Presentation on theme: "N2242N 1979 Piper PA28RT-201 Arrow IV Familiarization Briefing Rev B – 2 Nov 2014."— Presentation transcript:
N2242N 1979 Piper PA28RT-201 Arrow IV Familiarization Briefing Rev B – 2 Nov 2014
Engine Engine type: four cylinder, horizontally opposed, air-cooled, direct drive, fuel injected Lycoming IO-360-C1C6 Engine TBO: 2,000 hours Maximum 200 brake horsepower at 2,700 rpm; max recommended cruise is 75%
Oil The air inlet and air outlet for the oil cooler is on the right side of the cowling – An oil cooler restrictor plate is to be installed when operating temperatures are below 50 o F Oil capacity: 8 quarts (add 1 qt if below 6 qts before flight) Oil warning light on Annunciator panel Oil Cooler Inlet Exhaust
Engine Fuel, Induction The Arrow uses fuel injection, which results in more even combustion in all cylinders Bendix RSA-5AD1 fuel injector – Since there is no carburetor, there is no Carb Heat. – Operates on differential pressure – Fuel pressure is regulated by a servo valve – Fuel flow divider receives metered fuel and distributes it to each cylinder – Fuel flow instrument is connected to the flow divider Alternate induction air door opens automatically when the primary air source is obstructed; this can be tested from the cabin during run-up Primary induction air source should always be used for takeoff
Fuel Injection – Operating Characteristics The starting procedure is different: – Priming is done using the mixture, throttle and fuel pump – Normal starting procedure requires the mixture to be in the lean position The fuel manifold is on top of the engine and is susceptible to vapor lock. This will cause difficulties in starting on hot days if the engine has not had time to cool after a flight. It may help to open the oil check door on hot days if a quick turn around is required. Learn the hot start and flooded start procedures as these will be needed to get the engine started under these conditions. Leaning on the ground (NOT ON TAKE-OFF) is normal to lessen chance of plug fouling
Propeller McCauley two-blade constant-speed, controllable-pitch propeller Propeller governor relies on oil pressure: when RPM is decreased, the oil from the engine enters the propeller dome, thus moving the piston and a sliding arm to cause the propeller to take a bigger bite of air (consequently, a drop in oil pressure is observed) Loss of engine oil will cause propeller overspeed
Flaps The flap handle operates and locks the flaps down at 10, 25, and 40 degrees. The flap is only safe for use as a step in the 0 or up position. CAUTION - In the 10-degree position the flaps may look like they are in the 0-degree position and locked for a step due to the aileron position. This condition could result in severe injury to a departing passenger and a barked shin to one stepping onto the flap. Likewise, a passenger on the ground and peering into the cockpit to observe the pilot could receive severe damage to his kneecaps when the flaps are lowered. Always "clear flaps" before lowering. The run up check of the flaps should include visual/manual operation of both extension and retraction through every notch.
Landing Gear Hydraulically operated, fully retractable, tricycle landing gear Reversible electrically powered pump (actuated in one direction – raises gear; actuated in other direction – lowers gear) Lights: 3 green lights on indicates down and locked All lights out indicate retracted Yellow “in transit” light on the panel Red “gear unsafe” light on the panel – Caution: lights dim substantially when navigation lights are on; this renders them invisible in most daylight conditions Retraction speed: ≤ 109 KIAS; extension speed: ≤ 130 KIAS
Landing Gear (Continued) Numbers Extension/retraction time: 7 seconds Tire size: 5.00 x 5 nose (four ply with tube), 6.00 x 6 mains (six ply with tube) Tire pressure: 27 psi nose, 30 psi mains Nose steerable through 30 degree arc; equipped with shimmy dampener Nosewheel steering linkage disengages after retraction to reduce rudder pedal load Oleo strut extensions: 2.75” ± 0.25” nose, 2.50” ± 0.25” main under empty weight and full fuel/oil
Emergency Landing Gear Extension Auto extension lockout pin must be pulled out to allow automatic or manual emergency gear extension to work Gear will automatic extend when speed is 87 KIAS or below To manual lower gear if normal system is not working, push and hold the emergency gear lever switch down towards the floor Extension is accomplished by manually releasing hydraulic pressure; gear free-falls; nose gear is assisted in free-fall/lock by a spring If gear does not indicate down and locked, yaw the airplane side to side Emergency Gear Lever Auto Extension Lockout Pin
Auto Extender System Automatically lowers the gear when speed is between 75 KIAS- 95 KIAS, depending on power/altitude Operates on a sensing device controlled by differential air pressure High pressure source and static source are mounted on left side of the fuselage above the wing; this mast is heated when Pitot Heat is turned on To Override the Auto Extender System – Pull pin and Raise the emergency gear lever to the up position and release pin to hold lever in override position – Should be in override position for: maximum glide, short field takeoffs, and practice stalls with gear up – Override condition indicated by flashing yellow light below gear handle – Suggested Use: Put in override position on for take-off and remove overide once set-up in cruise – Definitely off entering the traffic pattern
Landing Gear Warning System Warning system: activated by micro-switches in the throttle quadrant Steady sound; red “gear unsafe” light Activated under the following conditions: – Gear up and power below approx. 14” MP – When the auto extender system extends the gear and the gear handle is in the raised position – Gear handle in the raised position when on the ground Squat switch on the right main gear prevents gear retraction while on the ground
Brakes Brake pedals on the pilot’s and co-pilot’s sides Individual cylinders for toe brakes and the hand brake; shared brake reservoir Separate controls for brakes for left and right main gears CAUTION - special hazard for Cessna pilots transitioning to Piper. There is a bar that goes across the cabin just above the rudder pedals. If the pilot's toes are allowed to protrude over the toe stops on the rudder pedals so as to reach this bar, it is possible that all directional control and braking can be lost. The misuse is most likely to occur during landing rollout when feet are moved up from rudder to brakes. Every pilot should sit in the aircraft and see for himself how this could happen. Single disc, single puck brakes on the main gears Brake fluid reservoir located in the upper left corner of the front side of the firewall; fill with MIL-H-5606 hydraulic brake fluid (red)
Fuel Two 38.5 gal. tanks; usable capacity in each tank is 36 gal. (total of 72 gal. usable fuel or 50 gal when filled to tabs) Engine driven fuel pump; auxiliary electric pump used for priming and when the engine driven pump fails – Electric pump should be on when switching fuel tanks and during takeoffs and landings Three fuel drains: one for each tank and one for the fuel strainer (on left side of firewall) Fuel tanks are individually vented by vent tube protruding below bottom of wing at rear inboard corner of each tank Gauges: individual fuel level gauges for each tank; a single fuel pressure gauge connected to the induction system Note: When requesting fuel for the Arrow, only fill to tabs unless full fuel needed for long range trip.
Fuel System Operation The engine only feeds from one tank at a time. There is no BOTH tank capability Using some non-zero roll input in cruise to balance the difference in L/R fuel weight is normal Guidance for tank usage – Consider using the tank on the side with the higher payload first – Switching tanks every ½ hour in cruise maintains a reasonable balance – Keeping track of fuel usage is an important pilot task. Always log the time when switching tanks for each tank. Start the log at engine start. – Keep in mind that ALL the fuel in the Arrow is not available, unless one tank is used till drying up and the engine starts to sputter.
Electrical Alternator: quantity – one; 14-volt, 60-amp – Incorporates a voltage regulator and an overvoltage relay; alternator will go offline at 16.5 volts output and up – Full power output even at low engine RPM Battery: quantity – one; 12-volt, 25-amp hour – Located forward of the firewall on the right hand side Ammeter shows total electrical load placed on the system Circuit breakers protect major electrical accessories Piper External Power plug located on the right side of the fuselage forward of the entry door Loss of alternator indicated by zero reading on the ammeter – There is an alternator warning light on the annunciator panel – Can also verify by using the Engine Monitor voltage – Volts - Alternator working correctly – < 12.6 Volts indicates Alternator not on line, Battery power only
Vacuum Operates attitude indicator and directional gyro Single dry-type vacuum pump; shear drive protects the pump from damage Vacuum gauge mounted on the instrument panel; normal reading is 5.0 ± 0.1 in. Hg, but may read lower at very high altitudes (above 12,000 feet) There is an vacuum warning light on the annunciator panel Vacuum regulator located behind instrument panel protects the gyro instruments Up to 2000 rpm may be required to obtain full vacuum pump suction
Environmental Three cabin air inlets – one on each wing, one in the horizontal Stab Major heating components: heat shroud, heat ducts, defroster outlets, heating and defrosting controls Opening in front of lower cowl admits ram air into heater shroud; air is ducted into heater shutoffs on the right and left side of the firewall Overhead and floor mounted fresh air vents Cabin air exhaust through an outlet at the bottom of the fuselage aids in air distribution Cabin air fan available on lower right side of panel (blue toggle switch, up for Hi, middle for off, down for Low) – Switch must be “off” for takeoff and landing Cabin Air Fan Switch
Pitot-Static Pitot-static mast located on the left wing; incorporates a pitot tube hole (front of the mast), a pitot drain hole (bottom of the mast), and a static port (rear of the mast) Separate high-pressure and static sources for the automatic gear extender located on the left side of the fuselage above the wing Pitot heat provides heating for both the pitot-static mast and the high pressure/static source for the automatic gear extender Airspeed indicator can compute TAS – Place pressure altitude over OAT and read white portion of window
Major Avionic & Flight Controls Vacuum-driven directional gyro and attitude indicator Electric turn coordinator Airspeed indicator, altimeter, and vertical speed indicator driven by pitot-static system – Alternate static source switch located below the pilot’s control wheel Electric pitch trim; disengaged by switch above ignition key or circuit breaker on lower right side of panel
Emergency Locator Transmitter The ACK E-04 ELT (406 mhz) is located in the tail cone Access is via a panel on the left side of the fuselage The ELT Remote Control Panel is located on the lower center console Turns on ELT Resets transmitting ELT to the armed mode Performs self test when pressed when ELT is in armed mode Light will flash and buzzer will emit a series of 9 beeps every 50 seconds when ELT is transmitting
Speed The 30 kt speed difference between the Arrow and the C-172 will take time to adjust to. All flying tasks will need to be accomplished more quickly More pre-planning is required More proficiency is required Guidance…… Fly More
Power With more power the Arrow will need more right rudder pressure to correct the left yawing tendency. More rudder will be required when climbing. The rudder trim comes in handy for long climbs to the higher cruise altitudes. Make sure to re-adjust the rudder trim when in level flight cruise When performing higher power stalls, increase power slowly to allow more time to put in the correct rudder pressure to keep the ball centered. With more power this is especially important. Guidance for stalls – Accomplish partial power stalls first and work up to full power stalls as experience is gained.
Power/Prop The throttle controls the manifold pressure (MP) gauge, while the propeller controls the RPM. Avoid the natural tendency is to look at the tachometer to see power changes (you will see power changes on the MP). The placement of the MP gauge doesn’t help, it’s hidden behind the yoke. The prop should always be kept “ahead of” the throttle when changing power settings to reduce stress on the engine due to high manifold pressure (MP). When increasing power the prop control is moved forward to increase RPM before increasing the throttle to increase MP. When reducing power the throttle is reduced before reducing prop RPM. The initial power reduction is to 25” MP and 2,500 RPM – 25/25 (once the gear is retracted). Reduce the throttle first (it requires a pretty large movement) by looking at the MP (not the RPM!). The reduction of the propeller will not take much at all. In fact, you’ll find that you won’t move the propeller control much at all. Small changes in RPM and MP to refine cruise power settings can be done in any order. The prop should be full forward when descending to land from pattern altitude or shortly before arrival at the FAF. Various combinations of MP and RPM can be used to set a desired power level. The POH is consulted to determine the allowed combinations. Note that with a failed engine that is still windmilling, best glide distance is obtained with prop control full aft (coarse pitch). Movement of the throttle and prop control should always be done slowly and smoothly. This helps reduce stresses on the higher power engine and the prop hardware.
Gear Operation Plan on accomplishing a GUMP check at least 3 times on every landing; on short final, when turning final or at the base-final location on a straight in, and when reducing power to start the final descent. And of course after moving the gear lever to the down position. On takeoff the gear should be retracted when a positive rate of climb is maintained. The gear is held up by hydraulic pressure. Sometimes in cruise, the Gear In Transit light will illuminate when this pressure has reduced and un-triggered the gear up switches. This may be cleared by a gear cycle. Be sure to slow down below gear retraction speed before accomplishing the cycle. An electric pump is used to maintain, as needed, the hydraulic pressure to keep the gear up. For an alternator failure emergency, consider pulling the circuit breaker on the gear to prevent the possibility of running this motor. The circuit breaker can be re- engaged to extend the gear or the emergency gear extension procedure can be used.
Gear Operation (continued) It is pilot preference to extend the gear at the FAF to start the descent or a few minutes before to allow timeto stabilize at the desired approach speed. Pilots should lower the gear at mid-point on downwind. The choice of a forced landing gear up or gear down is dependent on PIC assessment of the target landing area. If gear down is the choice, be sure to preplan time to lower the gear considering if normal or emergency gear extension is required, and the resulting increase in rate of descent. Be sure to include lowering the gear when practicing some forced landing procedures tobecome familiar with the time for gear extension and the resulting increase in rate of descent.
Gear Location on Airframe The main gear of the Arrow are located further aft of the CG compared to a C-172. This means more control power is required to get rotation started on takeoff. On landing it is more difficult to prevent the nose from dropping after the mains have touched down. Quick and precise elevator inputs are often required. More flaps exacerbates this effect. Guidance for Takeoffs – Put in elevator control at the recommended rotation speed and then wait for the increasing speed to raise the nose. Do not expect an immediate response to elevator control input and increase elevator accordingly. Guidance for Landings – Flaps at 20 degrees, the 2 nd notch, gives a flatter approach, slightly higher approach speed, and an easier to control sink rate which reduces the tendency for the nose to drop.
Nose Wheel The nose wheel is directly connect to the rudder pedals in the Arrow. On ground the Arrow must have some forward motion to move the pedals and steer On takeoff, rudder pressure will vary as the nose lightens and lifts off. On landing with a high crosswind component, the Arrow will jerk in the direction of the pedal if the crosswind correction pedal input is maintained at nose wheel touchdown. The jerk is usually not too strong and is easily controllable, but it can be a surprise. It does not hurt the nose gear structure, but it can cause more wear on nose tire. Guidance for Takeoff and Landing – Keep in mind these tendencies and try to anticipate the need to remove rudder pressure precisely. Recognize it will likely take some practice
T - Tail The T-tail on the Arrow is not as effective at low speeds compare to the C-172 because it is not within the prop blast. Most takeoffs will be with a forward CG (without rear passengers or much luggage) – set the trim towards the aft setting On takeoff, holding the elevator aft will have little effect. Rotate at 70 knots (requires substantial back pressure). On landing, the elevator pressure to flare will be high, especially with full flaps and a high sink rate (short field landing) The guidance noted in the Gear Position on Airframe comments above are also applicable.
Control Forces The rudder pressure on the Arrow is noticeably heavier than the C-172. Note: the Arrow has a rudder trim with a screw type control; it is effective and easy to use. Elevator pressure for maneuvering is about the same as the C-172. In cruise, the elevator pressure when making small pitch changes may be lighter than the C Guidance – Fly more to adapt to the different control forces
Stalls Power off stalls will be more docile than the C-172. The stall brake is not as sharp There us usually plenty of stall buffet warning The Arrow will roll off in a stall but will not start as quickly The Arrow can get into what is often referred to as a stall “mush”. Because the stall is so benign, it is much easier to maintain and control the stalled attitude and the buffet. The “mush” occurs when maintaining the stall attitude and buffet too long which generates a very high sink rate. The sink rate is difficult to discern visually. Guidance – Expect this to happen when practicing stalls and start at a higher altitude. Don’t stay in the buffet too long. Watch the ROC indicator for excessive sink rate.
Approach/Landing Power used to control the descent profile. Some power should be maintained all the way to the flare. Approach speed is not constant. Speed will vary from 90 knots on base to 70 knots on short final. Go-arounds are more challenging than the 172. Extra rudder is needed, control forces are heavier, need to raise gear and flaps.
Landing Sequence Mid Field – First GUMPS check – Lower gear (< 130 Knots), fuel pump on, fullest tank. – Do not advance prop control. Opposite touch down spot – Reduce power to 14 inches MP – Add first notch flaps – Reduce to approach speed (90 Knots) Base – Second GUMPS check – Advance prop control – Second notch flaps Final – Final GUMPS check – Final notch flaps – Reduce speed to 70 knots on short final – Leave power inches MP Flare – Power off in the flare
Cabin Entry Door There are 2 latches on the door (closing sequence is the same if closing from inside or outside) – Pull on the door handle and latch the lower one first – Then close the top latch Depending on how the door latch is rigged it may require more force to latch than expected. The latch can also be moved into the locked position without latching and it can be difficult to tell visually if door is latched. The latch is sometimes awkward for passengers to use, so the PIC may have to latch the door when flying with passengers. The PIC will always have to ensure that it is fully latched. A good way do to this is to push check the aft bottom portion of the door where the door is most flexible.
Autopilot Piper Autocontrol IIIb autopilot – To turn off, push the ON/OFF switch on the autopilot or turn the master off – Autopilot must be off for takeoff and landing – Autopilot use prohibited above 200mph CAS – Lower toggle switch selects nav source (Left= NAV1 Upper CDI, Right = NAV 2 Lower CDI) Electric Pitch Trim (on up/off down) NAV Source Select Left (N1) = CDI#1 Right (N2) = CDI#2
Autopilot (Cont) Hdg Hold Switch Piper Autocontrol IIIb autopilot HDG Hold – Turn Hdg Hold Switch OFF for wing leveler – Turn Hdg Hold Switch On for Hdg Hold – When Hdg Hold is ON, A/P tracks source set in A/P Track Switch – A/P Track can be HDG (hold heading set with heading bug), Nav track (track the Nav1 or Nav2 CDI), Loc/Loc Back (track localizer) Course A/P Track Switch
Autopilot (Con’t) DME Source Select Up (NAV1) GNS430 Down King VOR Avionics Master CDI #2 CDI #1 NAV #1 NAV #2