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CPL/ATP – Ground School Overview…

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1 CPL/ATP – Ground School Overview…
Subject matter to be covered… Mathematics and Study Methods Human Performance Meteorology Aircraft Technical and General Radio Aids Instruments Law and Procedures Flight Planning Navigation and Plotting CPL/ATP – Ground School Overview…

2 What else…. 200 hours total flying time 100 hours Pilot-in-Command
50 hours Cross-country flying 10 hours night flying IF Rating (40 hours single engine and 50 hours twin engine)

3 Your course facilitator for this Ground School… Brand Wessels Cell:

4 Student Commentary… Comments received from Jason Alexander (CPL course): Cellphone: “Excellent all round knowledge – explanations simple and easy to understand” “Very helpful methodologies” “Would recommend it to anyone”

5 Student Commentary… Frans Pretorius Cellphone: 072-252 8832
Comments received from Frans(CPL): “Very entertaining, no spoon feeding here, worth it and money well spent, great tempo and passed 6 subjects in one sitting… ”

6 Student Commentary… Tjaart Janse van Rensburg Cellphone: 083-240 7614
Comments received from Tjaart(CPL): “Great results, very comprehensive, learnt a hell of a lot, very satisfied.”

7 Student Commentary… Ruan van Vuren Cellphone: 072-179 6902
Comments received from Ruan(CPL): “Very educational, well worth it, much better than comparable courses I tried…”

8 Student Commentary… Comments received from Sean Kenny (ATP course):
“Great pace, good discussion” “Well informed on subject matter” “Excellent communication process” “Great course – thank you very much!”

9 Student Commentary… Comments received from Martin van Eeden (ATP course): “So I was not the only student struggling….” “Application focused – helped me a lot.” “Good people skills by facilitator.” “Arranged in such a way that we could learn from each other.”

10 Course Highlights….

11 Mathematic Review….. Trigonometry a² = b² + c² - 2bc x COS A
Some triangles do not always have a 90º angle, therefore the normal trig functions do not always apply. The following formula is used to solve the RNAV questions. Mathematic Review….. The COSINE Rule : a² = b² + c² - 2bc x COS A b² = a² + c² - 2ac x COS B c² = a² + b² - 2ab x COS C The SIN Rule : a SIN A b SIN B c SIN C = =

12 The Right Angled Triangle
Trigonometric functions are commonly defined as ratios of two sides of a right triangle containing the angle The Right Angled Triangle

13 Example: At 1205, aircraft A and B are 75 nm's apart and are on a collision course. Aircraft A 330 Kts. Aircraft B 360 Kts. The relative bearing from A to B is 075. What angle needs to be closed by aircraft B to intercept aircraft A? SIN B = SIN B = 0.885 SIN B = B = º

14 An Equation is like a balance scale
An Equation is like a balance scale. Everything must be equal on both sides. = 10 5 + 5

15 Cross Multiplication a² - b² = c²
Moving the variable around in a function, until the unknown variable is isolated. Example: In a² = b² + c², if we have to solve for c we have to isolate it on one side of the equal sign. Important: What you do on one side of the equation has to be done on the other side. Thus: a² = b² + c² - b² leaves c² isolated, but then we have to subtract b² on the left side of the equation as well: a² - b² = c²

16 Percents Have Equivalents in Decimals and Fractions
Simplified Percent Decimal Fraction 20% .20 20 100 1 5 = = =

17 Included % When asked to work out the % of reserve fuel when it’s already included in the total given, care must be taken with the mathematics: Example: We have Lt of fuel which include 15% reserve – how much fuel do we have available without using the reserve fuel? If we started with Lt and then had to add 15% reserve it means: x 15% = = Lt total fuel. To reverse the calculation (how much fuel do we have without the 15%), we have to divide the total with 1.15. Or ÷ 1.15 = Lt

18 Interpolation: 1. to insert between or among others 2. to change by putting in new material 3. to estimate a missing value by taking an average of known values at neighboring points

19 Interpolate one series at a time:
PALT AUW LBS 15 500 1268 – 1237 = 31/2000 X 1500 = 2,25 (+1237) = 1260 1260 1260 – 1115 = 124/2000 X 750 = 54,37 (+1115) = 1169 AUW LBS 1169 AUW LBS 1115 1120 – 1098 = 22/2000 X 1500 = 16,5 (+1098) =

20 Two aircraft flying at the same Flight Level, Aircraft A has a Mach Number of and a TAS of 500 Knots, Aircraft B has a Mach Number of At what Flight Level are the aircraft flying and what is the TAS of aircraft B?

21 1 In 60 Rule. Distance Off Track Error = 60 Distance To Go
A VOR DME defines the centre of an airway 10 Nautical Miles wide. An aircraft at distance 180 Nautical Miles has a two dot fly right indication on a 5 dot CDI. What is the distance from the airway?. Distance Off Track Error = 60 Distance To Go Distance Off = A ) Distance from centre = 12 NM B ) Distance from boundary = 7 NM 60 180 NM 720 = Distance Off 60 = 12 NM 5 Nautical Miles 180 NM GGV 5 Nautical Miles

22 DME Calculations. Using Pythagoras C² = A² + B² C A B
An aircraft at FL 410 has a DME range of 14 NM. What is the ground range From the DME station. Using Pythagoras C² = A² + B² The maximum error is when the aircraft is close to the DME and high altitude. ( 14 ) ² = ( \ 6080 ) ² + B ² = B ² B = NM C 14 NM DME Slant Line Range. A FL410. Ground Range. B VOR DME JSV.

23 Problem Solving is easy if you follow these steps
Understand the problem

24 Step 1 – Understand the problem
Read the problem carefully. Find the important information. Write down the numbers. Identify what the problem wants you to solve. Ask if your answer is going to be a larger or smaller number compared to what you already know.

25 Step 2 - Decide how you’re going to solve the problem Choose a method
Use a graph Use formulas Write an equation Make a list Find a pattern Work backwards Use reasoning Draw a picture Make a table Act it out

26 Step 3 - Solve the problem

27 Step 4 - Look Back & Check Reread the problem Substitute your new number Did your new number work?

28 Push this button just before you choose a 2nd function button
Trig Example: You are taking off from a runway, with a hill 300’ high, 6000’ from the threshold. What angle of climb must you maintain to clear the hill? tan x = y/x And y=300’ and x=6000’ Tan x = 0.05 Divide by tan same as inverse (or cot, or tanˉ¹) Thus x = 2,86º Know your calculator! Push this button just before you choose a 2nd function button Inverse Button Force of 3 Force of 2 10 to the force … Square Root Brackets Degree, minutes, seconds – also hours, minutes, seconds % Button


30 Study Methods Mind Maps Memory Training How to create Summaries
Time Management Study Tips Habits to Acquire

31 Mind Mapping….

32 Study Methods

33 The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People
Habit 1: Be Proactive Habit 2: Begin with the End in Mind Habit 3: Put First Things First Habit 4: Think Win-Win Habit 5: Seek First to Understand, then to be Understood Habit 6: Synergize Habit 7: Sharpen the Saw

34 The Time Management Quadrant
2 1 URGENT NOT URGENT Preparation Prevention Values clarification Planning Relationship building Empowerment IMPORTANT Crises Pressing Problems Deadline driven projects, meetings, preparations Interruptions, phone calls Some mail, some reports Some meetings Many popular activities NOT IMPORTANT Trivia, busywork Some telephone calls Time wasters “Escape” activities Excessive TV 3 4

35 Cardio-respiratory System -The Lungs and the transport of Oxygen
Air enters through the nose and mouth and passes down the trachea to the bronchial tree. Human Performance…

36 When you inhale, air is drawn into the lungs due to a reduction in pressure inside the chest. This reduction in pressure can be ascribed to the outward movement of the chest wall and the downward movement of the diaphragm. When exhaling the air is expelled from the lungs by the generally passive process of muscular relaxation allowing the chest wall to fall and the diaphragm to relax. The ever dividing passageways in your lungs terminate at the alveoli (very fine sac-like structures) where the blood in the alveolar capillaries is brought into very close proximity with oxygen molecules. Under the influence of a pressure gradient, oxygen diffuses across the capillary membrane from the alveolar sac into the blood. From there it is taken up by the protein molecule hemoglobin for transport around the body. Breathing provides an exchange of respiratory gases between the environment and the blood. The rate and depth of breathing are adjusted to meet the enormous changes in the consumption of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide.


38 Meteorology….

39 Most cloud and precipitation here
The Atmosphere Most cloud and precipitation here Most flying here..

40 Position of Jet Streams



43 Types of Airframe Icing
Glazed/Clear/Rain ice Hoar Frost Rime Ice Most dangerous type of ice!

Caused by steep pressure gradients when the anti-cyclone flow of air from a high pressure system to the south west of the country LOCAL WINDS The sudden dramatic change of this south westerly wind, which replaces the prevailing north easter is a common feature of the Buster. CLOUD INDICATING WIND During the summer months there is frequently a strong south easterly wind prevalent over the Cape Peninsula. When the South Easterly winds are forced to rise up over Table Mountain, the famous "table cloth" cloud forms – The descending air on the other side of the mountain is warmed, and any moisture present is absorbed by the air as water vapour. Both sides of the mountain will be clear of cloud, while the summit is cloud covered.

45 Cloud Classification Stratus (St). Layered clouds that form in stable air near the surface due to cooling from below Cumulus (Cu). Cumulus clouds form when convective currents from the earths radiation exist. They usually have flat bottoms, and dome shaped tops

46 Aircraft Technical and General

47 The Main Flight Controls in Action…

48 Critical engine


50 Engine overview


52 Relative Wind


54 Fuel Injection Each Cylinder provided with correct mixture from individual fuel lines. Advantages: Free from evaporation ice. More uniform fuel delivery. Improved fuel/air ratio control

55 Crankshaft Pistons To Propeller

56 Turbo Charging

57 Gas Turbine Engines turbine Compressor

58 The Turbo prop

59 Radio Aids…

60 Signal Characteristics
The ADF Relative bearing information can be displayed on either a RMI (radio magnetic indicator) or on the older RBI (relative bearing indicator). The difference between the two indicators is that the RBI does not display compass heading information but remains on a constant heading as selected by the pilot. RMI RBI Signal Characteristics NDB's transmit vertically polarised signals in the medium freqency (MF) band. The signal is radiated equally in all directions and aircraft equipped with receiving equipment (ADF) can measure the direction of the incoming waves.

61 ADF Interception Calculations.
An aircraft heading 040° M has an ADF reading of 060° Relative from an NDB. ATC instructs the pilot to Intercept the NDB 120° QDM at an angle of 050°. Calculate the Intercept Heading, the change in aircraft heading and the Relative Bearing of the NDB. Magnetic Heading 040° + Relative Bearing 060° 120 Intercept TRK QDM 100° 070 ° A ) Intercept Heading 50° 120° Intercept QDM - 50° Angle = 070 ° 100°QDM B ) Change In Aircraft Heading AC Heading 040° Went To 070° = 30° Right C ) Relative Bearing Of NDB 50° Station.

62 The area between the limit of the surface wave and the point of reception of the first sky wave, is termed dead space Surface Wave Sky wave 1st Sky Return Dead Space Skip Distance The distance between the transmitter and the point on the surface where the first sky wave return arrives is called the skip distance

63 Amplitude Modulation (AM).
Amplitude modulation may be used to transmit coded messages at audio frequencies (AF) or to transmit speech and music. The audio signal gets impressed on the radio frequency by changing the amplitude of the Carrier wave (CW). This change in amplitude is carried out by morphing the carrier wave to the audio signal. During this process the frequency remains constant. Where the audio wave is positive the amplitude is increased. Where the audio wave is negative the amplitude is decreased. Resultant Wave Carrier Wave (A) Audio Wave (B) Amplitude of A X 100 Amplitude of B This is a measure of the modulation depth, which is a percentage measurement of the degree to which the wave is modulated. It is the ratio:

64 Maximum Theoretical Range Calculation.
If an aircraft ( RX ) is at FL 100 what is the maximum range that the signal can be received from a transmitter ( TX ) a 100 feet high?

65 Primary Radar. S X T Range = 2 Antenna. Beam Out TX Beam Return RX

66 Instruments…… The DRMC is in essence a compass card with numeric directions, on a freely suspended bar magnet

67 Airspeed Indicator (ASI) Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI)
Altimeter Vertical Speed Indicator (VSI) Pitot –Static Probe Static Pressure Line Pitot Pressure Line Drain

68 Airspeed Indicator ( ASI ) Colour Coding
Vso Stall speed in the landing config Vne Velocity never exceeded Vs1 Stall speed clean Yellow Arc Cautionary speed band. In still air only White Arc Flap operating band Vno Maximum normal operating speed Vfe Maximum flap extended speed Green Arc Normal operating speed band

69 Pressure Altimeter Construction
Sealed Case Static Vent Altimeter Scale Capsule Linkages Static Port Pointer Baro Correction Static pressure is measured at the Static port. As the aircraft climbs the Static pressure decreases and the capsule expands. This expansion shows an increase in altitude. As the aircraft descends the Static pressure increases and the capsule will contract. This contraction shows a decrease in altitude. The Baro correction is used to compensate for any deviation in ISA conditions.

70 Fluxvalve Theory In order to overcome the problems associated with the placing of the compass on the aircraft, the magnets could be placed outside of the cockpit, in an area where they where least affected. The problem now however would be how the pilot would see the instrument. One solution would be to convert the magnetic field (flux), into electric energy which could be interpreted by cockpit instrumentation as heading references. This is the role of the fluxvalve. If instead of using a magnet, a highly permeable soft metal bar is fixed to an aircraft from fore to aft, and the aircraft is placed within the earths magnetic field, the bar will itself will acquire flux (become magnetized). The degree to which this flux will develop depends upon two factors: The latitude of the aircraft The position of the bar in relation to the meridians of the magnetic field Detect the Magnetic Field and convert to electrical current. Electrical current interpreted by instrumentation, and represents a magnetic heading. "Whenever there is a change of flux linked with a circuit, an Electromagnetic Field is induced in the circuit."

71 Flight Director Indicator
Attitude Indicator The aircraft's attitude relative to the natural horizon is shown by the aircraft symbol (A) and flight command bars (B). The horizon bar is carried on a flexible tape with the upper and lower sections coloured to represent the sky and ground. It also has to indicate the pitch angles. The roll angle is displayed by a pointer (D) that rotates with the flexible tape and is referenced against a fixed scale. (Freedom of movement for the flexible tape is: Pitch ± 90° and Roll 360°) Pitch and Bank Commands When armed the Pitch and Bank Commands provide the pilot with “Fly to commands”. A B Horizon Bar D ATTITUDE : Climb and Left Bank Command Bars Decision Height Glide Slope AoA Turn and Slip Indicator Flight Director Indicator

72 Mach Meter Calculations
Calculate the altitude in ISA where a TAS of 465 Knots equals a Mach Number of 0.80. Flight Level = -35.5°C FL 252 or Feet -35.5°c 35.5 degree temperature Drop Total Drop 50.5°celcius Flight Level = 50.5°C / x 0°c 15 degree temperature Drop 15°c Sea Level

73 Procedures “A series of predetermined maneuvers by reference to flight instruments, with specified protection from obstacles, from the initial approach fix (or where applicable, from the beginning of a defined arrival route) to a point from which a landing can be completed and thereafter, if a landing cannot be completed, to a position at which holding or en-route obstacle clearance limits apply.”

74 The “Plate” The Heading Section The approach Plan View Section
The approach Profile View Section The Landing Minima Section The “Plate”

75 Standard Holding Pattern Terminology
Holding Side Abeam Position Inbound Turn Outbound Leg Inbound Leg Holding Fix Fix End Holding Course Outbound Turn Non-Holding Side 4 min below ’ 5min above ’

76 1 minute (CAT A & B aircraft)
The Procedure Turn Approach (45/180) 30° 1 – 3 minutes 45° 1 minute (CAT A & B aircraft) 1 minute 15 seconds (CAT C, D & E aircraft) Inbound Track 180° A timed outbound track from the facility, followed by, A 45 turn away from the outbound track (for a given time), followed by, A turn through 180 in the opposite direction to intercept the inbound track.

77 Sector 1 – Parallel Entry
The sector 1 (parallel) entry, is carried out as follows: On arrival overhead the beacon, the aircraft is turned onto the outbound heading (to fly parallel to the inbound track), for the necessary period of time. The aircraft is turned to the left, into the holding side of the pattern, to intercept the inbound track or fly directly to the beacon (as shown). On arrival overhead the beacon a second time, the aircraft is turned to the right to follow the holding pattern. Turn to the left Aircraft turns onto outbound heading

78 CAR’s – Civil Aviation Regulations
Part 1: Definitions Part 11: CARCOM, exemptions, changes to regulators Part 12: Accidents and Incidents Part 61: Pilot Licensing Part 64: Cabin Crew Part 67: Medical certification Part 91: General Operating and Flight Rules Part 121: Air Transport - Large Aeroplanes (> 5 700kg) Part 127: Air Transport – Helicopters Part 135: Air Transport – Small Aeroplanes (<5 700kg) Used to be called ANR’s….


80 Johannesburg Airspace…

81 Flight Planning…

82 The Planning Process… 2 3 8 1 7 4 6 5

83 Runway Construction 03 21 Displaced Threshold 400 meters 600 meters
210 feet 310 feet Runway 100 meters 03 21 50 meters Stopway 2000 meters Stopway 150 m Clearway Clearway

84 Unit of Measure Conversion
1 lt water = 1kg 1IG = 10lbs 1IG = 1,2USG 1kg = 2.2lbs 1ft = 0.3m 1m = 3.28ft 1IG = 4,54lt 1USG = 8.33lbs 1sm = 1,6km 1” = 2,5cm 1m = 100cm 1nm = 1,15sm 1nm = 1,85km 1ft = 12” 1USG = 3,78lt 1lt = 0,26USG 1nm = 6080’ 1sm = 5280’ 1km = 3280’

85 LEMAC or % MAC Introduction: MAC DATUM CG (A ) DIFF ( B ) MAC ( D )
Another way of expressing the position of the CG is as a percentage Mean Aerodynamic Chord or % MAC. The chord line is the straight line joining the leading edge and the trailing edge of an aerofoil. On a tapered wing the average length of the chord is calculated and termed the Mean Aerodynamic Chord or MAC. When working with MAC use a drawing to solve any questions that can be asked. DATUM CG (A ) DIFF ( B ) LEMAC ( C ) MAC ( D ) MAC

86 LEMAC Example No 1. DATUM CG is 412 inches DIFF 88 inches
An aircraft has a MAC of 162 inches. The LEMAC is at FS 324. The CG is 412 inches aft of the datum. What is the CG expressed as a percentage MAC? DATUM CG is 412 inches DIFF 88 inches LEMAC is 324 inches MAC is 162 inches

87 Basic Point of Equal Time ( PET )
Example No 1 The track from point A to point B is 078°. TAS is 176 Kts. Distance from A to B is 843 nautical miles. W/V 120/40. What is the time to the PET? Time = Time 204 Kts 144 Kts GSR GSO Destination B Departure A PET

88 Calculate TODR… Question: OAT = 15ºC PAlt 4800’ Weight = 11300lbs
TWC = 5kts 50’ obstacle to clear. Calculate TODR… 5-34 If Airfield Elevation is given, calculate PAlt before entering the graph… Note: When asked for “take-off distance”, move up-slope… Answer: 4100’ When asked for “take-off ground roll”, move horisontal…

89 Northern Hemisphere Summer Southern Hemisphere Summer
Navigation…. Southern Hemisphere Summer

90 Time Zones

91 Meridians of longitude are drawn from the North Pole to the South Pole and are at right angles to the equator. The "Prime Meridian" which passes through Greenwich, England, is used as the zero line from which measurements are made in degrees east and west to 180°. The equator is an imaginary circle equidistant from the poles of the earth. Circles parallel to the equator (lines running east and west) are parallels of latitude. They are used to measure degrees of latitude north or south of the equator. The angular distance from the equator to the pole is one-fourth of a circle, or 90°. Thus latitude would run from 90° North to 90° South of the equator. Any specific geographical point can thus be located by reference to its longitude and latitude.


93 Convergency = Dlong x sin Mid Lat
Conversion Angle = Convergency 2 Convergency = 2 x the Conversion Angle

94 1 in 60 Rule

95 What do you need?

96 What to expect in the Navigation Plotting Exam..
Heading and Speed Determination Position Determination Air Plot Wind Determination Track Plot Wind Determination Track Correction

97 Personal Development We will cover…. Attitude Curriculum Vitae
Body Language Interview Skills Dress Code Company Research

98 Attitude Life and flying has one important factor in common – attitude determines altitude!! Attitude is more important than education, money, failures and successes, appearances, giftedness and skill. Bottom line – if you say you can you are right. If you say you can not you are also right.

99 What is Attitude? Attitude is the way we communicate our thinking to other people. Our attitude is reflected in the way we talk, walk, sit, eat, sleep, drive a car – and indeed in flying an aircraft.

100 Know this… Our attitude is the strongest element of our lives that requires our control Our attitude affects others Attitudes can be changed

101 Make The Call !! After you send a resume or an introductory letter, always make a follow-up call. Remember, it's the conversation that gets you the interview. Here's how to get on the phone and into the interview process. Never call human resources or an in-house recruiter. These people have no vested interest in talking with you. In fact, they don't want to talk to you. You'll only foul up their process. If you want to get hired, you need to talk with an actual hiring manager. If that's a midlevel project supervisor or the Operations Director, so be it.

102 Your attitude will make or break you as a student!

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