with 92% full-load efficiency Electric bill savings But waste is roughly cut in half in actual operating range 50%10%30%90%70% Nameplate efficiency goes from 92% to 94.5% Same improvement in nameplate efficiency No Load Full Load Improving Efficiency – Fixing No-Load Loss

21 Conference name Conference date Loading where most data centers operate 0 kW 10 kW Electrical Loss (Waste due to inefficiency) Equipment Loading PROPORTIONAL LOSS Effect of lowering PROPORTIONAL LOSS Example: 100kW UPS with 92% full-load efficiency Electric bill savings Waste is reduced by 10-20% in actual operating range 50%10%30%90%70% Nameplate efficiency goes from 92% to 94.5% Total loss before improvement Total loss after improvement (Unchanged No-load loss) No Load Full Load Improving Efficiency – Fixing Proportional Loss

22 Conference name Conference date Application Efficiency – Zoned Redundancy

23 Commissioning UPS Systems Availability The Cost of Downtime The Value of Commssioning

24 Conference name Conference date Data Center Tier Ratings * The Uptime Institute

25 Conference name Conference date Maximizing Availability Availability = Total Time - Downtime Total Time The only variable is Downtime Downtime sources: Equipment Failures, Human Error, External Causes, Maintenance Cost of Downtime drives the Value of CFA!

26 Conference name Conference date What does Downtime Cost?

27 Conference name Conference date Infant Mortality Period End-of- Life Period Failure Rate Time (Data Center Life Span) The Reliability Curve for equipment (IEEE) “The Bathtub Curve” High Probability of Downtime

28 Conference name Conference date Infant Mortality Period End-of- Life Period Failures Time The Value of Commissioning Minimize

29 Conference name Conference date Commissioning UPS Systems | Verify the full load performance of each module using load banks – typical burn in is 4 hours at rated KW load (hint: infrared inspections of all connections). | Measure and verify the efficiency in the full operating range at 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% | Verify system redundancy under design load levels. | Verify failure modes (under-voltage transfers, bypass transfers, over load shutdown). | Verify isolation modes for concurrent maintenance. Assuring you get the reliability and efficiency you pay for!

30 Questions? Richard L. Sawyer


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