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Chapter 13 The Respiratory System. Respiration Function –conducting zone - air to lungs –respiratory zone - alveoli and capillaries Processes –pulmonary.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 13 The Respiratory System. Respiration Function –conducting zone - air to lungs –respiratory zone - alveoli and capillaries Processes –pulmonary."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 13 The Respiratory System

2 Respiration Function –conducting zone - air to lungs –respiratory zone - alveoli and capillaries Processes –pulmonary respiration –external respiration –respiratory gas transport –internal respiration - alveoli

3 Upper Respiratory Structures The nose and nasal cavity functions –humidifies “moistens” for 02 diffusion –warms to speed up diffusion –cleans with cilia –Cleans & moistens with mucus structures –nostrils - external nares –nasal septum –nasal cavity - houses sinuses

4 Paranasal Sinuses –location frontal sphenoid ethmoid maxillary –functions warm moisten and clean lighten skull speech resonance –problems rhinitis - inflammation of nasal mucosa sinusitis - inflammation of sinuses Pharynx –5 inch muscular pathway for food and air –Uvula – flap which covers the nasal opening when swallowing –tonsils

5 Lower Respiratory System Larynx “ voice box” –epiglottis - flap closes when you swallow –glottis - slit like passage between vocal cords –vocal folds – vibrate for voice production –Thyroid cartilage- “Adam’s apple” Trachea –windpipe 4 inches –lined w/ cilia, mucus, pseudostratified –C shaped rings of cartilage –Heimlich manuever –tracheostomy - surgical opening

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7 Bronchi –right & left branch into each lung –bronchial tubes –bronchioles –alveolar sacs – alveoli surrounded by capillaries

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9 Breathing or Ventilation Factors Involved breaths / min –inspiration - air in –expiration – air out MRV 6 L / min TV 500 ml / breath –atmospheric pressure –intrapleural pressure –Boyle’s Law pressure of a gas varies inversely w/ volume

10 Inspiration –air going in –sequence ribs move up and out diaphragm moves down “Contracts” larger chest cavity volume up pressure drops air goes in Expiration –passive process relaxation of inspiratory muscles –sequence ribs down and in diaphragm relaxes moves up smaller chest cavity volume down pressure up air goes out abdominal muscles help force out air

11 Nonrespiratory Air Movements –cough forces glottis open –Sneeze- air out thru nasal cavities –crying & laughing short inspirations –hiccups spasms of diaphragm - phrenic nerve –yawn deep inspiration

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13 Air Volumes and Capacities –Spirometer * measures respiratory capacity –tidal volume * TV 500 ml, normal breathing –inspiratory reserve volume forced inhalation ml –expiratory reserve volume air forced out 1200 ml –residual volume * 1200 ml, keep lungs & alveoli inflated –inspiratory capacity TV & IRV = 3600 ml –expiratory capacity TV & ERV = 1700 ml

14 –functional residual capacity 2400 ml –vital capacity * total amount of exchangeable air 4800 ml –total lung capacity 6000 ml TV + IRV + ERV + RV –anatomical dead space 150 ml air in conducting passways

15 Respiratory Sounds –bronchial air rushing in –rales rasping –wheezing whistling

16 Respiratory Disorders COPD –chronic obstructive pulmonary disorder features –history of smoking –dyspnea - labored breathing –frequent coughing / infections –hypoxic : retain CO2 emphysema –pink puffers –alveoli enlarges, air goes in hard to exhale and airways collapse chronic bronchitis –blue bloaters –a lot of mucus inflammation CO2 retained chronic infections

17 Lung Cancer 1/3 of all cancer deaths in U.S. & 90% are smokers Second leading cause of death in US –squamous cell –adenocarcinoma –small cell carcinoma

18 Developmental Aspects Surfactant –detergent like lipoprotein –reduces water cohension & keeps alveoli sacs inflated IRDS –infant respiratory distress syndrome –premature babies Cystic Fibrosis –oversecretion of mucus SIDS- sudden infant death syndrome Asthma –chronic inflammation of bronchial passageways Others –hypersensitive irritants, tuberculosis & pneumonia, sleep apnea

19 Gas Transport Transport of Oxygen –attached to hemoglobin oxyhemoglobin –temperature effect temp goes up more oxygen released into tissues –pH effect pH drops more oxygen released - less hemoglobin affinity happens during exercise –impairments of oxygen hypoxia –not enough O2 to cells –Anemia, blockage, lack of blood CO poisoning –CO binds with hemoglobin

20 Control of Respiration Phrenic and Intercostal Nerves – move diaphragm and ribs Respiratory Centers –medulla - respiratory rhythm breaths/min –pons - transition from expiration to inspiration Factors influencing respiratory rate –physical exercising, talking, coughing, body temp. –Volition “ conscious” hold breath, singing –emotional excited scared, sympathetic –chemical levels of CO2 and O2 and pH of blood


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