Presentation on theme: "Big Idea 11: Topic 8: Heat Energy and Energy Transformation"— Presentation transcript:
1Big Idea 11: Topic 8: Heat Energy and Energy Transformation Big Idea 6: Earth in SpaceTopic 8: HeatReview labs and solar oven project9pizza boxes) ahead of time to see what materials are needed for the activitlies.
2BenchmarksSC.3.E.6.1 Demonstrate that radiant energy from the Sun can heat objects and when the Sun is not present, heat may be lost. SC.3.P.11.1 Investigate, observe, and explain that things that give off light often also give off heat. SC.3.P.11.2 Investigate, observe, and explain that heat is produced when one object rubs against another, such as rubbing one’s hands together. Identify common materials that conduct heat well or poorly. SC.3.N.1.1 Raise questions about the natural world, investigate them individually and in teams through free exploration and systematic investigations, and generate appropriate explanations based on those explorations. SC.3.N.1.6 Infer based on observation. SC.3.N.3.2 Recognize that scientists use models to help understand and explain how things work.Benchmark Clarifications:SC.3.E.6.1 Students willPredict how the sun’s absence will impact objects;Predict how the sun’s presence will impact objects;Demonstrate how radiant energy from the sun affects objects through heat;Explain what happens to objects when they lose heat.SC.3.P Students willrecognize that things that give off light often give off heat;Identify objects that give off both heat and light;Explain why objects that give off light also give off heat;SC.3.P Students willRecognize that when an object rubs against another object the movement produces heat;Identify everyday examples of objects rubbing against each other and producing heat;Explain how heat is produced when one object rubs against another.
3What do fire, sunlight and the rubbing of hands have in common? They all produce heat energy.Chemical energy changes into heat energy when wood burns.Energy of motionchanges into heat energy when hands are rubbed together.Light energy from the sun changes into heat energy when it hits Earth.Engage/Explain: Ask What do fire, sunlight and the rubbing of hands have in common? Have students rub their hands together. Ask them what they observed. Discuss. Click. They all produce give off heat. Discuss each picture. Have volunteers volunteers read the captions under each picture.
4What happens in Heat Energy? What is Heat Energy?Heat energy is the energy of moving particles in any kind of matter.What happens in Heat Energy?When any form of matter gets warmer, the moving energy of its atoms increases.The object’s particles move faster, so its heat energy increases.A change in heat energy can lead to a change in phase or state of matter:- Ice melts from a solid to a liquid.- Liquid water changes to water vapor.Explore: Direct student volunteer(s) to place a hand near the LCD projector and describe what they feel. Repeat with other electronic devices if they are available in the classroom.Explain: Ask: What is heat? What is temperature? What tool is used to measure temperature? Go to next slide . Pass out thermometers.*We are using a tremendous amount of energy which is resulting in unusable heat being giving off and burning fossil fuels. Putting the Earth in jeopardy.Extend/Enrich: What device(s) could we investigate at school that are also in our homes? What got hot in the flashlight? Light bulbGr. 4 Lab: p. 348
5How does a thermometer work? How is it measured?Temperature is a measure of heat energy.A thermometer is the tool used to measure temperature.How does a thermometer work?Let’s practice reading a thermometer◦F = degrees Fahrenheit◦C = degrees CelsiusExplain: Ask: What is temperature? What tool is used to measure temperature? Pass out thermometers. Discuss the scales used to measure temperature (Celsius and Fahrenheit). Discuss both and who uses each one. Weather temperature in US in Fahrenheit and scientists around the world us Celsius in scientific studies.Extend/Enrich: What device(s) could we investigate at school that are also in our homes? (lamp, flashlight) What got hot in the lamp and/or flashlight? Light bulb
6Look around the room: What are some sources of light and heat? Group 1Things that give off lightGroup 2:Things that give off heatLight Sources Sunlight through the windows Ceiling lights Computer screens LCD projector FlashlightHeat Sources Sunlight Lamps Stove burners Candle flame Hot water Toaster oven Objects rubbing togetherExplain: Discuss Have students draw two tables in their notebooks. Then label them Group 1 Things that give off light and Group 2 things that give off heat. Have students share a view of their observations. Next they should draw and/or list items for each category. Have designated volunteers observe light sources to verify which ones also give off heat. Last have students Compare and Contrast Sources of Heat and Light and decide how many light and heat sources are the same.How many light and heat sources are the same?
7What are some examples of objects rubbing against each other and producing heat? Draw and/or write some examples in your notebookExplore: Quick Activity: Have students feel and describe the temperature of their desk. Then have them rub one spot with an eraser for 15 sec. and then immediately feel the temperature of the rubbed spot. Ask. Is it the same? How has it changed? Why? After a few moments, have students feel for the temperature of the rubbed spot again. Where did the energy go that warmed the spot? Ask students to share other examples.
8How does sunlight affect the temperature of water? Hypothesis: If a cup of water is placed in the sun and a second cup of water is placed in the shade each for 30 minutes, the cup of water in the sun will have a (higher, lower or the same) temperature.Materials per group: 2 plastic clear cups water marker 2 thermometers measuring cupFirst let’s practice reading a thermometerExplore: Read the problem statement: How does sunlight affect the temperature of water? Discuss the test/responding variable. (cup of water in the shade and in the sun) and the outcome/responding variable (change in temperature).. Then have students finish the hypothesis. Pass out and discuss materials needed per group.Review if necessary how to read a thermometer. See and/or click on hyperlink: Reading a Thermometer in the slide. Decide if students will measure in ◦F or ◦C.
9Procedures Label 1 plastic clear cup Sunlight. Label the other plastic clear cup No Sunlight.Use a measuring cup to measure ½ cup of water.3. Pour the ½ cup of water into the cup labeled Sunlight.Repeat steps 2 and 3 for the cup labeledNo Sunlight.5. Draw a data table in your science notebook.Have student groups complete the procedures and record data (Decide if students will measure in ◦F or ◦C.)in their notebooks. Procedures continue on the next page.Difference
10Procedures continued6. Place a thermometer in each cup. Wait two minutes Measure and record the beginning temperature of each cup of water on a data table in your notebook.7. Place the Sunlight cup in the sun.Place the No Sunlight cup in the shade.Wait 30 minutes. Repeat step 5. to measure and record the ending temperature for both cups.Find the difference between the beginningtemperature and the ending of both and record on thedata chart. Compare their temperatures.Explore procedures continued
11What happened to the temperature of the water in the sunlight? Why? DifferenceExplain the Data:What did you do?I compared the temperature of water placed in the sun to water placed in the shade after 30 minutes.What happened to the temperature of the water in the sunlight? Why?The temperature of water in the Sunlight cup became warmer than the water in the No Sunlight cup because when the water absorbed the sunlight’s radiant energy, it transfers to heat energy and heats the water.Explore/Explain/Evaluate: have students answer the questions for Explain the Data
12More ExplorationsQuestion: What happens to water and soil when they go in and out of sunlight? Predictions: Hint Materials per group (trial): soil water 2 thermometers 2 same size clear containersAhead of time gather materials for at least three groups (3 trials) Clear containers can be recycled deli containers or plastic cups. It is recommended that each group in your classroom perform a trial.Engage: Discuss results from How does sunlight affect the temperature of water? Do they think the same thing will happen to soil. Will its temperature increase more, less or the same as water? What do they think happens to the water and soil’s temperature after it is warmed up in the sun and then placed back in the shade? Have students make an predictions and discuss. Students should predict that the water and soil’s temperature when placed in the sun will rise and then go down when placed out of the sun and in the shade. Pass our materials per group. Go to the next slide to read and discuss procedures.
13Procedures1. Put a container of water and a container of soil in the shade. Measure the beginning temperature of both. Record. 2. Wait 15 minutes. Measure and record the temperature of both on the data table. 3. Take those two containers and place both in full sunlight. 4. Wait 15 minutes. Measure and record the 5. Take those two containers and place both back shade.Explore: Ahead of time - Decide if students will measure in ◦F or ◦C.)Facilitate each group following the procedures
14More Explorations Data TimeWater TemperatureSoilTemperatureShade15 min.SunDirect students to measure in ◦F or ◦C.
15Explain the Data More Explorations What was the temperature difference of the soilin the shade and the soil in the sun? (Show your work.)2. What was the temperature difference of the soilMake a graph of your data.4. Is this statement true or false:The sun heats the Earth? How do you know?5. What are you wondering now?Explain/evaluate for Explore: Sun Sensors, Too
16Radiant Energy – Solar Energy DayAs the Earth rotates on its axis, the side facing the sun absorbed the sunlight’s radiant energy, which transfers to heat energy and heats the Earth during daylight hours.NightAs the Earth rotates, one side is turning away from the sun and stops receiving the sun’s radiant light energy and the transfer into heat energy, becoming cooler during night time.
17You Tell Me???Which of these pictures is receiving more light energy from the sun?... more heat energy from the sun? Why?11.3.Explain/Evaluate2.
18REVIEW Questions Give some examples of objects that produce heat. Give some examples of objects that give off light and heat.Why do people rub their hands together when they feel cold?Evaluate
19Build a Solar Oven Solar Oven Recipes PDF You can use the sun's energy to heat up a tasty treat with this simple solar oven!Materials:Cardboard pizza box (the kind delivered pizza comes in)Box knife or scissorsAluminum foilClear tapePlastic wrap (a heavy-duty or freezer zip lock bag will also work)Black construction paperNewspapersRuler, or wooden spoonClick on link below for recipes ideas:Solar Oven Recipes PDFExtend/Elaborate
20What to doUse a box knife or sharp scissors (with an adult’s help) to cut a flap in the lid of the pizza box. Cut along three sides, leaving about an inch between the sides of the flap and the edges of the lid. Fold this flap out so that it stands up when the box lid is closed.Cover the inner side of the flap with aluminum foil so that it will reflect rays from the sun. To do this, tightly wrap foil around the flap, then tape it to the back, or outer side of the flap.Use clear plastic wrap to create an airtight window for sunlight to enter into the box. Do this by opening the box and taping a double layer of plastic wrap over the opening you made when you cut the flap in the lid. Leave about an inch of plastic overlap around the sides and tape each side down securely, sealing out air. If you use a plastic bag, cut out a square big enough to cover the opening, and tape one layer over the opening.Line the bottom of the box with black construction paper - black absorbs heat. The black surface is where your food will be set to cook.To insulate your oven so it holds in more heat, roll up sheets of newspaper and place them on the bottom of the box. Tape them down so that they form a border around the cooking area. The newspaper rolls should make it so that the lid can still close, but there is a seal inside of the box, so air cannot escape.
21What to do – Part 26. The best hours to set up your solar oven are when the sun is high overhead - from 11 am to 3 pm. Take it outside to a sunny spot and adjust the flap until the most sunlight possible is reflecting off the aluminum foil and onto the plastic-covered window. Use a ruler to prop the flap at the right angle. You may want to angle the entire box by using a rolled up towel.7. You can make toast by buttering a slice of bread, or sprinkling cheese on it, then letting the sun do the rest. Cooking a hot dog or making nachos with chips and cheese are also fun treats to make in your solar oven! It would also work great to heat up leftovers. So the paper at the bottom doesn't get dirty, put what you would like to cook on a clear plastic or glass plate. A pie plate would work well.To take food out of the oven, open up the lid of the pizza box, and using oven mitts or potholders, lift the glass dish out of the oven.Few tips for having success with your solar oven:Move your solar oven when needed, so that it faces direct sunlight. You should be checking periodically on your oven, to make sure it is in the sun.Make sure that the foil-covered flap is reflecting light into the pizza box, through the plastic-covered window.
22What's happening?The heat from the sun is trapped inside of your pizza box solar oven, and it starts getting very hot. Ovens like this one are called collector boxes, because they collect the sunlight inside. As it sits out in the sun, your oven eventually heats up enough to melt cheese, or cook a hot dog! How does it happen? Rays of light are coming to the earth at an angle. The foil reflects the ray, and bounces it directly into the opening of the box. Once it has gone through the plastic wrap, it heats up the air that is trapped inside. The black paper absorbs the heat at the bottom of the oven, and the newspaper make sure that the heat stays where it is, instead of escaping out the sides of the oven.Your solar oven will reach about 200° F on a sunny day, and will take longer to heat things than a conventional oven. Although this method will take longer, it is very easy to use, and it is safe to leave alone while the energy from the sun cooks your food. If you do not want to wait long to have a solar-cooked dish, try heating up something that has already been cooked, like leftovers, or a can of soup. Putting solid food in a glass dish and liquids in a heavy plastic zip lock bag works well. You can also pre-heat your oven by setting it in direct sun for up to an hour.