“V” stands for Velocity VNE = Never Exceed Speed = Red Line
VA = Maneuvering speed Not depicted on airspeed indicator maneuvering speed, the speed at which full and abrupt control movement can be applied without the possibility of causing structural damage, and, separately, the maximum speed at which the aircraft can be flown in turbulent conditions.
White Arc is Flap Operating Speed Bottom of White Arc is VS0…Stall speed with flaps fully extended Top of the white arc is Vfe…Max flap extension speed
Green arc is the normal operating range Bottom of Green band represents Vs: The Stall speed with the flaps retracted Top of the Green Band is Vno Vno is maximum structural cruising speed
Yellow arc The yellow range is the range in which the aircraft may be operated in smooth air, and then only with caution to avoid abrupt control movement. Yellow arc = Vno through Vne
Vx Best angle of climb Most altitude gained over a given distance. Used short term to clear an obstacle poor visibility and poor engine cooling Cessna 172 VX = 62Kts
Vy… Most altitude in shortest amount of time Cessna 172 Vy =74 Kts
Best L/D Represents best Glide Speed…Used for best gliding speed if you have an engine failure Best L/D in a Cessna 172 at gross weight is 68 Kts
TAS True airspeed Speed of wing through air mass
Ground speed Speed of aircraft relative to the ground
TAS= 110Kts -15 Kt headwind What is your groundspeed ?
TAS = 65 Knots with 25kt tailwind What is your groundspeed?
Airspeed gets input from Pitot tube and static air source