Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

JPN494: Japanese Language and Linguistics JPN543: Advanced Japanese Language and Linguistics Phonology & Phonetics (1)

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "JPN494: Japanese Language and Linguistics JPN543: Advanced Japanese Language and Linguistics Phonology & Phonetics (1)"— Presentation transcript:

1 JPN494: Japanese Language and Linguistics JPN543: Advanced Japanese Language and Linguistics Phonology & Phonetics (1)

2 Phonology & Phonetics Phonology and Phonetics: Studies of Linguistic Sounds (vowels, consonants, intonations, …) What’s the difference?

3 Phonetics Phonetics is a study of linguistic sounds from the acoustic/articulatory perspectives. “Sounds” as physical/physiological phenomena → “phones” NOTE: Only certain aspects of acoustic/articulatory properties of sounds are described. Some phonetic descriptions are more “fine-grained” than others.

4 Phonology Phonology is a study of linguistic sounds from the functional perspective. “Sounds” as building units of meaningful linguistic expressions → “phonemes” Phoneme: the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language.

5 Notational Convention phonetic description: […] (e.g. [sp ɪ n]) phonological (phonemic) description: /…/ (e.g. /sp ɪ n/) [p], [t], … in the context of Japanese phonetics and [p], [t], … in the context of English phonetics are distinct (although they represent similar sounds). Similarly for /p/, /t/, … in Japanese phonology and /p/, /t/, … in English phonology. IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet): yet another system of phonetic description. It is “language- neutral”. IPA

6 Phonetics vs. Phonology pin [p h ɪ n], spin [sp ɪ n], pop [p h ɑ p] [p h ] vs. [p]: “different” or “same”? They are different from the phonetic perspective, but the same from the phonological perspective. [p h ] and [p] are allophones of the same phoneme, /p/ (in English).

7 Complementary distribution Complementary distribution: allophones (conditional allophones) do not occur in the same phonological environment – OK: pin [p h ɪ n], spin [sp ɪ n] – ??: pin [p ɪ n], spin [sp h ɪ n] Pairs of expressions that have different meanings and that differ in only one sound (phone) are called minimal pairs; they can be used to show that two phones are not allophones of the same phoneme. – light : right – hit : heat

8 Free variations (free allophones) The consonant in ら・り・る・れ・ろ can be realized either as (by different speakers or by the same speaker): – [ ɾ ] (flap) – [l] (approximant) – [r] (trill) (rare) りんご, [ ɾ iŋgo] ~ [liŋgo] ~ [riŋgo] [ ɾ ], [l], and [r] are free variations of phoneme /r/ in Japanese. Some scholars use the term free allophones.

9 Two phones can be identified as allophones of the same phoneme only if: – Either they do not occur in the same environment (complementary distribution) or their opposition do not contribute to difference in meaning (no minimal pair like [ ɾ a ɴ ] : [la ɴ ]); AND – There is good phonetic reason to group them together (phonetic similarity)

10 Allophones in one language are not necessarily so in another language [p] and [p h ] are considered the “same” in English (phonologically) But they are not in some other languages – 비 [pi] “rain” vs. 피 [p h i] “blood” (Korean)

11 Conversely … [p] and [b] are considered different in English But they are not in some other languages – 비빔밥 [pibimbap] (Korean)

12 Ariticulatory Phonetics Vocal Organs

13

14

15 舌 ( した ), 唇 ( くちびる ) 歯 ( は ), 歯茎 ( しけい ), 硬口蓋 ( こうこうがい ), 軟口蓋 ( なんこうがい ), 口蓋垂 ( こうがいす い ) 咽頭 ( いんとう ), 喉頭 ( こうとう ), 声門 ( せい もん ), 喉頭蓋 ( こうとうがい ) 声帯 ( せいたい ), 甲状軟骨 ( こうじょうなんこ つ ), 披裂軟骨 ( ひれつなんこつ ), 輪状軟骨 ( り んじょうなんこつ )

16 Two major types of sounds Consonants: speech-sounds produced when the speaker either stops or severely constricts the airflow in vocal tract. Vowels: speech-sounds produced with a relatively open vocal tract, which functions as a resonating chamber.

17 Consonants in English and Japanese Place(s) of Articulation: – lips, teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, velum (soft palate), … Manner of Articulation – stops (plosives), fricatives, affricates, approximants, … Voicing (Phonation) – voiced vs. voiceless

18 Stops (Oral Stops) in English (complete closure of the articulators involved so that the air stream cannot escape through the mouth.) bilabial: [p] (voiceless), [b] (voiced) – cap [cæp], cab [cæb] alveolar: [t] (voiceless), [d] (voiced) – feet [fit], feed [fid] velar: [k] (voiceless), [g] (voiced) – sack [sæk], sag [sæg]

19 Stops (Oral Stops) in English [p h ], [t h ], [k h ] in syllable-initial position – pin [p h in] vs. spin [spin], hip [h ɪ p]

20 Stops (Oral Stops) in Japanese bilabial: [p] (voiceless), [b] (voiced) – パン, 番 ( ばん ) alveolar: [t] (voiceless), [d] (voiced) – 竹 ( たけ ), だけ velar: [k] (voiceless), [g] (voiced) – 滓 ( かす ), ガス ( 濁点 ( だくてん ; “ ゛ ”) indicates [+voiced])

21 Stops (Oral Stops) in Japanese No or less aspiration (in syllable- or word- initial position) – パン [pan], 手 [te], 木 [ki] Japanese alveolar stops ([t], [d]): the front part of the tongue blade contacts the alveolar ridge English alveolar stops ([t], [d]): the tongue tip contacts the alveolar ridge

22 Nasals (Nasal Stops) in English bilabial: [m] – map, Kim alveolar: [n] – nap, kin velar: [ŋ] (does not occur in syllable-initial position) – king (nasals are generally voiced)

23 Nasals (Nasal Stops) in Japanese bilabial: [m] – 娘 ( むすめ ); 心配 ( しんぱい ) alveolar: [n] – 猫 ( ねこ ); 今度 ( こんど ) velar: [ŋ] – (φ); 天気 ( てんき ) uvular: [ ɴ ] – (φ); 券 ( けん )

24 In word-middle position, [g] alternates with [ŋ] (in some dialects) – 科学 ( かがく ) [kagak ɯ ] ~ [kaŋak ɯ ] – ガス [gas ɯ ] (NOT: [ŋas ɯ ])

25 Fricatives in English (Close approximation of two articulators so that the air stream is partially obstructed and turbulent airflow is produced.) labio-dental: [f] (voiceless), [v] (voiced) – fan, van dental (interdental): [ð] (voiceless), [θ] (voiced) – thigh, thy alveolar: [s] (voiceless), [z] (voiced) – sue, zoo alveo-palatal: [ ʃ ] (voiceless), [ ʒ ] (voiced) – shoe, leisure glottal: [h] (voiceless) – hit (n.b.: ʃ = š, ʒ = ž)

26 Fricatives in Japanese bilabial: [ ɸ ] (voiceless) – 古い ( ふるい ) alveolar: [s] (voiceless), [z] (voiced) – 殺気 ( さっき ), 雑記 ( ざっき ) alveo-palatal: [ ʃ ] (voiceless) – 鹿 ( しか ) palatal: [ç] (voiceless) – 人 ( ひと ) glottal: [h] (voiceless) – 鳩 ( はと ) (voiced alveo-palatal fricative ([ ʒ ]): only in rapid speech)

27 サ・シ・ス・セ・ソ [sa ʃ i s ɯ se so] ハ・ヒ・フ・ヘ・ホ [ha çi ɸɯ he ho] ファ・フィ・フェ・フォ [ ɸ a ɸ i ɸ e ɸ o] – ファール, フィン, フェリー, フォーム

28 Affricates in English (a stop immediately followed by a fricative.) alveo-palatal: [ ʧ ] (voiceless), [ ʤ ] (voiced) – church, judge (n.b.: ʧ = č, ʤ = ǰ )

29 Affricates in Japanese alveolar: [ ʦ ] (voiceless), [ ʣ ] (voiced) – 月 ( つき ), 雑記 ( ざっき ) alveo-palatal: [ ʧ ] (voiceless), [ ʤ ] (voiced) – 置換 ( ちかん ), 時間 ( じかん ) (n.b.: ʦ = t s, ʣ = d s, ʧ = č, ʤ = ǰ )

30 ザ・ジ・ズ・ゼ・ゾ – [za] ~ [ ʣ a] – [ ʤ i] (~ [ ʒ i] in rapid speech) – [z ɯ ] ~ [ ʣɯ ] – [ze] ~ [ ʣ e] – [zo] ~ [ ʣ o] [ ʣ ] (rather than [z]) tends to occur in word-initial position cf. cars [c ɑɚ z] vs. cards [c ɑɚ dz]

31 タ・チ・ツ・テ・ト [ta ʧ i ʦɯ te to] ( ツァ [ ʦ a]) – カデンツァ ダ・ ( ヂ ) ・ ( ヅ ) ・デ・ド [da ( ʣ i/ ʒ i) ( ʣɯ /z ɯ ) de do]

32 Approximants in English (A gesture in which one articulator is close to another, but without the vocal tract being narrowed to such an extent that a turbulent airstream is produced.) alveolar (central): [ ɹ ] – right alveolar lateral: [l] – light labio-velar (central): [w] – well palatal (central): [j] – yell (n.b.: j = y, ɹ = r (in Tsujimura’s book))

33 [ ɹ ], [l], etc. are called “liquids”. [w], [j], etc. are called “glides” or “semi- vowels” (because their qualities are similar to those of vowels).

34 Approximants in Japanese alveolar lateral: [l] – りんご velar: [w] – 若い ( わかい ) palatal: [j] – 安い ( やすい ) Japanese [w] accompanies no or less lip- rounding (than English [w])

35 Flaps, trills (in English and Japanese) The tongue-tip hits the alveolar ridge once/repeatedly. alveolar flap: [ ɾ ] alveolar trill: [r] (rare) – りんご [ ɾ iŋgo] ~ [liŋgo] ~ [riŋgo] alveolar flap in English – better [b ɛɾɚ ], rider [ ɹ a ɪɾɚ ]

36 Palatalized consonants in Japanese [k j ], [g j ], [n j ] ([ ɲ ]), [m j ], [r j ] (palatal or alveo-palatal consonants: [ ʧ ], [ ʃ ], [ ʤ ], [ç]) – 客 ( きゃく ), 急 ( きゅう ), 今日 ( きょう ) – 逆 ( ぎゃく ), 牛丼 ( ぎゅうどん ), 業界 ( ぎょうかい ) – 蒟蒻 ( こんにゃく ), 牛乳 ( ぎゅうにゅう ), 尿 ( にょう ) – ミャンマー, ミュージック, 茗荷 ( みょうが ) – 略す ( りゃくす ), 竜 ( りゅう ), 旅館 ( りょかん ) – 茶 ( ちゃ ), 注意 ( ちゅうい ), チェス, 調子 ( ちょうし ) – 車庫 ( しゃこ ), 週末 ( しゅうまつ ), シェル, 商売 ( しょうばい ) – じゃこ, 十 ( じゅう ), ジェスチャー, 女性 ( じょせい ) – 百 ( ひゃく ), 日向 ( ひゅうが ), 氷河 ( ひょうが ) “j” is a diacritic indicating palatalization (the phenomenon whereby the tongue body approaches the hard palate). [ ɲ ] is a palatal nasal sound.


Download ppt "JPN494: Japanese Language and Linguistics JPN543: Advanced Japanese Language and Linguistics Phonology & Phonetics (1)"

Similar presentations


Ads by Google