Presentation on theme: "Bangladesh Country Profile Population 2010160 million Population growth1.6 % Urban Population27 % Surface Area147,570 sq. km Per capita IncomeUSD 621 GDP."— Presentation transcript:
Bangladesh Country Profile Population 2010160 million Population growth1.6 % Urban Population27 % Surface Area147,570 sq. km Per capita IncomeUSD 621 GDP Growth5.8% Bangladesh committed to achieve the MDGs national target: achieve 100% sanitation by 2013 and full safe water coverage by the year 2011 Reduce child mortality to 31 from 94 by 2015.
Table 1: Definitions of different types of sanitation Basic Sanitation Coverage Improved Sanitation Coverage Hygienic Sanitation Coverage Basic sanitation standard proposed for achieving the government’s goal of 100% sanitation coverage by 2013 JMP definition National Sanitation Strategy, 2005 definition Individual or shared improved latrines of the following types: Flushed and pour-flushed toilet/latrines to piped sewer system or septic tank Pit latrines with slab and water seal or lid or flap Pit latrines with slab but no water seal, lid or flap Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines Composting latrines Individual (no sharing) improved latrines of the following types: Flushed and pour-flushed toilet/latrines to piped sewer system or septic tank Pit latrines with slab and water seal or lid or flap Pit latrines with slab but no water seal, lid or flap Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines Composting latrines Individual or shared hygienic latrines by maximum two households of the following types: Flushed and pour-flushed toilet/latrines to piped sewer system or septic tank Pit latrines with slab and water seal or lid or flap Ventilated Improved Pit Latrines Composting latrines 2.2 Standards for urban and rural sanitation
2.3 Summary of Sanitation Coverage (MICS report) The national sanitation coverage according to basic sanitation is 80.4% but is much lower, 54.1% and 51.5%, for improved sanitation and hygienic sanitation, respectively. Areas Baseline status in 2003Percentage of sanitation coverage in 2009 Total HH % HH using hygienic latrines Basic sanitation Improved sanitation Hygienic sanitation Urban3,067,76160.086.453.558.0 City Corps.1,216,42469.987.653.360.2 Municipalities1,851,33753.185.854.757.5 Rural18,326,33228.878.954.349.9 Country21,394,09333.280.454.151.5 Based on the MICS 2009 report the national sanitation :
The comparison of sanitation coverage between 2003 and 2009 is more visible in Figure 1. 2.3 Summary of Sanitation Coverage ( Contd.)
Disparities in Coverage in Hard-to-Reach Areas Coastal areas and offshore islands: Hygienic 20%, 50% ; Water logged, Haor areas: hygienic 29%, 96%; Char areas: hygienic 9%; Hill areas: 17% hygienic,62% unhygienic, 21% OD Causes: Frequent natural disasters including cyclone, storm surge, flood, river erosion, lack of awareness, lack of initiative, poor communication, poverty, inappropriate technologies. Actual sanitation situation is worse in urban areas due to high population density. The 2009 MICS reveals that in urban slums more than 82% population share their latrines with other three or more households. 2.3 Summary of Sanitation Coverage ( Contd.)
Table: Percent distribution of household population using shared facilities AreaOneTwo Three or more Missing Total sharing Total Rural72.418.104.22.1686.7100 Urban61.512.025.90.637.9100 Urban municipality65.014.320.00.734.3100 Metro city57.29.233.00.642.2100 City corporation58.99.331.20.640.6100 Slum10.36.382.21.288.5100 Source: BBS/UNICEF 2009 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), 2009 2.3 Summary of Sanitation Coverage ( Contd.) Reasons for toilet-sharing: Insufficient space for individual household toilets in urban areas. living together in a shared compound with common water and sanitation facilities; Space constraints are especially acute in areas that flood regularly, considerable phenomenon that affects a vast swath of the country.
The challenges (growing population, population density, lack of space, prioritization of household expenditure for competing priorities, exposure to natural disasters as well as cultural and behavioural determinants), make difficult to achieve national sanitation coverage. Given the complexity of the problems, the sanitation for all target originally set for 2010 was pushed back to 2013. Data from the Health Impact Study (HIS) conducted in the GoB-UNICEF Project Bangladesh, reflects that cleanliness of toilets will need much more attention. 2.3 Summary of Sanitation Coverage ( Contd.)
3.0 Major Achievements 3.1 Addressing Rights, equity and inclusion Right to health is part of right to life which is included in Bangladesh Constitution. Article 19 of the constitution of Bangladesh also gives importance towards reducing inequality. It is important to recognise the hard-to-reach population. The Government allocated 20% of its ADP to support hard core poor (around 20% of Population) to provide subsidy for latrine construction. 3.2 Financing sanitation The Government has expanded the annual development budget allocations to the sector from an average of 2.5 per cent between 2000 and 2007 to about 5.77 per cent of total development funds available in 2010-11.
3.0 Major Achievements ( Contd.) 3.3 Monitoring and sustaining change The Government of Bangladesh has been monitoring its sanitation progress through National Sanitation Secretariat since 2003. There are debate on the monitoring indicators, methodology and sanitation coverage figures. A sanitation census is planned to be undertaken in 2011. In line with the Government’s vision of Digital Bangladesh, a National Management Information System for the sector is proposed. 3.4 Promoting ecological sanitation Ecological sanitation approach has been applied for areas with high water stress e.g., the northern Barind area and the Chittagong Hill Tract area and also in peri- urban areas where water supply is extremely limited.
3.5 New initiatives The government of Bangladesh decided to develop following policies /strategies by 2011: Sector Development Plan (2011-2025). Hygiene promotion strategy and national strategy for hard to reach area and people. Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene in School (WinS) for sustaining sanitation behaviour change. Grass root voice. 3.0 Major Achievements ( Contd.)
4.0 Gaps and critical issues 4.1 Quality of coverage is the emerging area of concern. Bangladesh is one of the most vulnerable countries to the adverse effects of climate change. Sanitation coverage figures in some of the vulnerable areas have suffered huge losses from floods and cyclones. Diarrheal diseases are the second leading cause of child and infant morbidity. Behaviour change through hygiene promotion has received relatively less attention. Need total sanitation coverage. 4.2 Resource gap and unspent allocation Despite an increase allocation, it is estimated that there will be a resource gap in the sectoral investment to achieve. On the other hand, with regard to fund utilisation, Local Government Division shows that not all the available funds are utilised.
4.0 Gaps and critical issues (Contd.) 4.3 Insufficient monitoring and accountability No national format to document and report WASH progress and outcomes. The Sanitation Secretariat mainly depends on their Upazila level staff for the collection of data. Policy Support Unit of MoLGRDC has taken an initiative to develop a national MIS on WaSH and make it institutionalised. 4.4 Private Sector Participation Private sector is also encouraged in areas where supportive conditions exist, for their effective and economic involvement, and thereby facilitate the public sector to focus in other areas where there is a comparative advantage and when the goods and services are of public nature.
4.4 Private Sector Participation(Contd.) The private sector participation in sanitation service in Bangladesh, be categorized into three market segments shown schematically in Figure 2. Open market: Hardware shops selling watsan products directly to the buyers. Small scale service providers: Small businesses like operators of rural piped water supply and NGOs operating water points in slums. Urban WSS utilities: WSS utilities risk is shared between the private sector and public sector.
4.0 Gaps and critical issues (Contd.) 4.5 Addressing Vulnerable Groups Much more needs to be done in various national and some sanitation policies and strategies to address the vulnerable groups. The issue is highlighted in two groups: general and vulnerable group specific General vulnerable groups are need to be further emphasized in policies and strategies. Absence of mechanism for effective monitoring and evaluation of Vulnerable group. Lack of disaggregated data of vulnerable groups. Vulnerable Group Specific Disability: The Bangladesh Disability Welfare Act does not provide clear definitions of disability and is not based on a right-based approach. Children: Children should be focused on having access to sanitary latrines.
4.0 Gaps and critical issues (Contd.) 4.6 Addressing Urban Sanitation Challenges Urban sanitation is posing a great challenge in achieving the national goal of sanitation. Several events have already taken place to address important issues related to sanitation development in city corporations. Following recommendations are being considered by the government in order to accelerate progress in the city corporations: Formation of zonal level sanitation committees Activating the taskforce committees. Formulating appropriate policy for slum dwellers. Appropriate technology options of WSS facilities for city corporation areas. Improve Faecal Sludge Management (FSM) & solid waste management system. Ensuring Monitoring & Evaluation of sanitation activities. Ensuring adequate financing for 100% sanitation. Developing and enforcing appropriate “Sanitation Laws”.
5.0 Plan of Action The national Plan of Action (2011-2013) and subsequently local action plans will be prepared targeting sanitation for all by 2013. To address the gaps with respect to sanitation coverage, hygiene promotion, environmental sanitation, appropriate technologies, urban sanitation issues, quality sanitation, coordination and monitoring, institutional aspects, reaching the hard to reach areas, financing and sustainability. Attention will be given to cover the entire population with at least basic level of safe sanitation. Greater attention will be given to encourage people at the grassroots level to participate in shaping up their local action plans.
6.0 Renewed national commitments: BanglaSan 2011 National Sanitation Conference in the name of ‘BANGLASAN 2011’ held for the first time in Bangladesh during January 5 - 6, 2011. BanglaSan was organized with the aim to critically review the national sanitation scenario with the participation of different stakeholders from different parts of the country; and formulate thereof a road map to achieve sanitation for every households by 2013. Conference also aimed to reiterate current Government’s firm commitment on sanitation. The main points which were captured in the BanglaSan Declaration were as follows: A national sanitation census on urgent basis to determine the actual sanitation situation will be carried out; based upon which national and local action plans & programmes will be taken to achieve 100% sanitation. Necessary efforts of financing area-wise demands and plans based on the information generated from the national sanitation census will be made. Especially, the minimum 20% allocation of the local government and LGSP will be used for sanitation promotion.
6.0 Renewed national commitments: BanglaSan 2011(Contd.) The main points which were captured in the BanglaSan Declaration were as follows ( Contd.): Special programmes on sanitation for underserved areas in terms of sanitation specially the hill tracts, char, haor, coastal areas, islands, tea gardens, slums, Barind tract, disaster-prone and poverty-stricken areas will be taken and implemented on a priority-basis. Formulation and revision of necessary strategy papers including urban sanitation policy will be done; A national sanitation census on urgent basis to determine the actual sanitation situation will be carried out; based upon which national and local action plans & programmes will be taken to achieve 100% sanitation. Necessary efforts of financing area-wise demands and plans based on the information generated from the national sanitation census will be made. Especially, the minimum 20% allocation of the local government and LGSP will be used for sanitation promotion. Special programmes on sanitation for underserved areas in terms of sanitation specially the hill tracts, char, haor, coastal areas, islands, tea gardens, slums, Barind tract, disaster-prone and poverty-stricken areas will be taken and implemented on a priority-basis. Formulation and revision of necessary strategy papers including urban sanitation policy will be done;
6.0 Renewed national commitments: BanglaSan 2011 (Contd.) The main points which were captured in the BanglaSan Declaration were as follows ( Contd.): Priority will be given to the demands of underprivileged population, disabled persons, senior citizens, women and children in every sanitation-related programme. For this, relevant policies and strategy papers will be revised. It will be encouraged to develop child, woman, disabled and environment- friendly latrine infrastructure. In this regard capacity of local businessmen, smith men, and others related will be increased. Considering the present market price and quality the price of latrines supplied through government allocation will be re-set according to area-wise market price. Research programmes will be conducted to innovate appropriate & sustainable technologies considering the social, geophysical, environmental (i.e. water logging, salinity, drought, char and disaster-related) issues. The research works will be used in the national sanitation programme. Programmes will be taken for the development of urban sanitation & waste management especially for the low-income people and slum dwellers. Wherever there will be a population living, sanitation service will be ensured there.
6.0 Renewed national commitments: BanglaSan 2011 (Contd.) The main points which were captured in the BanglaSan Declaration were as follows ( Contd.): Equal importance will be given to institutional sanitation including hygiene education. School sanitation programmes will be strengthened. A hygiene strategy paper will be formulated for this. It will be ensured to take and implement sanitation programmes based on partnership, transparency and accountability; and Above all, a cell/wing of LGD will monitor and evaluate the sanitation programme and its progress and will bring it to the attention of policy-makers. The BanglaSan expressed firm conviction that, through implementing the above- mentioned directions, Sanitation for All by 2013 will be ensured.