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1 Computational Investigation of Two- Dimensional Ejector Performance validation and extension of an experimental investigation Rich Margason Paul Bevilaqua May 21, 2011 Create and Deliver Superior Products Through Innovative Minds

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2 Validate 2010 experimental investigation* of a 2-D ejector using computational fluid dynamic solutions of the Navier- Stokes equations Extend range of selected variables to demonstrate their effect on ejector performance; variables included primary jet blowing configuration, shroud chord length, deflection of the shroud trailing edge * Bonner, Amie A; A Parametric Variation on a Two-Dimensional Thrust- Augmenting Ejector, M.S. Thesis, California State Polytechnic University, Pomona, 2010 Objective

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3 Thrust Augmenting Ejector An ejector is a jet pump that uses entrainment by an engine exhaust to increase mass flow An ejector consists of a primary jet and a duct formed by two shroud flaps The jet thrust is increased by the suction force that the entrained flow induces on the duct inlet The suction force is determined by flap length C and separation distance W as well as flap deflection angle Figure 1 Thrust Augmenting Ejector Suction forces primary jet thrust Color scale is proportional to velocity

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4 NASA Ejector Flap STOL Aircraft (QSRA)

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5 XFV-12A Ejector Wing Aircraft

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6 Momentum Theory Calculation of Ejector Performance Parabolic Flow Assumption Gives Incorrect Results for Large Inlets Diffuser Area Ratio

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7 Predictions of Lifting Surface Theory Momentum Theory Gives Correct Results for Small Inlets Lifting Surface Theory Gives Correct Results for Large Inlets Combined, These Theories Suggest a Performance Envelope Momentum Theory Lifting Surface Theory

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8 Ejector Parameters Primary jet exit area is A 0 (centerbody blowing case is shown below) Ejector throat area A 2 is varied by changing the distance W between the flaps Ejector exit area A 3 is varied by the flap angle and flap length C Geometric non-dimensional parameters: C/W, A 3 /A 0, A 3 /A 2 Thrust augmentation ratio is the performance parameter C W A0A0 A3A3 A2A2

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9 Bonner 2-D Ejector Tests Conducted in 2010 Shroud Flap Nozzle

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10 Ejector Test Variables Length, C Width, W Area Ratio, A 3 /A 2

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11 CFD Centerbody Blowing Axial Velocities

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12 Centerbody Blowing Case Recent experiment/CFD data for three shroud chord lengths C showed the following augmentation ratio correlation : –5 & shroud inch exp/CFD cases agree –2D CFD 17.5 inch shroud case was much greater than experiment which may have had flow separation

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13 Blowing Centerbody and Shroud

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14 Centerbody & Shroud Blowing CFD solution Centerbody & shroud blowing CFD results are compared with experimental data with centerbody blowing only cases Total primary thrust was equal for all of these cases Dividing the primary thrust between the centerbody and shroud increased by about 0.2

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15 Effect of Chord Length and A 2 /A 0 on CFD solution Augmentation ratio increases at low C/W values with A 2 /A 0 (or W) increases After reaches a maximum value, there are scrubbing losses on the longer flaps that reduce The A 2 /A 0 = 4 case has a small W distance which appears to inhibit entrainment which reduces

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16 Deflected Shroud Trailing Edge with Centerbody & Shroud Blowing CFD Solution

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17 Deflected Shroud Trailing Edge with Centerbody & Shroud Blowing CFD Solution A 3 /A 2 = 1 with zero degrees of shroud trailing edge deflection A 3 /A 2 > 1 is achieved with increasing width at the ejector exit plane Shroud trailing edge deflection initially increases until a maximum value is achieved Further deflection reduces Maximum increases with increasing shroud chord length

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18 Conclusions Recent experiment/CFD data comparisons for an ejector with centerbody blowing and three shroud chord lengths C showed –agreement for shroud chord lengths of 5 and inches –disagreement for a shroud chord length of 17.5 inches; further tests are needed to determine if there is flow separation in the experiment CFD calculations for the centerbody blowing cases were done for a family of chord lengths and showed how augmentation ratio increases as ejector width increases CFD calculations were done with the primary jet blowing split between the centerbody and the shroud –Results showed that increased about 0.2 compared with blowing only from the centerbody –Further results with deflected shroud trailing edges showed increases of 0.2 to 0.4 depending on the shroud chord length

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