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Principles of Flight.

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1 Principles of Flight

2 Chapter Overview Lesson 1: Principles of Flight
Lesson 2: The Physics of Flight Lesson 3: The Purpose and Function of Airplane Parts Lesson 4: Aircraft Motion and Control Lesson 5: Flight Power Lesson 6: Aviation Innovation Chapter 1, Lesson 1

3 Lesson Overview The theory of flight Airfoils and flight
Newton's laws of motion and aircraft design Bernoulli’s principle, airfoils, and flight The effect of relative wind on flight The effect of angle of attack on flight https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VfCRTeUzhSI Chapter 1, Lesson 1

4 Quick Write What kinds of things do you think Chuck Yeager had to learn to accomplish all that he did? What was the lowest and highest rank Chuck Yeager held? Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of US Air Force

5 The Theory of Flight Chinese Book of Sui – AD 636
Marco Polo’s man-lifting kites – 13th Century Montgolfier Brothers first hot air balloon – 1783 First manned gliders – 100 years later Propeller-driven airplanes, jets, astronauts to the moon – 20th century The first records of man-lifting kites come from China. The (636) Book of Sui records that the tyrant Gao Yang, Emperor Wenxuan of Northern Qi (r ), executed prisoners by making them fly with bird-shaped kite wings (see ornithopter). For his Buddhist initiation ritual at the capital Ye, the emperor parodied the Buddhist ceremonial fangsheng 放生 "releasing caged animals (usually birds and fish)". On one occasion the emperor visited the Tower of the Golden Phoenix to receive Buddhist ordination. He caused many prisoners condemned to death to be brought forward, had them harnessed with great bamboo mats [quchu 籧篨] as wings, and ordered them to fly down to the ground (from the top of the tower). This was called a 'liberation of living creatures'. All the prisoners died, but the emperor contemplated the spectacle with enjoyment and much laughter. Chapter 1, Lesson 1

6 Chapter 1, Lesson 1

7 Airfoils Help create the force for lift
Can be wings or propeller blades Include leading and trailing edges and cambers and chord lines Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Adapted from NASA/Glenn Research Center .

8 Chapter 1, Lesson 1

9 Wind Tunnels Help test models of new aircraft Chapter 1, Lesson 1
Reproduced from NASA/Glenn Research Center

10 Wind Tunnels, cont. The Wright Brothers tested more than 200 wing shapes in a tunnel before the successful glider Researchers can carefully control airflow conditions and measure the forces on an aircraft model Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of NASA

11 Questions What is aerodynamics?
Which edge of an airfoil is rounded? Which is sharp? What caused the Wright Brothers to develop the wind tunnel? After many experiments what was the Wright Brothers able to do in an aircraft? How many wing types did the Wright Brothers test in designing their 1902 glider? Chapter 1, Lesson 1

12 Newton’s First Law of Motion
A body in motion tends to stay in motion in a straight line, and a body at rest tends to stay at rest, unless an outside force causes it to stop https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q0Wz5P0JdeU Chapter 1, Lesson 1 © iStockphoto/Thinkstock

13 Newton’s Second Law of Motion
Force = mass x acceleration, or F = ma Newton's 2nd law states that the acceleration of an object is inversely proportional to its mass. In other words, it is difficult to change the speed of massive objects and it is easier to change the speed of smaller objects. Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Waiting for Credit line if needed

14 Newton’s Second Law of Motion, cont.
Force = mass x acceleration, or F = ma You could use F=ma to calculate exactly how powerful an engine would have to be to supply enough pushing force to accelerate for takeoff Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of NASA

15 Newton’s Third Law of Motion
“For every action is there an equal and opposite reaction” Jet propulsion is an example Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Courtesy of US Air Force

16 Bernoulli’s Principle
Increased airflow causes a decrease in air pressure Air flowing over the curved upper surface of a wing speeds up Increase in speed reduces pressure above the wing and produces the upward lifting force Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Reproduced from NASA Quest

17 Effect of Relative Wind on Flight
Relative wind has both a speed and a direction When a plane flies, relative wind blows in nearly the exact opposite direction to the plane’s direction Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Reproduced from Civil Air Patrol

18 Effect of Angle of Attack on Flight
If a plane alters pitch— the up and down movement of the plane’s nose—the angle of attack on its wings will change As angle of attack increases, wings generate more lifting force https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HgT0EpEeOCY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=O6XofdlfJ0k Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Reproduced from NASA/Glenn Research Center .

19 Critical Angle of Attack
Point at which a plane stalls—around 15⁰ Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Reproduced from NASA/Glenn Research Center

20 Summary The theory of flight Airfoils and flight
Newton's laws of motion and aircraft design Bernoulli’s principle, airfoils, and flight The effect of relative wind on flight The effect of angle of attack on flight Chapter 1, Lesson 1

21 Next…. Done – principles of flight Next - physics of flight
Chapter 1, Lesson 1 Reproduced from NASA/Glenn Research CenterReproduced Center

22 The Purpose and Function of Airplane Parts

23 Quick Write If you had to design a wing for an airplane, what are some of the questions you might ask? List at least three Chapter 1, Lesson 3 Courtesy of NASA Langley Research Center (NASA-LaRC)

24 Lesson Overview How the fuselage and wing shape correspond to an aircraft’s mission The types, purpose, and function of airfoil design The role of stabilizers and rudders The positions of flaps, spoilers, and slats on an aircraft How the airflow and airfoil affect flight movement The purpose and function of propellers, turbines, ramjets, and rocket propulsion systems Chapter 1, Lesson 3

25 Why do airplane parts such as wings and fuselage vary in size and shape?
Chapter 1, Lesson 3

26 Group Activity Divide up in 3 teams Team 1 - The Fuselage - pg 36-37
Team 2 - Wing Position, Parts and Size – pg 38-39 Team 3 – Wing Angles and Winglets – pg 40-41 Draw pictures and add words to explain material Assign a team spokesman Chapter 1, Lesson 3

27 The Fuselage The fuselage is the aircraft body
Fuselage vary in shape to fit the mission Fuselage must be strong enough to withstand torque Chapter 1, Lesson 3 Courtesy of USAF/CMSgt Gary Emery

28 Wing Position and Parts
Wing position depends on aircraft’s mission Main internal parts are spars, ribs and stringers Fuel tanks usually part of wing Chapter 1, Lesson 3 Reproduced from US Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation Administration

29 Wing Size Glider travels slow and has high-aspect wing ratio and long wingspans Glider wings elliptical shaped to reduce drag and result in long, slow flight Greater the aspect area the lower the induced drag and greater the lift F-16 and space shuttle have low-aspect ratio wings Chapter 1, Lesson 3

30 Wing Aspect Ratio Chapter 1, Lesson 3

31 Wing Types Chapter 1, Lesson 3

32 Wing Angles Dihedral angles give aircraft roll stability and level flight Large commercial airliner wings have dihedral angles Fighter aircraft have anhedral angles Chapter 1, Lesson 3 Modified from NASA/Glenn Research Center

33 Summary Fuselage types Wing Shapes, Sizes, and Angles
How the fuselage and wing shape correspond to an aircraft’s mission Fuselage types Wing Shapes, Sizes, and Angles Chapter 1, Lesson 3

34 Aircraft Motion and Control

35 Lesson Overview The axes of rotation and how the primary flight controls work The effects of flaps on flight The effects of slats on flight The effects of spoilers on flight Chapter 1, Lesson 4

36 Quick Write Colonel Lowe had the training, the experience, and the ability to stay calm in the middle of chaos. He used these qualities to rescue others. What are some ways you can develop those qualities in yourself? Chapter 1, Lesson 4 Courtesy of USAF/Don Lindsey

37 The Axes of Rotation An aircraft rotates around its center of gravity, the central point of three- dimensional coordinate system Yaw axis (vertical axis) starts at the center of gravity and runs perpendicular to wings Pitch axis (lateral axis) starts at the center of gravity and runs from wingtip to wingtip Chapter 1, Lesson 4

38 The Axes of Rotation, cont.
Roll axis (longitudinal axis) begins at the center of gravity, is perpendicular to the yaw and pitch axes, and runs from nose to tail Chapter 1, Lesson 4 Reproduced from NASA/Glenn Research Center

39 How the Primary Flight Controls Work
Pilot works with control surfaces to direct aircraft yaw, pitch, and roll Rudders control yaw or side- to-side motion of aircraft Elevators control pitch or up and down motion of aircraft Aileron is a small hinged section on the outboard portion of a wing Chapter 1, Lesson 4 Reproduced from NASA/Virtual Skies

40 Activity 1: The Axes of Rotation
View animations on aircraft yaw motion, pitch motion, and roll motion Fill in the blanks for each airplane’s control system and axis of rotation Illustrate the axes of rotation, the primary control surface, and motion direction on the image provided Chapter 1, Lesson 4

41 Activity 1—Yaw Motion Chapter 1, Lesson 4 Reproduced from NASA

42 Activity 1—Pitch Motion
Chapter 1, Lesson 4 Reproduced from NASA

43 Activity 1—Roll Motion Chapter 1, Lesson 4 Reproduced from NASA

44 The Effects of Flaps on Flight
Aircraft have primary and secondary control systems Rudders, elevators, and ailerons are primary control surfaces, they make aircraft controllable and safe to fly Flaps, slats, and spoilers are secondary control systems, they let the pilot maintain more control over aircraft’s performance Chapter 1, Lesson 4 Courtesy of US ARMY/SSgt S. Patrick McCollum

45 Types of Flaps Wing flaps come in four varieties
Plain flap is the simplest; it attaches at the trailing edge of wing, and increases camber and lift when deployed Split flap is hinged under the wing’s trailing edge and rotates down to help generate lift and increase drag Chapter 1, Lesson 4 Reproduced from US Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation Administration

46 Types of Flaps, cont. Slotted flap sits in a groove carved into the underside of the wing’s trailing edge and generates more lift than plain and split flaps Fowler flap uses metal tracks to slide backward and pivot down; it increases lift by greater camber and wing area Chapter 1, Lesson 4 Reproduced from US Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation Administration

47 Flap Types Split Flap Plain Flap Fowler Flap Chapter 1, Lesson 4

48 The Effects of Slats on Flight
Slats generate more lift; aircraft use four types of slats Fixed slot doesn’t move or increase wing camber Movable slats slide along tracks Leading edge flaps increase lift and wing camber and decrease the size of the nose-down pitch Leading edge cuffs are slipped onto a wing’s leading edge Chapter 1, Lesson 4 Reproduced from US Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation Administration

49 Moveable slat Leading edge cuff Leading edge flap Chapter 1, Lesson 4

50 The Effects of Spoilers on Flight
Spoilers are small, flat plates that attach to the tops of the wings with hinges Raising spoilers on both wings slows aircraft in any phase of flight Raising spoilers on only one wing causes a rolling motion Chapter 1, Lesson 4 Reproduced from of NASA/Glenn Research Center

51 Summary The axes of rotation and how the primary flight controls work
The effects of flaps on flight The effects of slats on flight The effects of spoilers on flight Chapter 1, Lesson 4

52 Next…. Done – aircraft motion and control Next – flight power
Chapter 1, Lesson 4 Courtesy of NASA/Jim Ross

53 Flight Power

54 Lesson Overview, cont. How the different types of jet engines work
The role of reversers and suppressors used in jet aircraft Reaction engines The development of new engine technology Chapter 1, Lesson 5

55 Team Activity Create poster of assigned engine type (pages 69-84)
Research sources and describe how the engine works, and why the engine is suited for the aircraft’s purpose Draw engine and label major parts Provide examples of aircraft using this engine and why it is suited best for its application Internal combustion (reciprocating) engine Turbojet Turbofan Turboprop Ramjet and Scramjet You may use lab computers to find more data for your poster. Chapter 1, Lesson 5

56 The Characteristics of Internal Combustion Engines
Internal combustion engines turn propellers which generate thrust Combustion process— chemical energy converts to mechanical energy The piston compresses fuel and air before combustion; then is forced back down the cylinder following combustion Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Reproduced from NASA/Glen Research Center

57 Reciprocating Engines
Internal combustion engine is a reciprocating engine Back-and-forth movement of the pistons produces mechanical energy Most small aircraft have reciprocating engines Parts include cylinders, pistons, connecting rods, a crankshaft, crankcase, intake and exhaust valves, and spark plugs Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Reproduced from US Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation Administration

58 Intake Stroke—First Stroke
Piston moves down, intake valve opens, drawing air and fuel in at constant pressure Provides great deal of surface area that reacts quickly with the oxygen in the air Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Reproduced from NASA/Johnson Space Center

59 Compression Stroke— Second Stroke
The piston reaches the bottom, the intake valve closes, sealing the cylinder Volume decreases, the piston compresses the fuel-air mixture, raising temperature and increasing pressure Gas particles are close together, can react quickly when ignited Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Reproduced from NASA/Johnson Space Center

60 Power or Ignition Stroke— Third Stroke
As the piston nears the top, a surge of current is sent to spark plug The Spark ignites the compressed fuel- air mixture Fuel rapidly combines with oxygen and produces carbon dioxide gas and water vapor Hot gases force the piston down turning the crankshaft The crankshaft turns the aircraft propeller Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Reproduced from NASA/Johnson Space Center

61 Exhaust Stroke— Fourth Stroke
Piston reaches the bottom and starts back up the cylinder, the exhaust stroke begins The exhaust valve opens, residual heat is released, and pressure returns to atmospheric conditions The piston pushes waste gas out of the cylinder Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Reproduced from NASA/Johnson Space Center

62 Turbojets Engine is an open tube that burns fuel continuously
Main parts: compressor, combustion chamber, turbine, inlet, shaft, and nozzle Large air mass enters the inlet and is drawn into a rotating compressor Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Reproduced from US Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation Administration

63 Turbofans Modified turbojet engine - has additional turbine to turn a fan at front of the engine Two-spool engine; one powers compressor, other turns the large fan Air from large fan enters the engine core, where fuel burns to provide some thrust 90 percent of the air bypasses the engine core; as much as 75 percent of the total thrust is from bypass air Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Reproduced from US Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation Administration https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ON0sVe1yeOk

64 Turboprops Hybrid of a turbojet and a propeller engine
Has a turbojet core to produce power but with two turbines First turbine powers the compressor; the second turbine powers the propeller Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Reproduced from US Department of Transportation/Federal Aviation Administration

65 Ramjets Ramjets work with another power source for initial thrust, such as a rocket Operates by combusting fuel in a stream of air compressed by aircraft’s forward motion Airflow is subsonic, less than the speed of sound Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Reproduced from NASA/Johnson Space Center

66 Scramjets Scramjets overcome the speed limitation
It is a supersonic- combustion ramjet Needs another engine or vehicle to accelerate it to operating speed https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fHRwgf4px9w Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Reproduced from NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center

67 Thrust Reversers Diverts thrust to the opposite direction of the aircraft’s motion Clamshell reverser forms a shield at the back of the nozzle, deflects exhaust so it no longer produces forward thrust Cascade reverser is a series of airfoils with a high degree of camber that opens, to change the airflow’s direction https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GNRXAHasFvk Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Courtesy of Dan Brownlee

68 Noise Suppressors Laws regulate how much noise an aircraft can make
Flow of exhaust creates much of the racket Chevron noise suppressor has teeth cut in nozzle’s edge to reduce noise Corrugated noise suppressor has ridged nozzles; breaks noise in a large exhaust flow Ejector-type noise suppressor directs surrounding air so it mixes with the high- velocity exhaust to reduce noise Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Copyright © Boeing. All Rights Reserved

69 Activity 3: Jet Engine Characteristics
View the various animations of a jet engine to observe the parts and their functions Label the parts and provide a short description of characteristic Chapter 1, Lesson 5

70 Activity 3: Engine Chapter 1, Lesson 5
Reproduced from NASA/Glen Research Center

71 Activity 3: Compressor Chapter 1, Lesson 5
Reproduced from NASA/Glen Research Center

72 Activity 3: Turbine Chapter 1, Lesson 5
Reproduced from NASA/Glen Research Center

73 Reaction Engines Reaction engine develops thrust by its reaction to a substance ejected from it Operates according to Newton’s third law of motion Rocket engines are also reaction engines Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Courtesy of NASA

74 The Development of New Engine Technology
Aerospace engineers are working on new engine technologies that cut fuel use and reduce emissions Geared turbofan engine reduces fuel consumption, emissions, engine noise, and operating costs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zy4A-z2WKhw Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Courtesy of NASA/Glenn Research Center

75 Thrust Vectoring Thrust vector engine has nozzles that turn to redirect thrust; lets aircraft maneuver with greater precision The aim of this technology is maneuverability, not fuel efficiency https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iRgcC9eqEJg Chapter 1, Lesson 5 Courtesy of NASA/Glenn Research Center

76 Summary, cont. How the different types of jet engines work
The role of reversers and suppressors used in jet aircraft Reaction engines The development of new engine technology Chapter 1, Lesson 5

77 Aviation Innovation

78 Lesson Overview The latest topics of aviation research
The use of remotely piloted aircraft The most recent innovations in aircraft design Chapter 1, Lesson 6

79 Hypersonic Aircraft— The Hypersoar
A futuristic concept aircraft capable of traveling at Mach 10 Besides saving time, would burn liquid hydrogen, a clean fuel Could have many uses: move passengers and cargo, deliver satellites to space, or bomb enemy targets https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BMnMaS2t57Y Chapter 1, Lesson 6 Reproduced from the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory/DOE

80 New Fuels—Hydrogen Fuel Cells
In 2008 Boeing flew a small motor-glider powered by hydrogen fuel cells Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert hydrogen into electricity and heat They do not produce any of the typical products of combustion; they exhaust only heat and water Chapter 1, Lesson 6 Copyright © Boeing. All Rights Reserved

81 New Fuels—Biofuels Researchers are exploring the use of biofuel, fuel made from plants AF’s goal is to obtain 50 percent of its domestic fuel requirement using alternative fuel blends February 2011, the AF certified the C-17 Globemaster fleet for flight operations using a biofuel blend Air Force — the biggest consumer of fuel at $7 billion a year — is pressing forward with its goal of using a blend of traditional and alternative fuels to meet its domestic fuel requirement by 2016. Chapter 1, Lesson 6

82 Noise Reduction NASA researchers are tinkering with a metallic foam made from stainless steel to install around engines Most foam would catch fire from engine heat; metallic foam solves that problem NASA is crafting a plan for noise-reduction strategies 10, 20, and 30 years out Chapter 1, Lesson 6 Courtesy of NASA

83 Air Traffic Control At any time 5,000 airplanes—civilian and military— are in the air over the US Air traffic is expected to grow 50 percent by 2025 FAA is working on new technologies to improve air traffic efficiency and safety; a plan called NextGen uses satellite technology NextGen would allow planes to fly closer together, take more direct routes, and be aware of their position relative to other aircraft https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QpS4fPDQDUE Chapter 1, Lesson 6

84 Continuous Descent Approach
When planes land, they follow an arrival path that is not very efficient NASA’s continuous descent approach allows planes to coast during the final flight stages, using less power NASA is researching a system called Efficient Descent Advisor, a tool for air traffic controllers Chapter 1, Lesson 6

85 The Use of Remotely Piloted Aircraft
Another area of research is the unmanned aircraft system (UAS) or unmanned ariel vehicle (UAV) US military and intelligence services use UASs for reconnaissance and combat Autonomous refueling will be the next big leap forward in UASs The Phantom Ray, a stealthy, jet-powered UAS was introduced in 2010 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=znwU_4lLoGE https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CEqBvvvSgK0 Chapter 1, Lesson 6 Courtesy of NASA/Jim Ross

86 Chapter 1, Lesson 6

87 RQ-4 Global Hawk Chapter 1, Lesson 6

88 Aircraft Comparison Chapter 1, Lesson 6

89 Engine Removal Chapter 1, Lesson 6

90 Pint-Sized UAV Developments
The AF uses micro-UAVs in Iraq and Afghanistan to gather information about the enemy BATMAV weighs only a pound yet carries a camera; it can send images to the person controlling it RQ-11B Raven has an infrared camera for night operations Nano-UAV (invisible to the naked eye) is part of the AF’s image of the future

91 Boeing 787 Dreamliner Incorporates lightweight composite materials into its design Its carbon fiber is also more resistant to corrosion than previous composites Dreamliner is the next big thing in passenger airliners https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qIv1ke_A4A4 Chapter 1, Lesson 6

92 Airbus A380 Superjumbo Jet
May be the biggest commercial airliner on the market, yet it also sports green features Double-decker aircraft that can carry anywhere from passengers Tremendous fuel capacity, it can fly 9,550 miles https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lzU5HrZjb1I Chapter 1, Lesson 6 © Tim Jenner/ShutterStock, Inc.

93 Summary The latest topics of aviation research
The use of remotely piloted aircraft The most recent innovations in aircraft design Chapter 1, Lesson 6


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