Presentation on theme: "Principles of Asepsis ST210 Concorde Career College."— Presentation transcript:
1 Principles of AsepsisST210Concorde Career College
2 Sterile Because sterility cannot be assured 100% of the time… **When in doubt, throw it out!
3 practicing sterile technique The goal is to keep microbes to an irreducible minimumStrict adherence is necessary for the protection of the patient that is undergoing evasive surgerySeveral concepts and applications are key to the implementation of sterile techniqueUse of common sense is a mustAre there gray areas?
4 practicing sterile technique There is no compromise in sterile techniqueSterility cannot be taken for granted; it must constantly be checked and maintainedSurgical team members constantly monitor their own technique, as well as that of the other team membersBreaks are identified and corrective actions are takenEach team member must be expecting and be able to accept critique from others
6 Living tissue cannot be sterilized The skin of the patient and surgical team members harbors microbes that cannot be removed via the skin prep, hand washing, or surgical scrubAdequate prep of some surgical sites is impossible due to the presence of a large number of microbesThe wound may have already been exposed to contaminantsInfection may already be present
7 Environmental hazards are present Environmental decontamination may be ineffectiveAirborne contaminants may come in contact with the sterile fieldDestruction of microbial barriers results in contaminationMovement in or around may cause contamination
8 Sterility is not absolute and cannot be effectively proven at all times Chemical indicators (external and internal) only verify exposure to the sterilization process. They are not proof of sterility.All types of packaging materials for sterilization have disadvantagesHuman error can effect the outcome of the sterilization processHandling and storage conditions may compromise sterilityMicrobes that have not yet been identified may be a threat
9 Surgical ConscienceTHE HONESTY AND MORAL INTEGRITY TO UPHOLD STRICT STERILE TECHNIQUEAn STSR must be conscientious enough to recognize and correct breaks in techniqueAn individual who hesitates or refuses to admit a break in sterile technique has no place in the operating room
10 SURGICAL CONSCIENCETHE SURGICAL TECHNOLOGIST MUST BE ABLE TO RECOGNIZE AND CORRECT BREAKS IN STERILE TECHNIQUE, WHETHER THEY ARE COMMITTED IN THE PRESENCE OF OTHERS OR ALONE.
12 “Considered Contaminated” A situation where one or more of the principles of asepsis may have been violatedThe term “considered” means that the situation has been thought about carefully and a decision has been made to “deem” or “regard” the situation in the same manner as a “blatant” or “gross” contamination
13 PRINCIPLE # 1 A STERILE FIELD IS CREATED FOR EACH SURGICAL PROCEDURE. Must be appropriately attired prior to entering the sterile fieldMovement in and around the sterile field must not compromise the sterility of the field
14 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.THE STERILE FIELD CONSISTS OF a separate, sterile area that in a larger sense consists of the surgical site itself, the draped portions of the patient and OR table, the sterile portions of the gowns and gloves and the draped ring stands, Mayo stand, and back table.
15 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.AS TIME PASSES there is a likelihood that a sterile field has become contaminated by error or by airborne contaminants. Therefore, it should be created as close to the time of use as possible. After the sterile supplies have been opened, the room must be monitored.
16 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.If a case is switched to another OR, and the sterile supplies and instruments have already been opened, the back table should NEVER be covered with a sterile drape to be moved to another room.
17 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.CHEMICAL INDICATORS- Internal or external monitors change color when exposed to the sterilization process. If the indicator did not change to the appropriate color, the items should be considered unsterile.
18 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.Instruments, such as knife blades, that come in contact with the skin should not be reused. The instrument should be set in a designated area to prevent further use on deeper tissue.
19 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.Personnel should not reuse instruments used during open bowel or dirty portions of the procedure and scrubbed team members should regown and reglove before returning to use sterile instruments from the clean setup. (IF 2 SEPARTE SET UPS ARE USED)
20 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.When removing instruments from the autoclave, the sterile team member must not touch the edge of the sterilizer with the instrument, tray, gown, or gloves.The inside of wrappers containing sterile items is considered sterile except for a 1-2” perimeter around the outside edge of the wrapper.
21 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.The inner edge of a heat sealed peel pack is considered the line between sterile and nonsterile.The flaps should be pulled back without tears in the peel pack itself.The contents must never be allowed to slide over the edge of the peel pack.
22 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.When opening a sterile wrapped item, the team member opens the (1ST) flap away from the body. The side flaps are opened and secured in order one at a time. The last flap is pulled toward the body. The item is then transferred onto the sterile field or is taken from the package by a sterile team member.
23 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.The top of a sterile table is the only part considered sterile.Any part of the drape extending below the top of the sterile table is considered nonsterile.Any item extending beyond or falling over the top of the sterile table edge is considered contaminated.
24 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.Any portion of a hose or cord that is hanging off of a sterile field is considered contaminated and cannot be pulled back up onto the sterile field. Two examples are the Bovie cord and suction tubing.Once sterile drapes or towels have been placed, they cannot be repositioned.The portion of the drape that is below the table level is considered contaminated.
25 QUESTIONABLE STERILITY WHEN IN DOUBT , THROW IT OUT.
26 INTEGRITY- COMPLETE, NO BREAKS OR TEARS There must be no evidence of strike-through, tears, or punctures; all seals must be intact; chemical indicators must have turned color to indicate exposure to sterilization conditions.
27 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont. STERILE ITEMS MUST NOT BE STORED WITH UNSTERILE ITEMS.STERILE ITEMS FOUND IN UNSTERILE STORAGE AREAS SHOULD BE CONSIDERED UNSTERILE AND SHOULD NOT BE USED
28 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.IMPERVIOUS- Not allowing moisture to penetrate (i.e., plastic drape).PERMEABLE- capable of allowing the passage of fluids or substances.
29 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.If a package that is wrapped in a pervious woven material drops to the floor, the package is considered contaminated.If the package is impervious and the floor is dry, the item can be transferred to the back table but should not be placed back in sterile storage.
30 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont. CUASES OF CONTAMINATION Punctures, tears, or strike-through compromise the sterility of packages or drapes and is considered contaminated.If a permeable drape covers a sterile table or field and any liquid penetrates the drape, the drape must be considered contaminated.
31 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.Sterile packages should be stored on smooth, clean, dry surfaces to prevent damage of packaging materials.Sterile packages should be stored in a designated sterile supply storage area.Sterile packages should be handled with clean, dry hands.
32 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.Unnecessary pressure should not be placed on sterile packs to prevent forcing air outward and allowing air to be pulled inward.Peel packs should be stored on their sides to prevent pressure that can rupture the package.
33 PRINCIPLE # 1 cont.Use non-penetrating instruments to hold drapes and cords in place.If towel clips used on the field puncture any draping material, the tips of the instrument must be considered contaminated and should be left in place until the end of the procedure.If a penetrating towel clip is used and is removed for any reason, the STSR should pass the instrument off without touching the contaminated tips and a drape should be used to cover the area from which it was removed.
34 PRINCIPLE # 2STERILE TEAM MEMBERS MUST BE APPROPRIATELY ATTIRED PRIOR TO ENTERING THE STERILE FIELD
35 PRINCIPLE # 2 cont.THE ATTIRE WORN BY STERILE TEAM MEMBERS INCLUDEs A STERILE GOWN, STERILE GLOVES, MASK, and HAIR COVERTeam members must don sterile gown and gloves themselves using aseptic technique, or be gowned and gloved by another sterile team member
36 PRINCIPLE # 2 cont.The surgical gown is considered sterile from the waist to the mid-chest line in front and 2 inches PROXIMAL to the elbows on the sleeves.The upper chest area of the gown is considered contaminated because it cannot be viewed directly by the wearer and because of the possibility of the chin coming into contact with this part of the gown.
37 PRINCIPLE # 2 cont.When standing at a table, the gown should be considered sterile to the top of the operating table or the top of the back tableThe arms should not be folded with the hands in the axillary region. This region is considered contaminated because it cannot be viewed by the wearer and because of strike-through contamination.
38 PRINCIPLE # 2 cont.Hands should never be allowed to fall below waist or table level.The team member should avoid raising the hands above the mid-chest line or over the head.The back of the gown is considered contaminated because it cannot be viewed by the wearer.When wearing a sterile gown, the back should never be turned toward a sterile field.
39 PRINCIPLE # 2 cont.The stockinette cuffs of the surgical gown are considered nonsterile and should be covered by the cuff of the glove.A sterile person should sit only when the entire procedure will be performed sitting downand the hands must not fall into the lap.
40 PRINCIPLE # 2 cont.A separate sterile surface should be used for gowning and gloving to avoid contamination of the back table.The gown and gloves may be opened on amayo stand or small table priorto the surgical scrub.When using a platform, moving from a lower position to a higher position should be avoided as much as possible.
41 PRINCIPLE # 3MOVEMENT IN AND AROUND THE STERILE FIELD MUST NOT COMPROMISE THE STERILE FIELD
42 PRINCIPLE # 3 cont. STERILE TO STERILE Only sterile members may touch sterile surfaces and items.Nonsterile personnel must not touch sterile surfaces and items.Walking between two sterile areas should be avoided.
43 PRINCIPLE # 3 cont. STERILE INDIVIDUALS KEEP WITHIN THE STERILE FIELD Scrubbed personnel should stay close to the sterile field throughout the procedure.Movement within the sterile field should bekept to a minimum to avoid airborne contamination.
44 PRINCIPLE # 3 cont.Sterile team members should pass each other face to face or back to back.A sterile person should always face the sterile field to avoid contamination.A sterile person should turn their back to a nonsterile person or area when walking past.Talking should be kept to a minimum to prevent contamination from airborne moisture droplets.
45 PRINCIPLE # 3 cont.A nonsterile person should keep at least inches from ANY sterile item, area, or sterile field.Additionally, equipment and furniture that is not covered by sterile drapes must not be included in the sterile field and must be kept a minimum of inches away from a sterile surface or item.The STSR must be conscious of these nonsterile items and personnel and maintain the inch distance
46 PRINCIPLE # 3 cont. NONSTERILE TO NONSTERILE Nonsterile persons should never reach over a sterile field because of contamination from skin fallout.While pouring solutions only the lip of the bottle should be over the sterile basin while maintaining inches above the basin. To accommodate this, a scrub could move containers to be filled close to the edge.
47 PRINCIPLE # 3 cont.Solutions must never be recapped or reused because recapping contaminates the solution within the bottle.When draping, a sterile person should cuff their hands in the folds of the drapes.
48 PRINCIPLE # 3 cont.When draping a nonsterile surface to create a sterile field, the nonsterile person should cuff the hands within the underside folds of the drape or table cover; the drape should be opened away from the body toward the far side of the table first, then toward them last
49 CREATING THE STERILE FIELD The mask must be applied prior to creation of the sterile field and is worn by all individuals in the presence of the sterile field.The OR doors should be closed prior to creation of the sterile field.
50 CREATING THE STERILE FIELD A NUMBER OF TASKS MUST BE PERFORMED QUICKLY AND EFFICIENTLY PRIOR TO INITIATION OF THE SURGICAL PRODCEDURE
51 CREATING THE STERILE FIELD cont. FURNITIRE NEEDED TO CREATE A STERILE FIELDBACK TABLE- Back table packRING STAND- Basin setMAYO STAND- Gown and glovesADDITIONAL STAND TO OPEN INSTRUMENTSPREP STAND
52 CREATING THE STERILE FIELD cont. Check dates on packages before opening.If and item is double wrapped it will be necessary to open both wrappers at that time.If an item is only wrapped one time or wrapped more than twice, it must be considered contaminated.When adding items to the sterile field, be careful not to drop heavy items on the sterile field since they could puncture the barrier covering the unsterile surface.
53 CREATING THE STERILE FIELD cont. Nonsterile surfaces that will have sterile drapes applied are draped first toward the sterile person to prevent contamination of the gown and to avoid reaching over the nonsterile surface
54 Breach of the Sterile Field What occurs when one of the principles of asepsis are violated and the goal of keeping the microbial count within the sterile field to an irreducible minimum is not met
55 Breach of the Sterile Field #1 Disregard the contaminationOnly one application and is temporary - the patient’s life is at immediate riskOnce the patient is stabilized, the contamination must be reported and appropriate corrective measures takenThe surgeon may want to give systemic prophylactic antibiotics to the patient
56 Breach of the Sterile Field #2 Remove the sterile item from the sterile fieldThe most common action chosenAppropriate for most situationsThe contaminated item is removed and replacedAny items subsequently contaminated must also be removed
57 Breach of the Sterile Field #3 Cover the contaminated item or areaDue to timing or other circumstances, the contaminated item cannot be removedAn impervious drape should be used to cover the item or area to reestablish the sterile field
58 OPENING THE BACK TABLE PACK Check integrityRemove outer wrapperCheck inner packageOrient on back tableBreak the sealUnfold accordingly WITHOUT PULLING FLAPS BACK ON TABLE TOP AND TOUCHING ONLY EDGES OF BACK TABLE DRAPE
59 OPENING BASIN SET Check integrity Orient basin set Break the seal Unfold the first flap away from youUnfold each side flap with respective handsPull flaps down instead of out to avoid hitting sterile back table
60 Open first flap away from you OPENING SMALL WRAPPED PACKAGE (such as initial gown on mayo) ONTO A CLEAN SURFACECheck integrityOrient packageBreak sealOpen first flap away from youUnfold each side flap with respective handsPull the last flap toward you
61 OPENING A PEEL PACK Check integrity Orient package by grasping one edge of the peel pack in each handSlowly separate the sides of the peel pack (do not change hands halfway through opening)Balance the item to keep it between the edges of the glueMaintain a safe distanceTransfer the item by projecting it onto the sterile field without dropping it below waist level or breaking the plane of the sterile field
62 OPENING THE INSTRUMENT SET (Rigid Container System) Set on suitable surfaceVerify external indicatorsBreak the seals and release the lidLift the lid straight up inches then step back inches from the trayInvert the lid and inspect the insideRemove the retainer and check the filter
63 OPENING THE INSTRUMENT SET (Wrapped) Set on suitable surfaceVerify external indicatorsOrient set where the first flap opens away from youBreak the sealOpen the first flap away from you by reaching around the side – opposite side form sterile fieldUnfold each side flap with respective hands (Pull flaps down instead of out)Pull last flap toward yourself
64 SCRUBBING, GOWNING, AND GLOVING Once the initial sterile filed has been established, the STSR:All personal needs are attended to, PPE is donned (eyewear, lead aprons, etc.)perform scrub, dry, gown, and then gloveSet up casePerform the initial countDrape the prepped areaCreate sterile fieldTIME OUT!