Presentation on theme: "JPN494: Japanese Language and Linguistics JPN543: Advanced Japanese Language and Linguistics Phonology & Phonetics (1)"— Presentation transcript:
JPN494: Japanese Language and Linguistics JPN543: Advanced Japanese Language and Linguistics Phonology & Phonetics (1)
Phonology & Phonetics Phonology and Phonetics: Studies of Linguistic Sounds (vowels, consonants, intonations, …) What’s the difference?
Phonetics Phonetics is a study of linguistic sounds from the acoustic/articulatory perspectives. “Sounds” as physical/physiological phenomena → “phones” NOTE: Only certain aspects of acoustic/articulatory properties of sounds are described. Some phonetic descriptions are more “fine-grained” than others.
Phonology Phonology is a study of linguistic sounds from the functional perspective. “Sounds” as building units of meaningful linguistic expressions → “phonemes” Phoneme: the smallest contrastive unit in the sound system of a language.
Notational Convention phonetic description: […] (e.g. [sp ɪ n]) phonological (phonemic) description: /…/ (e.g. /sp ɪ n/) [p], [t], … in the context of Japanese phonetics and [p], [t], … in the context of English phonetics are distinct (although they represent similar sounds). Similarly for /p/, /t/, … in Japanese phonology and /p/, /t/, … in English phonology. IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet): yet another system of phonetic description. It is “language- neutral”. IPA
Phonetics vs. Phonology pin [p h ɪ n], spin [sp ɪ n], pop [p h ɑ p] [p h ] vs. [p]: “different” or “same”? They are different from the phonetic perspective, but the same from the phonological perspective. [p h ] and [p] are allophones of the same phoneme, /p/ (in English).
Complementary distribution Complementary distribution: allophones (conditional allophones) do not occur in the same phonological environment – OK: pin [p h ɪ n], spin [sp ɪ n] – ??: pin [p ɪ n], spin [sp h ɪ n] Pairs of expressions that have different meanings and that differ in only one sound (phone) are called minimal pairs; they can be used to show that two phones are not allophones of the same phoneme. – light : right – hit : heat
Free variations (free allophones) The consonant in ら・り・る・れ・ろ can be realized either as (by different speakers or by the same speaker): – [ ɾ ] (flap) – [l] (approximant) – [r] (trill) (rare) りんご, [ ɾ iŋgo] ～ [liŋgo] ～ [riŋgo] [ ɾ ], [l], and [r] are free variations of phoneme /r/ in Japanese. Some scholars use the term free allophones.
Two phones can be identified as allophones of the same phoneme only if: – Either they do not occur in the same environment (complementary distribution) or their opposition do not contribute to difference in meaning (no minimal pair like [ ɾ a ɴ ] : [la ɴ ]); AND – There is good phonetic reason to group them together (phonetic similarity)
Allophones in one language are not necessarily so in another language [p] and [p h ] are considered the “same” in English (phonologically) But they are not in some other languages – 비 [pi] “rain” vs. 피 [p h i] “blood” (Korean)
Conversely … [p] and [b] are considered different in English But they are not in some other languages – 비빔밥 [pibimbap] (Korean)
Two major types of sounds Consonants: speech-sounds produced when the speaker either stops or severely constricts the airflow in vocal tract. Vowels: speech-sounds produced with a relatively open vocal tract, which functions as a resonating chamber.
Consonants in English and Japanese Place(s) of Articulation: – lips, teeth, alveolar ridge, hard palate, velum (soft palate), … Manner of Articulation – stops (plosives), fricatives, affricates, approximants, … Voicing (Phonation) – voiced vs. voiceless
Stops (Oral Stops) in English (complete closure of the articulators involved so that the air stream cannot escape through the mouth.) bilabial: [p] (voiceless), [b] (voiced) – cap [cæp], cab [cæb] alveolar: [t] (voiceless), [d] (voiced) – feet [fit], feed [fid] velar: [k] (voiceless), [g] (voiced) – sack [sæk], sag [sæg]
Stops (Oral Stops) in English [p h ], [t h ], [k h ] in syllable-initial position – pin [p h in] vs. spin [spin], hip [h ɪ p]
Stops (Oral Stops) in Japanese No or less aspiration (in syllable- or word- initial position) – パン [pan], 手 [te], 木 [ki] Japanese alveolar stops ([t], [d]): the front part of the tongue blade contacts the alveolar ridge English alveolar stops ([t], [d]): the tongue tip contacts the alveolar ridge
Nasals (Nasal Stops) in English bilabial: [m] – map, Kim alveolar: [n] – nap, kin velar: [ŋ] (does not occur in syllable-initial position) – king (nasals are generally voiced)
Approximants in English (A gesture in which one articulator is close to another, but without the vocal tract being narrowed to such an extent that a turbulent airstream is produced.) alveolar (central): [ ɹ ] – right alveolar lateral: [l] – light labio-velar (central): [w] – well palatal (central): [j] – yell (n.b.: j = y, ɹ = r (in Tsujimura’s book))
[ ɹ ], [l], etc. are called “liquids”. [w], [j], etc. are called “glides” or “semi- vowels” (because their qualities are similar to those of vowels).
Approximants in Japanese alveolar lateral: [l] – りんご velar: [w] – 若い ( わかい ) palatal: [j] – 安い ( やすい ) Japanese [w] accompanies no or less lip- rounding (than English [w])
Flaps, trills (in English and Japanese) The tongue-tip hits the alveolar ridge once/repeatedly. alveolar flap: [ ɾ ] alveolar trill: [r] (rare) – りんご [ ɾ iŋgo] ～ [liŋgo] ～ [riŋgo] alveolar flap in English – better [b ɛɾɚ ], rider [ ɹ a ɪɾɚ ]