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1By: Ellie Conzatti, Kelsey Betteridge, and Michele Short Respiratory systemBy: Ellie Conzatti, Kelsey Betteridge, and Michele Short
2FunctionsCellular Respiration (obtaining oxygen and removing carbon dioxide)Removing particles from the airTransport air to and from lungsControl temperature and moisture content of airProduce vocal soundsHelp regulate blood pH and sense of smell
3Structures of the Respiratory System NoseNasal cavityHard palateNostrilOral cavityLarynxBronchusRight & left lungSoft palatePharynxEpiglottisEsophagusTrachea
4Organs of the Respiratory System Upper Respiratory TractNose, Nasal cavity, paranasal sinuses, and pharynxLower Respiratory TractLarynx, trachea, bronchial tree, and lungs
5Nose Bone and cartilage support the nose There are two nostrils which air canenter and leave the nasal cavityHairs within the nostrils preventlarge particles from entering
6Nasal Cavity Hollow space behind the nose The nasal septum divides the right and left portions of the nasal cavityNasal concha are bones that curl away from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity on each side forming passageways within the cavityMucous membrane has…* pseudo stratified ciliated epithelium* mucus-secreting goblet cells* network of blood vessels* mucus lining* sticky mucus
7Paranasal sinusesHollow spaces in certain skull bones which are located in the:MaxillaryFrontalEthmoidSphenoid BonesReduces weight of skullServes as resonant chambersAffects the sound of the voice
8Pharynx Chamber behind nasal cavity, oral cavity, and larynx Passageway for air moving from nasalcavity to larynxFood moves from oral cavity to esophagus
9LarynxPassageway for air and prevents foreign objects from entering tracheaThe glotis is the opening between the vocal cords that closes during swallowing. During breathing , they are relaxed and it looks like a triangular slit.A framework of muscles and cartilages compose the larynxThyroid (“Adam’s apple”)CricoidEpiglottic cartilages
10Larynx (cont.)Contains the epiglottis, a flap-like structure that closes downward to cover the opening into the larynx during swallowing. This prevents food and liquids from entering the air passages.
11Trachea (Windpipe)Flexible tube that connects the larynx with the bronchial tree by splitting into left and right bronchi.Passageway for airAir is being filtered by a ciliated mucous membrane covering the wall. Filtered air is moved upward into the pharynx where the mucus is swallowed.Consists of about 20 C-shaped hyaline cartilage pieces which are filled with smooth muscle and connective tissue between the ends.
12Bronchial Tree Branched tubes that lead from the trachea to the lungs Has a mucous lining that continues to filter incoming airDivides into the right and left primary bronchi and then each one further divides into secondary bronchi.Bronchioles are among these smaller tubes and finally break into small tubes called alveolar ducts, which lead to alveolar sacs. Alveolar sacs are surrounded by alveoli.
13Bronchial Tree (cont.)The alveoli’s large surface area of epithelial cells allow gases to be exchanged. Oxygen enters nearby capillaries and carbon dioxide enters the alveoli from the blood through these walls.
14LungsSoft, cone-shaped organs that occupy a large portion of the thoracic cavityContains air passages, alveoli, blood vessels, connective tissues, lymphatic vessels, and nerves of the lower respiratory tract.The visceral pleura, which is a serous membrane, attaches to each lung surface. It folds back to become the parietal pleura, a part of the mediastinum, a layer of the inner wall of the thoracic cavity. The potential space between these two layers is the pleural cavity.The right lung is larger than the leftThe right is divided into three partsThe left is divided into two parts
15Breathing MechanismThe movement of air coming from the outside of the body and going into and out the bronchial tree and alveoliInspiration- inhalingExpiration- exhaling
16InspirationWhen the pressure in the lungs and alveoli decreases, the pressure pushes outside the air into the pathwaysThis is normal inspiration. While the external intercostal muscles between the ribs are contracting, this is what raises the ribs and the sternum, causing the thoracic cavity to enlargeWhen a person needs to take a bigger and deeper breath, the diaphragm and external intercostal muscles contracts even more to help with the breathing
17ExpirationTo get back to the normal shape, the abdominal organs bounce back pushing the diaphragm up againWhen a person needs to exhale more than normal, the posterior internal intercostal muscles are contractingThis causes the ribs and sternum down and in which increases the pressure inside the lungs
18Respiratory CenterRespiratory muscles are voluntary whereas normal breathing is involuntaryThe respiratory center controls both inspiration and expirationIt is a group of neuronsThe neurons are scattered throughout the medulla oblongata and the ponsThe dorsal respiratory group controls the rhythm of inspirationThis impulses the diaphragm and the other inspiratory to contractIt begins weak, strengthens for two seconds and decreases againThe muscles that contract, increase the air that enters the lungsThe ventral respiratory group is quiet when the breathing is normal, but when more force is needed, this impulses an increase in the inspiratory movement.
19Respiratory MembraneThe aveolus consists of inner lining of simple squamous epithelium and capillaries as wellThin basement membranes separate these layers and in the spaces between, the elastic and collagenous fibers support the alveolar wallComposed of the alveolar wall and the capillary wall through which air exchanges gases
20Air and Blood Exchange Gases Across Alveoli To Capillaries Diffusion occurs from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure.Ordinary air consists of 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen, and .04% carbon dioxide.The pressure each gas gives is the partial pressure.Gas concentration is proportional to its partial pressurePCO2 in capillaries is 45 mm Hg while in alveolar air it is 40 mm HgPO2 in blood is 40 mm Hg while in alveolar air it is 104 mm Hg
21Gas Transport By Blood Oxygen Oxygen binds to an iron protein, called hemoglobin, to form oxyhemoglobin.Since oxygen and hemoglobin molecules are unstable, oxyhemoglobin releases oxygen into nearby cells.More oxygen is released when:Po2 decreasesCarbon Dioxide concentration increasesBlood becomes increasingly acidicBlood temperature increasesHypoxia is a deficiency of oxygen reaching the cells.
22Gas Transport By Blood As carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma If the partial pressure of the carbon dioxide is higher in the tissues, more will dissolve in the plasma.As a compound bonded to hemoglobinCarbon dioxide binds to the protein part of hemoglobin, not the iron, and therefore does not compete with the binding of oxygen. This bond creates carbaminohemoglobin.In the form of a bicarbonate ionCarbon dioxide and water react to create carbonic acid.Carbonic anhydrase is an enzyme in red blood cells that speeds up the reaction.Carbonic acid splits to become a hydrogen ion and bicarbonate ion.Carbon Dioxide is transported to the lungs in 1 of 3 ways:As carbon dioxide dissolved in plasma.As a compound bonded to hemoglobin.In the form of a bicarbonate ion
23Factors that Affect Breathing Central chemoreceptors sense changes in the cerebrospinal fluid of carbon dioxide and hydrogen ionsWhen more carbon dioxide is being exhaled, the blood and CSF causes the breathing rate to decreaseHyperventilation is when someone is breathing really deep and rapidlyThis causes an increase in breath
24Diseases Laryngitis Hoarsness or lack of voice The mucus membrane of the larynx becomes inflamed and swollen due to infection or an irritation from inhaled vaporsPrevents the vocal chords from vibrating freely
25EmphysemaProgressive and pregenerative disease that destroys alveolar wallsAs a result, surface area decreases and the volume of gases exchanged through the membrane reducesExpiration becomes more difficultCaused by repeated exposure to respiratory irritants like tobacco and pollution
26Lung CancerDivision of cells that take the nutrients and oxygen out of normal cellsIt can sometimes be developed from other cancer cells in different parts of the bodyCancer cells form tumors that block air passages and decrease the exchange of gas
27Works CitedButler, Jakie, Lewis Ricki, Shier David. Eds. Hole’s Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill, Print.“Chapter 16 Outline Respiratory System.” PHED. Web. 14 May 2013<How Stuff Works." N.p., n.d. Web. 8 May <science.howstuffworks.com/life/human-biology/question139.htm >."Middle Nasal Conchae." c/media/Ethmoid%20Bone/MiddleNasalConchae.jpg.html. N.p., n.d. Web. 3 May <http://s812.photobucket.com/user/krystal- c/media/Ethmoid%20Bone/MiddleNasalConchae.jpg.html >.National Institutes of Health. “General Information About Paranasal Sinus and Nasal Cavity Cancer.” National Care Institute. 18 January Web. 14 May 2013<Powell, k. “What is the Trachea”. Wise Geek Web. 14 May 2013< is-the- trachea.htmTamarkin, Dawn. Respiratory Organs STCC Foundation Press. Photograph