Presentation on theme: "CPL/ATP – Ground School Overview…"— Presentation transcript:
1CPL/ATP – Ground School Overview… Subject matter to be covered…Mathematics and Study MethodsHuman PerformanceMeteorologyAircraft Technical and GeneralRadio AidsInstrumentsLaw and ProceduresFlight PlanningNavigation and PlottingCPL/ATP – Ground School Overview…
2What else…. 200 hours total flying time 100 hours Pilot-in-Command 50 hours Cross-country flying10 hours night flyingIF Rating (40 hours single engine and 50 hours twin engine)
3Your course facilitator for this Ground School… Brand Wessels Cell:
4Student Commentary…Comments received from Jason Alexander (CPL course): Cellphone:“Excellent all round knowledge – explanations simple and easy to understand”“Very helpful methodologies”“Would recommend it to anyone”
5Student Commentary… Frans Pretorius Cellphone: 072-252 8832 Comments received from Frans(CPL): “Very entertaining, no spoon feeding here, worth it and money well spent, great tempo and passed 6 subjects in one sitting… ”
6Student Commentary… Tjaart Janse van Rensburg Cellphone: 083-240 7614 Comments received from Tjaart(CPL): “Great results, very comprehensive, learnt a hell of a lot, very satisfied.”
7Student Commentary… Ruan van Vuren Cellphone: 072-179 6902 Comments received from Ruan(CPL): “Very educational, well worth it, much better than comparable courses I tried…”
8Student Commentary… Comments received from Sean Kenny (ATP course): “Great pace, good discussion”“Well informed on subject matter”“Excellent communication process”“Great course – thank you very much!”
9Student Commentary…Comments received from Martin van Eeden (ATP course):“So I was not the only student struggling….”“Application focused – helped me a lot.”“Good people skills by facilitator.”“Arranged in such a way that we could learn from each other.”
11Mathematic Review….. Trigonometry a² = b² + c² - 2bc x COS A Some triangles do not always have a 90º angle, therefore the normal trig functions do not always apply. The following formula is used to solve the RNAV questions.Mathematic Review…..The COSINE Rule :a² = b² + c² - 2bc x COS Ab² = a² + c² - 2ac x COS Bc² = a² + b² - 2ab x COS CThe SIN Rule :aSIN AbSIN BcSIN C==
12The Right Angled Triangle Trigonometric functions are commonly defined as ratios of two sides of a right triangle containing the angleThe Right Angled Triangle
13Example:At 1205, aircraft A and B are 75 nm's apart and are on a collision course. Aircraft A 330 Kts. Aircraft B 360 Kts. The relative bearing from A to B is 075. What angle needs to be closed by aircraft B to intercept aircraft A?SIN B =SIN B =0.885SIN B =B = º
14An Equation is like a balance scale An Equation is like a balance scale. Everything must be equal on both sides.=105 + 5
15Cross Multiplication a² - b² = c² Moving the variable around in a function, until the unknown variable is isolated.Example: In a² = b² + c², if we have to solve for c we have to isolate it on one side of the equal sign.Important: What you do on one side of the equation has to be done on the other side.Thus: a² = b² + c² - b² leaves c² isolated, but then we have to subtract b² on the left side of the equation as well:a² - b² = c²
16Percents Have Equivalents in Decimals and Fractions SimplifiedPercentDecimalFraction20%.202010015===
17Included %When asked to work out the % of reserve fuel when it’s already included in the total given, care must be taken with the mathematics:Example:We have Lt of fuel which include 15% reserve – how much fuel do we have available without using the reserve fuel?If we started with Lt and then had to add 15% reserve it means:x 15% = = Lt total fuel.To reverse the calculation (how much fuel do we have without the 15%), we have to divide the total with 1.15.Or ÷ 1.15 = Lt
18Interpolation:1. to insert between or among others 2. to change by putting in new material 3. to estimate a missing value by taking an average of known values at neighboring points
19Interpolate one series at a time: PALTAUW LBS15 5001268 – 1237 = 31/2000 X 1500 = 2,25 (+1237)= 126012601260 – 1115 = 124/2000 X 750 = 54,37 (+1115)= 1169AUW LBS1169AUW LBS11151120 – 1098 = 22/2000 X 1500 = 16,5 (+1098)=
20Two aircraft flying at the same Flight Level, Aircraft A has a Mach Number of and a TAS of 500 Knots, Aircraft B has a Mach Number of At what Flight Level are the aircraft flying and what is the TAS of aircraft B?
211 In 60 Rule. Distance Off Track Error = 60 Distance To Go A VOR DME defines the centre of an airway 10 Nautical Miles wide. An aircraft at distance 180 Nautical Miles has a two dot fly right indication on a 5 dot CDI. What is the distance from the airway?.Distance OffTrack Error=60Distance To Go4°Distance Off=A ) Distance from centre = 12 NMB ) Distance from boundary = 7 NM60180 NM720=Distance Off60=12 NM5 Nautical Miles180 NM4°GGV5 Nautical Miles
22DME Calculations. Using Pythagoras C² = A² + B² C A B An aircraft at FL 410 has a DME range of 14 NM. What is the ground rangeFrom the DME station.Using PythagorasC² = A² + B²The maximum error is when the aircraft is close to the DME and high altitude.( 14 ) ² =( \ 6080 ) ² +B ²=B ²B =NMC14 NM DME Slant Line Range.AFL410.Ground Range.BVOR DME JSV.
23Problem Solving is easy if you follow these steps Understandtheproblem
24Step 1 – Understand the problem Read the problem carefully.Find the important information.Write down the numbers.Identify what the problem wants you to solve.Ask if your answer is going to be a larger or smaller number compared to what you already know.
25Step 2 - Decide how you’re going to solve the problem Choose a method Use a graph Use formulasWrite an equation Make a listFind a pattern Work backwardsUse reasoning Draw a pictureMake a table Act it out
27Step 4 - Look Back & Check Reread the problem Substitute your new number Did your new number work?
28Push this button just before you choose a 2nd function button Trig Example: You are taking off from a runway, with a hill 300’ high, 6000’ from the threshold. What angle of climb must you maintain to clear the hill?tan x = y/xAnd y=300’ and x=6000’Tan x = 0.05Divide by tan same as inverse (or cot, or tanˉ¹)Thus x = 2,86ºKnow your calculator!Push this button just before you choose a 2nd function buttonInverse ButtonForce of 3Force of 210 to the force …Square RootBracketsDegree, minutes, seconds – also hours, minutes, seconds% Button
33The 7 Habits of Highly Effective People Habit 1: Be ProactiveHabit 2: Begin with the End in MindHabit 3: Put First Things FirstHabit 4: Think Win-WinHabit 5: Seek First to Understand, then to be UnderstoodHabit 6: SynergizeHabit 7: Sharpen the Saw
34The Time Management Quadrant 21URGENTNOT URGENTPreparationPreventionValues clarificationPlanningRelationship buildingEmpowermentIMPORTANTCrisesPressing ProblemsDeadline driven projects, meetings, preparationsInterruptions, phone callsSome mail, some reportsSome meetingsMany popular activitiesNOT IMPORTANTTrivia, busyworkSome telephone callsTime wasters“Escape” activitiesExcessive TV34
35Cardio-respiratory System -The Lungs and the transport of Oxygen Air enters through the nose and mouth and passes down the trachea to the bronchial tree.Human Performance…
36When you inhale, air is drawn into the lungs due to a reduction in pressure inside the chest. This reduction in pressure can be ascribed to the outward movement of the chest wall and the downward movement of the diaphragm.When exhaling the air is expelled from the lungs by the generally passive process of muscular relaxation allowing the chest wall to fall and the diaphragm to relax.The ever dividing passageways in your lungs terminate at the alveoli (very fine sac-like structures) where the blood in the alveolar capillaries is brought into very close proximity with oxygen molecules.Under the influence of a pressure gradient, oxygen diffuses across the capillary membrane from the alveolar sac into the blood. From there it is taken up by the protein molecule hemoglobin for transport around the body.Breathing provides an exchange of respiratory gases between the environment and the blood. The rate and depth of breathing are adjusted to meet the enormous changes in the consumption of oxygen and the elimination of carbon dioxide.
43Types of Airframe Icing Glazed/Clear/Rain iceHoar FrostRime IceMost dangerous type of ice!
44LOCAL WINDS CLOUD INDICATING WIND Caused by steep pressure gradients when the anti-cyclone flow of air from a high pressure system to the south west of the countryLOCAL WINDSThe sudden dramatic change of this south westerly wind, which replaces the prevailing north easter is a common feature of the Buster.CLOUD INDICATING WINDDuring the summer months there is frequently a strong south easterly wind prevalent over the Cape Peninsula.When the South Easterly winds are forced to rise up over Table Mountain, the famous "table cloth" cloud forms –The descending air on the other side of the mountain is warmed, and any moisture present is absorbed by the air as water vapour.Both sides of the mountain will be clear of cloud, while the summit is cloud covered.
45Cloud ClassificationStratus (St). Layered clouds that form in stable air near the surface due to cooling from belowCumulus (Cu). Cumulus clouds form when convective currents from the earths radiation exist. They usually have flat bottoms, and dome shaped tops
60Signal Characteristics The ADFRelative bearing information can be displayed on either a RMI (radio magnetic indicator) or on the older RBI (relative bearing indicator). The difference between the two indicators is that the RBI does not display compass heading information but remains on a constant heading as selected by the pilot.RMIRBISignal CharacteristicsNDB's transmit vertically polarised signals in the medium freqency (MF) band.The signal is radiated equally in all directions and aircraft equipped with receiving equipment (ADF) can measure the direction of the incoming waves.
61ADF Interception Calculations. An aircraft heading 040° M has an ADF reading of 060° Relative from an NDB. ATC instructs the pilot to Intercept the NDB 120° QDM at an angle of 050°. Calculate the Intercept Heading, the change in aircraft heading and the Relative Bearing of the NDB.Magnetic Heading040°+Relative Bearing060°120 Intercept TRKQDM100°070 °A ) Intercept Heading50°120° Intercept QDM -50° Angle= 070 °100°QDMB ) Change In Aircraft HeadingAC Heading 040° Went To 070° = 30° RightC ) Relative Bearing Of NDB50°Station.
62The area between the limit of the surface wave and the point of reception of the first sky wave, is termed dead spaceSurface WaveSky wave1st Sky ReturnDead SpaceSkip DistanceThe distance between the transmitter and the point on the surface where the first sky wave return arrives is called the skip distance
63Amplitude Modulation (AM). Amplitude modulation may be used to transmit coded messages at audio frequencies (AF) or to transmit speech and music. The audio signal gets impressed on the radio frequency by changing the amplitude of the Carrier wave (CW). This change in amplitude is carried out by morphing the carrier wave to the audio signal. During this process the frequency remains constant.Where the audio wave is positive the amplitude is increased.Where the audio wave is negative the amplitude is decreased.Resultant WaveCarrier Wave (A)Audio Wave (B)Amplitude of A X 100Amplitude of BThis is a measure of the modulation depth, which is a percentage measurement of the degree to which the wave is modulated. It is the ratio:
64Maximum Theoretical Range Calculation. If an aircraft ( RX ) is at FL 100 what is the maximum range that the signal can be received from a transmitter ( TX ) a 100 feet high?
65Primary Radar. S X T Range = 2 Antenna. Beam Out TX Beam Return RX
66Instruments……The DRMC is in essence a compass card with numeric directions, on a freely suspended bar magnet
68Airspeed Indicator ( ASI ) Colour Coding VsoStall speed in thelanding configVneVelocity neverexceededVs1Stall speedcleanYellow ArcCautionary speedband. In still aironlyWhite ArcFlap operatingbandVnoMaximum normaloperating speedVfeMaximumflap extendedspeedGreen ArcNormal operatingspeed band
69Pressure Altimeter Construction Sealed CaseStatic VentAltimeter ScaleCapsuleLinkagesStatic PortPointerBaro CorrectionStatic pressure is measured at the Static port.As the aircraft climbs the Static pressure decreases and the capsule expands.This expansion shows an increase in altitude.As the aircraft descends the Static pressure increases and the capsule will contract.This contraction shows a decrease in altitude.The Baro correction is used to compensate for any deviation in ISA conditions.
70Fluxvalve TheoryIn order to overcome the problems associated with the placing of the compass on the aircraft, the magnets could be placed outside of the cockpit, in an area where they where least affected. The problem now however would be how the pilot would see the instrument. One solution would be to convert the magnetic field (flux), into electric energy which could be interpreted by cockpit instrumentation as heading references. This is the role of the fluxvalve.If instead of using a magnet, a highly permeable soft metal bar is fixed to an aircraft from fore to aft, and the aircraft is placed within the earths magnetic field, the bar will itself will acquire flux (become magnetized). The degree to which this flux will develop depends upon two factors:The latitude of the aircraftThe position of the bar in relation to the meridians of the magnetic fieldDetect the Magnetic Field and convert to electrical current.Electrical current interpreted by instrumentation, and represents a magnetic heading."Whenever there is a change of flux linked with a circuit, an Electromagnetic Field is induced in the circuit."
71Flight Director Indicator Attitude IndicatorThe aircraft's attitude relative to the natural horizon is shown by the aircraft symbol (A) and flight command bars (B).The horizon bar is carried on a flexible tape with the upper and lower sections coloured to represent the sky and ground. It also has to indicate the pitch angles.The roll angle is displayed by a pointer (D) that rotates with the flexible tape and is referenced against a fixed scale. (Freedom of movement for the flexible tape is: Pitch ± 90° and Roll 360°)Pitch and Bank CommandsWhen armed the Pitch and Bank Commands provide the pilot with “Fly to commands”.ABHorizon BarDATTITUDE : Climb and Left BankCommand BarsDecision HeightGlide SlopeAoATurn and Slip IndicatorFlight Director Indicator
72Mach Meter Calculations Calculate the altitude in ISA where a TAS of 465 Knots equals a Mach Number of 0.80.Flight Level = -35.5°CFL 252 or Feet-35.5°c35.5 degree temperature DropTotal Drop 50.5°celciusFlight Level = 50.5°C / x0°c15 degree temperature Drop15°cSea Level
73Procedures“A series of predetermined maneuvers by reference to flight instruments, with specified protection from obstacles, from the initial approach fix (or where applicable, from the beginning of a defined arrival route) to a point from which a landing can be completed and thereafter, if a landing cannot be completed, to a position at which holding or en-route obstacle clearance limits apply.”
74The “Plate” The Heading Section The approach Plan View Section The approach Profile View SectionThe Landing Minima SectionThe “Plate”
761 minute (CAT A & B aircraft) The Procedure Turn Approach (45/180)30°1 – 3 minutes45°1 minute (CAT A & B aircraft)1 minute 15 seconds (CAT C, D & E aircraft)Inbound Track180°A timed outbound track from the facility, followed by,A 45 turn away from the outbound track (for a given time), followed by,A turn through 180 in the opposite direction to intercept the inbound track.
77Sector 1 – Parallel Entry The sector 1 (parallel) entry, is carried out as follows:On arrival overhead the beacon, the aircraft is turned onto the outbound heading (to fly parallel to the inbound track), for the necessary period of time.The aircraft is turned to the left, into the holding side of the pattern, to intercept the inbound track or fly directly to the beacon (as shown).On arrival overhead the beacon a second time, the aircraft is turned to the right to follow the holding pattern.Turn to the leftAircraft turns onto outbound heading
78CAR’s – Civil Aviation Regulations Part 1: DefinitionsPart 11: CARCOM, exemptions, changes to regulatorsPart 12: Accidents and IncidentsPart 61: Pilot LicensingPart 64: Cabin CrewPart 67: Medical certificationPart 91: General Operating and Flight RulesPart 121: Air Transport - Large Aeroplanes (> 5 700kg)Part 127: Air Transport – HelicoptersPart 135: Air Transport – Small Aeroplanes (<5 700kg)Used to be called ANR’s….
85LEMAC or % MAC Introduction: MAC DATUM CG (A ) DIFF ( B ) MAC ( D ) Another way of expressing the position of the CG is as a percentage Mean Aerodynamic Chord or % MAC.The chord line is the straight line joining the leading edge and the trailing edge of an aerofoil.On a tapered wing the average length of the chord is calculated and termed the Mean Aerodynamic Chord or MAC.When working with MAC use a drawing to solve any questions that can be asked.DATUMCG (A )DIFF ( B )LEMAC ( C )MAC ( D )MAC
86LEMAC Example No 1. DATUM CG is 412 inches DIFF 88 inches An aircraft has a MAC of 162 inches. The LEMAC is at FS 324. The CG is 412 inches aft of the datum. What is the CG expressed as a percentage MAC?DATUMCG is 412 inchesDIFF 88 inchesLEMAC is 324 inchesMAC is 162 inches
87Basic Point of Equal Time ( PET ) Example No 1The track from point A to point B is 078°. TAS is 176 Kts. Distance from A to B is 843 nautical miles. W/V 120/40. What is the time to the PET?Time=Time204 Kts144 KtsGSRGSODestinationBDepartureAPET
88Calculate TODR… Question: OAT = 15ºC PAlt 4800’ Weight = 11300lbs TWC = 5kts50’ obstacle to clear.Calculate TODR…5-34If Airfield Elevation is given, calculate PAlt before entering the graph…Note: When asked for “take-off distance”, move up-slope…Answer: 4100’When asked for “take-off ground roll”, move horisontal…
91Meridians of longitude are drawn from the North Pole to the South Pole and are at right angles to the equator. The "Prime Meridian" which passes through Greenwich, England, is used as the zero line from which measurements are made in degrees east and west to 180°.The equator is an imaginary circle equidistant from the poles of the earth. Circles parallel to the equator (lines running east and west) are parallels of latitude. They are used to measure degrees of latitude north or south of the equator. The angular distance from the equator to the pole is one-fourth of a circle, or 90°. Thus latitude would run from 90° North to 90° South of the equator.Any specific geographical point can thus be located by reference to its longitude and latitude.
96What to expect in the Navigation Plotting Exam.. Heading and Speed DeterminationPosition DeterminationAir Plot Wind DeterminationTrack Plot Wind DeterminationTrack Correction
97Personal Development We will cover…. Attitude Curriculum Vitae Body LanguageInterview SkillsDress CodeCompany Research
98AttitudeLife and flying has one important factor in common – attitude determines altitude!!Attitude is more important than education, money, failures and successes, appearances, giftedness and skill.Bottom line – if you say you can you are right. If you say you can not you are also right.
99What is Attitude?Attitude is the way we communicate our thinking to other people.Our attitude is reflected in the way we talk, walk, sit, eat, sleep, drive a car – and indeed in flying an aircraft.
100Know this…Our attitude is the strongest element of our lives that requires our controlOur attitude affects othersAttitudes can be changed
101Make The Call !!After you send a resume or an introductory letter, always make a follow-up call. Remember, it's the conversation that gets you the interview. Here's how to get on the phone and into the interview process.Never call human resources or an in-house recruiter. These people have no vested interest in talking with you. In fact, they don't want to talk to you. You'll only foul up their process. If you want to get hired, you need to talk with an actual hiring manager. If that's a midlevel project supervisor or the Operations Director, so be it.
102Your attitude will make or break you as a student!