# Scientific Method: Putting It All Together pg. 9

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Scientific Method: Putting It All Together pg. 9
Objective: to understand the steps of the scientific method Sponge: Write and answer the following questions Explain the difference between an inference and prediction. An inference is when you explain something you observe. A prediction is a forecast of something to come. 2. Explain how a qualitative observation is different from a quantitative observation. A qualitative observation deals with descriptions without numbers. Quantitative describes something using and amount.

8/15/2011 Scientific Method: Putting It All Together pg. 10
Glue in your Scientific Method sheet on the right hand side of your notebook, page 10. Although we are reminding you now, this will be the standard procedure as we move forward. Start getting used to it… 

Let’s Read! Read the introductory passage about the scientific method and the characteristics of living things. Remember to use good reading strategies as you go through it! Afterwards, answer questions about the reading (1-8) on the inside of the sheet.

SpongeBob and his Bikini Bottom pals have been busy doing a little research. Read the description for each experiment and answer the following questions on your paper (right side)

Krusty Krabs Breath Mints
Mr. Krabs created a secret ingredient for a breath mint that he thinks will “cure” the bad breath people get from eating crabby patties at the Krusty Krab. He asked 100 customers with a history of bad breath to try this new breath mint. He had fifty customers (Group A) eat a breath mint after they finished eating a crabby patty. The other fifty (Group B) also received a breath mint after they finished the sandwich, however, it was just a regular breath mint and did not have the secret ingredient. Both groups were told that they were getting the breath mint that would cure their bad breath. Two hours after eating the crabby patties, thirty customers in Group A and ten customers in Group B reported having better breath than they normally had after eating crabby patties.

Krusty Krabs Breath Mints
1. Which people are in the control group? Group B – they ate the regular mint. 2. What is the independent variable? The type of mint. 3. What is the dependent variable? The number of people with bad breath. 4. What should Mr. Krab’s conclusion be? That his breath mint works. 30/50 people agree! 5. Why do you think 10 people in group B reported fresher breath? They were told that they had received the new mint. Their response may have been influenced by their emotions.

SpongeBob Clean Pants "My PaNts aRE DIRty!"
SpongeBob noticed that his favorite pants were not as clean as they used to be. His friend Sandy told him that he should try using Clean-O detergent, a new laundry soap she found at Sail-Mart. SpongeBob made sure to wash one pair of pants in plain water and another pair in water with the Clean-O detergent. After washing both pair of pants a total of three times, the pants washed in the Clean-O detergent did not appear to be any cleaner than the pants washed in plain water. "My PaNts aRE DIRty!"

SpongeBob Clean Pants What was the problem SpongeBob wanted to investigate? How to clean his pants. What is the independent variable? Whether or not he added laundry detergent. What is the dependent variable? The cleanliness of the pants. What should SpongeBob’s conclusion be? That the Clean-O detergent does not work any better than water.

Identify the following
Control- Krusty’s usual itching powder Independent Variable- The type of itching powder Dependent Variable- The amount of time someone itches Explain whether the data supports what the advertisements claim about the product. The advertisements are correct! They claim to cause 50% longer lasting itches than the usual powder. If the usual powder lasts 30 minutes, 50% of 30 is 15 minutes is 45 minutes of itching which is what the subjects reported

8/16/11 Fossil Footprints pg 11
Objective: Use your skills of observation and inference to analyze a scenario. Bell work: What is an observation? What is an inference?

8/16/11 Fossil Footprints pg 12
Glue in your Fossil Footprints sheet on the right hand side of your notebook, page 12. Although we are reminding you now, this will be the standard procedure as we move forward. Start getting used to it… 

Position One: Draw the footprints as you see them. 1. What do you observe about the size of the organisms? Can you infer the type of organisms they are? 2. Do you believe all the tracks were made at the same time? How do you know? 3. Can you infer how many organisms were involved in this picture? 4. Create a story that explains how these tracks got here. What do you think the organisms were doing while the tracks were being made?

5. Did they change speed at any time? How can you tell?
Position Two: Draw the foot prints as you see them. 5. Did they change speed at any time? How can you tell? 6. What might have been the reason the footprint pattern changed? Was the land level or not? How can you tell? 7. What can you infer about the soil or type of rock when the tracks were made?

Position three: Draw the remaining footprints.
Here is the full picture. Study this picture closely for one minute and then complete the assignment on the following slide.

How did you use your skills of observation during this activity?

Now that you’ve been given the entire picture, piece together your discoveries and describe what might have happened. You can either… Write a story: Use your answers for each position to tell a story about what happened to these organisms. Don’t forget to include an ending (this explains position 3). Describe the ending. OR Draw a comic book strip: If you chose this option, you must SHOW how the organisms ended up at their location, what happened to them while they were there, and show what the area looked like, basically answering the questions asked on the slides of positions 1 and 2.

8/17/2011 The Characteristics & Needs of Living Things pg. 13
Objective: To describe the characteristics and needs of all living things. Bell work: What four things do living things need to survive? Hmmm… what do I need?

There are four basic needs of all living things….
Needs of Living Things There are four basic needs of all living things…. Do you know what they are?

Page 13 Left Side – write these notes under your bell work: 1. Water
Helps organisms to: * Break down food * Grow * Move substances within their bodies * Reproduce

2. Food Used to get energy for life functions
Autotrophs/Producers= plants Heterotrophs/Consumers= most animals * Carnivores- eat meat * Herbivores- eat plants * Omnivores- eat plants and animals

3. Space to live Place where they can get food, water, find shelter
Organisms may compete for this space

4. Stable internal conditions
Homeostasis- organisms need to maintain stable conditions inside their body * Temperature * Amount of water Allows cells to function properly

Characteristics of Living Things foldable pg. 14
What do we all have in common?

The Diamond 4 Door 1. Fold each corner of the square so that the opposite corners touch. When folded correctly, the paper will reveal an “X”. 2. Fold all of the corners of the square into the center of the X. 1. 3. 4.

On the first flap, write these words:
The Characteristics of Living Things Underneath the flap, write: “All living organisms share the following characteristics…”

The Characteristics of Living Things
Lastly, cut the remaining three flaps down the center (in this picture, on the dotted lines) toward the fold to reveal six smaller flaps. Now that you have created six flaps, you will write one characteristic under each one and draw what it looks like on the outside of the flap Flap #1 The Characteristics of Living Things 1 6 Flap #2 Flap #4 2 5 3 4 Flap #3

Here’s an example of what it should look like:

Flap # 1: Made of cells Unicellular Multicellular

Flap # 2: Share similar chemicals
DNA - nucleic acids Protein Lipids (fat) Carbohydrates - energy

Flap # 3: Take in and use energy
Move, think, make organs work Repair and replace cells Autotroph/Producer Heterotroph/Consumer

Flap # 4: Sense and respond to changes in the environment
Stimulus (thunder cracking) Response (jump/flinch/run)

Flap # 5: Grow and develop
Grow larger by cells multiplying in number Development is change (tadpole to frog)

Flap # 6: Reproduce Make offspring Sexually- mother and father
Asexually- one parent (offspring is identical to parent- clone)