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Introduction to Large Animal Musculoskeletal Imaging Dr. LeeAnn Pack.

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Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Large Animal Musculoskeletal Imaging Dr. LeeAnn Pack."— Presentation transcript:

1 Introduction to Large Animal Musculoskeletal Imaging Dr. LeeAnn Pack

2 Technical Considerations Usually mobile units used –Min-X –Bowie Thorax, shoulders etc – need bigger machine FFD is shorter usually 30 inches –Should check with the measuring tape Collimation

3 Safety Barns –People need to be out of barn –Pregnant? Radiation Protection –Lead aprons, gloves Take care of them in the truck – no folding –Cassette holder, wooden blocks Sedation

4 The Radiographs Correct Naming of views Correct Labeling of films –View (R, L, DMPLO etc) –Label correct (patient name etc) Correct Viewing of films and naming of structures seen Legality

5 Nutrient Foramen

6 Common Developmental Conditions OCD Cartilage fails to ossify –Free fragment or flap Radiographic findings: –Flattening of the articular surface –Mineralized fragment or flap –Subchondral lucency/sclerosis –Secondary DJD Often bilateral


8 Tarsal OCD

9 Common Developmental Conditions OCD – Subchondral Bone Cyst –Articular cartilage is stopped but then returns – area of cartilage gets trapped and will be seen as a lucency in the subchondral bone –Secondary DJD can develop –Often bilateral

10 Angular Limb Deformity Medial or lateral deviation of the limb Valgus = lateral Varus = medial May be d/t –abnormal cuboidal bones –Uneven physeal growth –Ligamentous laxity

11 ALD Usually can tell just looking at the foal Shoot DP rads including joint above and joint below Then can draw lines to tell exactly where the deviation originates Windswept Repair

12 ALD – Carpal Valgus

13 ALD

14 Fractures 3 rd carpal bone Radial carpal bone Kissing lesions P3 fractures Apical sesamoid fractures Splint bone fractures

15 3 rd Carpal Bone Slab Fx

16 P1 Articular Fracture

17 Do you see the Fx?

18 C 3 Fx

19 Apical Sesamoid Fractures


21 P3 Fxs

22 Degenerative Joint Disease Most common joint disease in horses Primary - idiopathic Secondary – most common –Repetitive motion/movements Running to the left Common in Tarsus, Carpus, “Fetlocks” and IP joints

23 DJD Radiographic findings: –Thickening of joint capsule –Narrowed joint space –New bone production on articular margins (osteophytes) –Subchondral bone sclerosis –Ankylosis of joints

24 Degenerative Joint Disease Tarsus - Spavin Carpus Stifle “Fetlocks” Distal – IP joints Ring bone –High – DJD of proximal IPJ –Low – DJD of distal IPJ

25 High Ring Bone

26 Side Bones

27 DJD

28 Carpal DJD

29 Navicular Disease Chronic progressive disease that affects the distal sesamoid bone Usually bilateral –Fore limb more than hind limb Quarter horses with some TB’s Navicular disease should not be used as a radiographic diagnosis

30 Navicular Disease Radiographic findings –Synovial invaginations enlarged and too numerous –Medullary sclerosis –Lollipops

31 No Packing

32 Navicular Disease

33 Physitis Related to nutrition? Young rapidly growing foals Distal radius, distal tibia, distal 3 rd metacarpal and metatarsal bones Multiple physes usually involved Radiographic signs –Metaphyseal flaring with sclerosis next to physis –Cortical thickness asymmetry – widened irregular physis

34 Osteomyelitis Foals –Hematogenous spread Umbilicus, lungs, liver – bacterial showering Adults –Sequestrum can occur Usually due to trauma Radiographic findings –Multiple bones? Single bone? Lysis near physis – septic joint

35 Septic Arthritis/Osteomyelitis

36 Sequestrum

37 Laminitis Inflammation of the laminae of the foot Cause? Front feet usually – often bilateral Saw horse stance Lack of parallelism between the dorsal aspect of the hoof wall and dorsal aspect of P3 – ST of P3 thick –18mm How to ID on rads – rotation, sinking

38 No Laminitis Note mineral in DDFT

39 Laminitis

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