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1 Hepatic / GI At the end of this self study the participant will: Verbalize causes of hepatic failure and pancreatitis Describe assessment findings of.

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Presentation on theme: "1 Hepatic / GI At the end of this self study the participant will: Verbalize causes of hepatic failure and pancreatitis Describe assessment findings of."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 Hepatic / GI At the end of this self study the participant will: Verbalize causes of hepatic failure and pancreatitis Describe assessment findings of the patient with liver disease and pancreatitis.

2 2 Hepatic Function Manufacture of heparin Modification of fats Manufacture of bile Manufacture of coags Synthesis of ammonia to urea Plasma protein formation Drug/alcohol/hormone detox Synthesis of glycogen

3 3 Common Medications that can be Hepatotoxic Amiodarone Phenytoin INH/Rifampin Sulfas Erythromycin Tricyclic Antidepressants Estrogen Acetaminophen Hydralazine Tetracycline Rezulin Lovastatin

4 4 Acetaminophen Toxicity 8 gm (15 extra strength Tylenol) taken in a 24 hour period can cause significant liver damage. It is recommended the general public do not exceed 4 gm/24 hours. Consumption of > 4 alcoholic drinks/ day then recommendation decreased to not to exceed 2 gm/24 hours. > 3 drinks/day = 4 oz. liquor, 4 beers, or 16 oz. wine.

5 5 Lab Tests ALT – Elevated in alcohol abuse, gallstones, mononucleosis, medications, more specific for liver problems than AST AST – Elevates in MI, bruised kidney, pancreas problems, and liver disease (with use/abuse of Alcohol, Statins & Tylenol) Alk Phos – Elevated for extra- and intrahepatic biliary obstruction, sepsis. If elevated but GGPT normal, more likely bone disorder GGPT-Most indicative of biliary obstruction (with alk phos).

6 6 Lab Tests Bilirubin - Result of hemoglobin breakdown. –Elevates in liver failure R/T inability of liver to convert bili to soluble form. –Jaundice, itching, dark urine when total bili reaches 3 mg/dl Serum Proteins – Albumin, Globulin & fibrinogen –Decreased with liver dz, starvation, malabsorption, poor iron intake –Increased with hemoconcentration: N/V/D, poor kidney function.

7 7 Coagulation Prothrombin Time –PT normal 11.0-15.0 seconds –INR normal 0.81-1.20 –Physician alert value (automatic call back): >5.0 INR Partial Thromboplastin Time –Ptt normal 23.0-36.0 seconds –Physician alert value (automatic call-back): >150 seconds

8 8 Ammonia Protein metabolism: ammonia is converted to urea Elevated levels affect acid-base balance, brain function (encephalopathy) Asterixis (Liver flap) –Assessed by asking patient to hold arms out in front, hands dorsiflexed. Liver flap is a hand tremor in this position To lower ammonia level –Lactulose, neomycin, low protein diet

9 9 Assessment Ascites –Contributing factors low alb increased lymph portal htn Complications: bacterial peritonitis umbilical hernia hydrothorax Edema / anasarca Skin changes –Bruising –Jaundice –Pruritis Ascites

10 10 Coagulopathy of liver disease Decreased production of clotting factors Increased consumption of clotting factors Production of abnormal clotting factors Increased bleeding –Internal –External –With interventions (e.g., IV insertion) –Spontaneous without provocation

11 11 Causes of Liver Dysfunction Inflammatory Disorders- hepatitis Toxins- environmental: huffing, inhaling pesticides, toxic work environments. Drugs- Prescription and illicit. Vascular Disorders- heart disease Metabolic Disorders [Fatty Liver disease/NASH (Nonalcoholic Steatohepatitis)] Neoplasms- cancers *Most common cause of liver failure is drugs/alcohol and hepatitis C

12 12 Cirrhosis Primary: Autoimmune Secondary: Obstruction (such as stones) Laennec’s: Alcoholic (50% of all causes) Cardiac: Right heart failure Postnecrotic: –After injury or circulatory obstruction –Infectious causes Cryptogenic –No cause found – just happens

13 13 Hepatitis Body Fluid Transmission –B, C, D, G Fecal-oral Transmission –A, C(rare), E Contaminated Food Ingestion –A Perinatal Transmission –A, B, C, D Inflammation of the liver Only A and B have a vaccine C can be treated, however is the main cause of liver transplants D is parasitic to B. Cannot have hep D without B. E extremely rare in US, more prevalent in underdeveloped countries G has few symptoms in humans.

14 14 Esophageal Varices Primarily caused by portal hypertension –High pressure causes backup of blood to organs normally drained by portal system Dilated, engorged veins Often bleed within one year after discovered(70% reoccurrence). Bleeding painless and massive: difficult to control (60% stop spontaneously). 90% of patients with cirrhosis have varices

15 15 Medical Management of Esophageal Varices Sclerosing Therapy –Endoscopic procedure, medication (sterile water or epinephrine) injected into each varix –Scar tissue develops, closing off varix Variceal Band Ligation –Endoscopic procedure, rubber band placed around varix –Varix becomes necrotic, falls off Variceal Band Ligation

16 16 Upper GI Bleed Causes Main cause is ulcers and gastritis(4.5million Americans have ulcers). Hypoxia of GI mucosa can disrupt mucosal barrier Bacteria- h.pylori present in 95% of duodenal and 80% gastric ulcers – h.pylori can be protective, especially on esophagus Cancer Peptic Ulcers Mallory Weiss Tear (protracted vomiting) Esophageal Varices

17 17 Treatments Medical Surgical Drug Therapy –Proton pump inhibitors (e.g., Prilosec) –H2 Blockers (ranitidine, famotidine). –Antacids –Sucralfate –Reglan Upper GI –Gastric Oversew –Vagotomy –Gastric Resection –Gastrectomy Lower GI –Resection

18 18 Pancreatitis Inflammatory process Enzymes activated and released within the pancreas Acute and chronic forms; edematous and hemorrhagic forms. Severity ranges from edema to necrosis A common mnemonic for the causes of pancreatitis spells "I get smashed", an allusion to heavy drinking (one of the many causes):

19 19 I - idiopathic G - gallstone. E - ethanol (alcohol) T - trauma (gunshot wounds, crush injuries) S - steroids M - mumps, other viruses (Epstein-Barr, Cytomegalovirus) A - autoimmune disease S - scorpion sting and also snake bites H - hypercalcemia, hyperlipidemia/hypertriglyceridemia and hypothermia E - ERCP (Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangio- Pancreatography) D - drugs (e.g., thiazides, NSAIDS, steroids and duodenal ulcers

20 20 Panreatitis Assessment Abdominal pain –Greatest in the upper abdomen, may radiate to back –May last from hours to day, or continuous –May be worsened by eating, drinking and/or alcohol consumption Nausea Vomiting Weight loss (On average patients with pancreatitis lose 6-12 pounds)

21 21 Pancreatitis Tests Elevated: –Amylase (most common) –Lipase (most accurate) –Triglycerides –WBCs Decreased: magnesium, potassium, calcium, albumin. ERCP (yes, the same test that can cause pancreatitis is also done as a diagnostic measure)

22 22 Pancreatitis Treatment Pain control !!! NPO (N/G not required unless significant abdominal distention occurs) Antibiotics may be considered for necrotizing or infectious forms Surgery. Last resort (remember islets of langerhans) Fluid replacement Stop drinking alcohol and smoking (even if cause not alcohol consumption)


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