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2011 Chinese Bridge Delegation Beijing, China November 10, 2011 1.

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Presentation on theme: "2011 Chinese Bridge Delegation Beijing, China November 10, 2011 1."— Presentation transcript:

1 2011 Chinese Bridge Delegation Beijing, China November 10, 2011 1

2 Jim Montoya, Ph.D. Vice President, Relationship Development, College Board Shuhan C. Wang, Ph.D. Deputy Director, National Foreign Language Center, University of Maryland Mei-Ju Hwang, Ed.D. Instructional Lead, Chinese Language Program, Springfield Public Schools, MA 2

3 Topics Shuhan will discuss ten strategies from the macro level Mei-Ju will share a case study to illustrate an example of best practice 3

4 1. Contextualize Your Chinese Programs: From Local to Global, and Global to Local An interconnected world A knowledge-based and service-oriented global economy Entrepreneurial innovation and creativity as premium Economic competitiveness National interests Social justice Diplomacy 4

5 Monolinguals 1/3 Bilinguals & Multilinguals 2/3 Crystal, 1997 Percentage of the World Using Two or More Languages 5

6 2. Develop a Vision and Make a Commitment 6

7 An Additive Language Policy for All Students Regardless of their linguistic background, all children have the opportunity to become at least biliterate and bicultural. 7

8  21 st Century Themes  Learning and Innovation Skills  Information, Media and Technology Skills  Life and Career Skills Partnership for 21 st Century Skills, 2008 8 21 st Century Skills, Education & Competitiveness: Resource and Policy Guide 21 st Century

9 21 st Century Student Outcomes Core Subjects:  English, Reading or Language Arts  World languages  Arts  Mathematics  Economics  Science  Geography  History  Government and Civics Framework for 21 st Century Learning 9

10 Global Competence Is a 21 st Century Imperative (NEA, 2010) International awareness Appreciation of cultural diversity Proficiency in foreign languages Competitive skills NEA Policy Brief Competence11.pdf 10

11 The Seven Steps to Becoming a 21st Century School or District Critical thinking Communication Collaboration Creativity ( Ken Kay, century-leadership-overview-ken-kay) 11

12 12 Only 12 US States Require the Study of World Languages School LevelNumber of States Elementary1 Middle School1 High School Graduation6 Elementary & Middle School1 Elementary, M.S. and H.S.3 Source: National World Language Education Survey: A State of the States Report in 2009 (Wang, Evans, & Liau, 2009) in Resource Guide, 2010,

13 13 2000-2006: US Students Studying World Languages Middle school & high school data: National Center for Educational Statistics (2000); Post-secondary data: Furman, Goldberg, and Lusin (2006) 14.7% 43.8% 8.6%1.6% Middle School High School Post- Secondary (advanced levels)

14 2007-09: National Foreign Language Enrollment 14 18.51% 8.6% Post-secondary MLA data: Furman, Goldberg, and Lusin (2009) ACTFL 2010.

15 15 In contrast, the world is in a quest for—and is racing to develop— High Human Capital

16 21 of the Top 25 Industrialized Countries Begin the Study of a World Language in Grades K-5 Sources: Pufahl, Rhodes, & Christian, 2002; Li, 2007; Goto Butler, 2007; Gargesh, 2006; Eurydice, 2005; Russia-InfoCenter, 2006; Dixon, 2003 Lower Elementary School Upper Elementary School Middle School High School Beginning Age 5-78-1011-1314 GradeK-23-56-89 Number of Countries 8123 1* (US) 16

17 17 Let’s Put Things Into Perspective

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19 3. Demystify Chinese Spoken languages: Six major dialect families; Mandarin is one of them The varieties of Chinese available in the US parallel the immigration patterns, e.g., Cantonese, Taishanese, Fukienese/Taiwanese, Hakka, & Mandarin Written language: before the 1950s, the same across most dialects 19

20 Written Language Reforms In the 1950s, Chinese character simplification In 1964, 2,238 out of the approximately 7,000 characters in general use (Hsia 1956; Cheng 1979) were simplified (about 32%) 国 國 体 體 PRC: Simplified Taiwan: Traditional characters Hong Kong, Singapore, and Chinese Diaspora: Both Historical text and literature: Traditional The US: Both systems are taught 20

21 Phonological Transcription Systems BPMF Phonetic System: Used in Taiwan Hanyu Pinyin: PRC, Hong Kong, Singapore Computer: Can input both systems, but Pinyin is being more widely used 21

22 Consensus of the Chinese Field Native speakers of Chinese can read in both forms but are required to write in either form (computer can do both systems) Pedagogical implications: Depending on the age of students, introduce one system of writing, but introduce another system to them later For older students: may introduce them to another system for recognition 22

23 Chinese is not that difficult; it’s just different It’s not more difficult to develop oral language proficiency than in German or Russian But the writing system does take more time because it is character-based, which makes the sound-print-meaning mapping more challenging 23

24 4. Take a learner-centered approach to program and curriculum design, instruction, and assessment 24

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26 5. Consider the Following Five Goals 1. Increase the number and effectiveness of language programs; 2. Expand the range of languages offered; 3. Begin language instruction at a younger age and continue through a longer, articulated sequence; 4. Establish clear expectations for students’ language learning outcomes; and 5. Expand access and opportunity to learn via both traditional and innovative delivery systems. (Ingold & Wang, 2010) 26

27 27 Trends Indicating Demand for World Language programs in the US Greater awareness of the need for a linguistically and culturally competent citizenry Increasing popularity of immersion and early language learning programs Expanded offerings of online or distance learning language learning programs STARTALK and FLAP grants have generated enthusiasm and planted seeds for programs in less commonly taught languages

28 6. Select an Effective Program Model that Will Work in Your Local Context Early language learning: Foreign language exploratory programs (FLEX) Foreign language in elementary schools (FLES) Total immersion Dual language immersion/partial immersion Secondary school programs: Traditional/Regular Block schedule Distance/Online/Blended Learning programs Heritage learner programs After school/Saturday academies 28

29 7. Offer Program by Design Identify vision and purposes Be standards- and performance-based Set expected learning outcomes in light of time on task Articulate programs at different levels with multiple entries and exits Include learner assessment and program evaluation Offer credit by examination 29

30 8. Identify and Support Effective Chinese Language Teachers 30

31 www.startalk. talog 31


33 We Need: More WL teachers, especially elementary and immersion world language teachers Teachers of a wide range of languages Teachers with technological literacies, and those who can teach in online, blended learning, and distance learning environments Effective teachers for diverse learners in all levels, in and beyond classroom walls 33

34 Take a Short- and Long-Term Strategy 1. Consider recruiting Hanban guest teachers, but ensure the necessary support and professional development is in place 2. Identify and prepare local Chinese language teachers 3. Tap into local Chinese heritage communities 4. Re-examine and revise outdated teacher preparation models and certification requirements 34

35 9. Build an Efficient System to Address the Life Cycle of a World/ Chinese Language Teacher  Recruitment  Preparation  Certification/Licensure  Induction/Mentoring/Professional Development  Build Teacher Development and Support Capacity 35

36 10. Leverage Resources The US Government: STARTALK critical language student and teacher programs (Administered by the NFLC) NSLI-Y (State Department) Critical language teacher programs (State Department) FLAP programs (US ED) (under reauthorization consideration) 36

37 The Chinese Government: Confucius Institutes Confucius Classrooms Guest Teacher Programs Scholarship for students and teachers to study in China 37

38 Non-Governmental Organizations The College Board The National Foreign Language Center at the University of Maryland Asia Society 38

39 Professional and Heritage Organizations CLASS CLTA 39 NCACLS NCSUS ACTFL

40 Celebrating 25 th anniversary at the Springfield Chinese Language Program, Massachusetts 40

41 Demographics 26,000 Students 55% Hispanic 22% African American 20% White 2% Asian 82% receive free or reduced price meals 24% do not speak English as a first language 41

42 Foreign Language Offerings 6 Languages: Chinese, French, Italian, Latin, German, and Spanish Chinese is a major foreign language program in Springfield 42

43 When and how did the Program start? In 1987, it was funded with the support from the Dodge Foundation’s Chinese Initiative. During the first three years, the City of Springfield funded 60% of the program. Since then the city has provided the funding through regular budget. The program started with one teacher shared by two high schools, who also provided FLEX for all middle schools. Now we have 7 full time Chinese teachers. 43

44 The Springfield Chinese Program in 2011 Over 1,000 students are enrolled Four high schools: four levels, college prep and honor, AP, and IB Chinese Two Middle schools: Grade 6, 7 & 8 STARTALK Chinese Immersion Summer Camp for K-8 students during the summer 44

45 Curriculum & Instruction City-wide Chinese instructional guides and pacing guides Units and lesson plans 45

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48 A Sidewalk Writer 48

49 Assessment City-wide midterm exam and final exam for HS Pre and Post test for MS City-wide assessment has listening, reading, speaking and writing Formative assessment by teachers: tests and quizzes, portfolio assessment, performance assessment 49

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52 Teachers Recruitment: Collaborate with Local teacher preparation programs (5-college area) Weekend Chinese school in nearby Amherst for past 35 years MAFLA Retention: We keep teachers when $$ allows. Certification: School district provides waiver, but we support our Chinese teachers to obtain certification within a year 52

53 Professional Development District teacher workshops provided by the foreign language department: best practices in Chinese language instruction, classroom management, technology integration, etc. Monthly Chinese teacher curriculum meetings STARTALK summer training and online videos on teaching Chinese with immersion model, how to create a thematic unit and design a lesson plan, etc. 53

54 Support Effective Teachers Build and sustain programs Recruit students Provide effective instruction and assessment Must have an open-mind and be willing to collaborate with others 54

55 Seek Support & Resources Administrators: building principal, academic director, superintendent Building staff: custodians, counselors, other subject teachers, computer technicians Community: parents and community resource people Partnership programs: A 15 year old joint grant with Asian Arts and Culture, University of Mass 55

56 Engage in Advocacy Extend the Chinese New Year celebration to be a school-wide activity through interdisciplinary teaching; Highlight the program with student work; Chinese cultural artifacts at the library and the showcases in the school hallways; Make program visible to parents and community through outreach via the school choice program, open houses, etc. International Fair Exhibit 56

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58 Junior Docents for the Local Museum 58

59 International Fair 59

60 Funding sources FLAP State Foreign Language Assistance Act STARTALK Partnership Programs Community Foundations & Business Organizations Confucius Institute/Hanban, Asia Society Chinese Cultural Center 60

61 61

62 Thank you 谢谢 Shuhan C. Wang, Ph.D. Mei-ju Hwang 62

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