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Protists & Fungi Although slime molds like this are no longer classified as fungi (they were recently reclassified as a type of protist), they produce.

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Presentation on theme: "Protists & Fungi Although slime molds like this are no longer classified as fungi (they were recently reclassified as a type of protist), they produce."— Presentation transcript:

1 Protists & Fungi Although slime molds like this are no longer classified as fungi (they were recently reclassified as a type of protist), they produce spores in a similar way to fungi. The pink sacs seen here are called sporangia, or they places where the spores are produced. Photography by Paul Zahl

2 Introduction On the following slides, the summary color is in orange and all vocabulary terms are underlined. The kingdom Protista is probably the most diverse group of organisms on the planet. Although previously classified in the plant kingdom, fungi are unlike plants because they lack chlorophyll, so they are always heterotrophs. In this unit will we review details of both the Protist and the Fungi kingdoms.

3 Protists Some are microscopic and others grow to be meters long.
Some act like animals, while some act like plants. Some are poisonous and others are parasitic. This protist Trichonympha lives in the gut of termites to digest the cellulose of wood. Image

4 Protists Foldable Turn to pg. 503 in the textbook.
Pick up one sheet of computer paper to build our Protist foldable. Write your name in the lower center of the back of the page.

5 Protist Foldable Instructions
Fold your paper in half along the X axis, but leave a ½ inch flap at the bottom edge [one side is longer than the other]. Fold the flap upwards. Create a title for the foldable at the top of your foldable: EX “All about Protists”, “World of Protists”, etc. Create three cuts in the foldable on the top, large flap and the short small flap [DO NOT cut through the back page].

6 Foldable Instructions Cont.
Title the OUTSIDE, smaller flaps from L to R: Animal-like Plant-like Fungi-like Title the INSIDE, smaller flaps from L to R: Protozoa (pg. 504) Algae (pg. 511) Slime Molds, etc. (pg. 517) Add three sketches to represent each of the types of protists on outside, larger flaps.

7 Foldable Part 1 – Protozoa Textbook Reference pg. 504-509
On the inside flap, answer the following questions using the textbook reading section. Cell Type [Unicellular, Multicellular, or Both] Energy Type [Autotrophs or Heterotrophs] Reproduction [Asexual, Sexual, or Both] 3 Types of Movement [w/ a short explanation]: Pseudopodia Flagellates Ciliates

8 A fisher gathers up algae to remove it from the water in Qingdao on July 6. The North China Sea Marine Forecasting Center recently predicted the thick masses of algae would continue spreading north, according to Xinhua. Photograph from ChinaFotoPress

9 Foldable Part 2 – Algae Textbook Reference pg. 510-516
On the inside flap, answer the following questions using the textbook reading section.. Cell Type [Unicellular, Multicellular, or Both] T or F: Plant-like protists contain roots, stems, and leaves like plants. Energy Type [Autotrophs or Heterotrophs] T or F: Plant-like protists photosynthesize. T or F: Plant-like protists contain chlorophyll. Types of Algae[w/ a short explanation]: Euglenoids: Unlike plants, they lack a _____ _____; movement using _________. Diatoms: shells composed of _____; AKA ________ in aquatic ecosystems. Dinoflagellates: Cell walls of _________; some are _________ [means “living light’], but many are _________ causing red tides. Red, Brown, & Green Algae: Includes seaweeds and kelp, but can also be found growing on _______ soil and tree _________.

10 Video The Blob (1958) Movie Clip Image

11 From “Top Ten Weirdest Stories of 2012”
The living slime that may have been the muse for the 1958 science-fiction film The Blob just got creepier: In October, scientists reported that slime mold, a brainless single-celled organism, has a form of memory. Photograph by Audrey Dussutour

12 Foldable Part 3 – Slime Molds, Etc. Textbook Reference pg. 517-520
On the inside flap, answer the following questions using the textbook reading section.. Cell Type [Unicellular, Multicellular, or Both] Energy Type [Autotrophs or Heterotrophs] T or F: Fungi-like protists are decomposers. 3 Types [w/ a short explanation]: Slime Molds: Live in _____, _____, _____ places. Water Molds & Downy Mildews: Live in _____ or _____ places; can cause __________. Briefly explain the example from Ireland beginning in 1845.

13 Diseases Caused by Protists Textbook Reference pg. 508-509
Sporozoans have no structure for movement because they are parasitic; they are more complex and usually involve more than one host. EX Plasmodium - causes malaria and infects both mosquitoes and humans. EX Amebic dysentery (Giardia) from infected water will cause severe diarrhea, nausea and fatigue; attaches to the host's intestinal lining. There are estimates that there may be as many as 2.5 million cases each year of Giardia intestinalis in the US alone(6). A single-celled protozoa, the parasite also poses a serious threat abroad, and exists at very high prevalence rates particularly in places with poor water sanitation. Image

14 Protists in the Biosphere
Take a deep breath! Thank a protist! Phytoplankton are microscopic organisms that float near the surface of oceans and lakes and carry out more than 70% of the Earth's total photosynthesis (contributing to the oxygen in our environment).

15 Fungi Fungi are important in the fact that they recycle materials back into the soil to replenish it for other organisms; as decomposers they are essential elements in the ecosystems of Earth. Fungi Photography Fungi Podcast Laetiporus sulphureus Photograph by Dan Molter

16 What is a fungus? Mycology = the study of Fungi Key Characteristics:
Fungi – singular Fungus – plural Key Characteristics: Eukaryotic [w/ nuclei, mitochondria, and other organelles] Heterotrophs [decomposing “feeders”] Multicellular Cannot move on their own

17 How are fungi different from plants?
4 Reasons: Lack chlorophyll [the green pigment in chloroplasts] Therefore they are NOT photosynthetic Most are saphrophytes [“feeds” on dead or decaying matter] Some are parasites Never reproduce by seeds Most have cell walls of chitin, except molds [NOT cellulose]

18 Parts of Fungi Hypha (s) = a network of thin thread-like structures that form the “body” of a fungus; hyphae (p) hyphae grow and branch until they cover and digest the food source

19 Germ tube (growing spore) (initial hypha)
Single hypha Mass of hyphae (mycelium)

20 Parts of Fungi Cont. Mycelium (s) = mass of hyphae; mycelia (p)
usually hidden in the soil, in wood, or another food source may fill a single ant, or cover many acres

21 The Types of Fungi Zygomucotes Ascomycotes Basidiomycotes
Deuteromycotes mold sac fungi club-shaped part which produces the spores Imperfect fungi reproduce asexually & sexually Sporangia – structures on the tips of hyphae; make spores Rhizoids - hyphae of bread mold that digest bread for ingestion Ascus- tiny saclike structures that make spores Mushrooms can release large clouds of spores. Each cloud contains millions of spores currently only known to reproduce asexually cause most fungal diseases in humans EX Bread mold EX Yeast EX Mushrooms EX Athlete’s foot

22 The Four Types of Fungi Zygomucotes Ascomycotes Basidiomycotes
Deuteromycotes mold sac fungi club-shaped part which produces the spores Imperfect fungi reproduce asexually & sexually Sporangia – structures on the tips of hyphae; make spores Rhizoids - hyphae of bread mold that digest bread for ingestion Ascus- tiny saclike structures that make spores Mushrooms can release large clouds of spores. Each cloud contains millions of spores currently only known to reproduce asexually cause most fungal diseases in humans EX Bread mold EX Yeast EX Mushrooms EX Athlete’s foot

23 The Four Types of Fungi Zygomucotes Ascomycotes Basidiomycotes
Deuteromycotes mold sac fungi club-shaped part which produces the spores Imperfect fungi reproduce asexually & sexually Sporangia – structures on the tips of hyphae; make spores Rhizoids - hyphae of bread mold that digest bread for ingestion Ascus- tiny saclike structures that make spores Mushrooms can release large clouds of spores. Each cloud contains millions of spores currently only known to reproduce asexually cause most fungal diseases in humans EX Bread mold EX Yeast EX Mushrooms EX Athlete’s foot

24 The Four Types of Fungi Zygomucotes Ascomycotes Basidiomycotes
Deuteromycotes mold sac fungi club-shaped part which produces the spores Imperfect fungi reproduce asexually & sexually Sporangia – structures on the tips of hyphae; make spores Rhizoids - hyphae of bread mold that digest bread for ingestion Ascus- tiny saclike structures that make spores Mushrooms can release large clouds of spores. Each cloud contains millions of spores currently only known to reproduce asexually cause most fungal diseases in humans EX Bread mold EX Yeast EX Mushrooms EX Athlete’s foot

25 Fungi Foldable Turn to pg. 535 in the textbook.
Pick up one sheet of computer paper to build our Fungi foldable. Write your name in the middle of the back of the page.

26 Fungi Foldable Instructions
Fold your paper in half along the X axis. Then fold the top and bottom edges to meet in the middle. Fold the foldable in half along the Y axis. Open and cut along the middle, vertical fold; you should now have four flaps. Title the OUTSIDE flaps clockwise for the upper left: Zygomycotes [AKA Molds] Ascomycotes [AKA Sac Fungi] Basidiomycotes [AKA Mushrooms] Deuteromycotes

27 Foldable Part 1 – Zygomycotes Textbook Reference pg. 535-536
On the inside flap, answer the following questions using the textbook reading section. Familiar Examples Reproduction [Asexual, Sexual, or Both] Sketch the reproductive cycle diagram at the bottom of pg [including labels]. Key Vocabulary: Stolon Rhizoid

28 Foldable Part 2 – Ascomycotes Textbook Reference pg. 537
On the inside flap, answer the following questions using the textbook reading section.. Familiar Examples Reproduction [Asexual, Sexual, or Both] Key Vocabulary: Ascus Ascospores Conidiophores Conidia

29 Foldable Part 3 – Basidiomycotes Textbook Reference pg. 535-536
On the inside flap, answer the following questions using the textbook reading section. Familiar Examples Reproduction [Asexual, Sexual, or Both] Sketch the diagram of a mushroom cap and stalk at the bottom of pg. 539 [including labels for gill, basidia, and basidiospores]. Key Vocabulary: Basidia Basidiospores

30 Foldable Part 4 – Deuteromycotes Textbook Reference pg. 535-536
On the inside flap, answer the following questions using the textbook reading section. Familiar Examples Reproduction [Asexual, Sexual, or Both] Fungi are used to make the antiobiotic penicillin. Penicillium marneffei Image

31 Diseases Caused by Fungi Textbook Reference pg. 546
Fungal diseases are estimated to be responsible for between 15 to 50% of the world’s crop loss. EX black stem rust [infects wheat, rice ], corn smut, and ergot [Salem Witch Trials] Human pathogens The microorganism Candida albicans is responsible for ringworm, athletes foot, and yeast infections of the female reproductive tract.


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