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“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!” AerodynamicsAerodynamics Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots.

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Presentation on theme: "“Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!” AerodynamicsAerodynamics Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots."— Presentation transcript:

1 “Teaching the Science, Inspiring the Art, Producing Aviation Candidates!” AerodynamicsAerodynamics Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame Written for the Notre Dame Pilot Initiative By the Pilots of the University of Notre Dame Getting to the Point Orville WrightWilbur Wright

2 Four Forces of Flight  Lift opposes Weight  Thrust opposes Drag  In straight, unaccelerated flight, L = W & T = D  Lift opposes Weight  Thrust opposes Drag  In straight, unaccelerated flight, L = W & T = D  Lift created by pressure differential around wing. High pressure on lower surface and low pressure on the upper surface – low pressure caused by increased airflow velocity over top of airfoil.  Weight – downward force of gravity  Drag – rearward retarding force  Thrust – forward force propelling airplane through air  Lift created by pressure differential around wing. High pressure on lower surface and low pressure on the upper surface – low pressure caused by increased airflow velocity over top of airfoil.  Weight – downward force of gravity  Drag – rearward retarding force  Thrust – forward force propelling airplane through air

3 AirfoilsAirfoils  What is NACA?  National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics  Chartered in 1915, operational from  The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 created NASA from NACA  What is NACA?  National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics  Chartered in 1915, operational from  The National Aeronautics and Space Act of 1958 created NASA from NACA

4 Aerodynamic Surfaces

5 Jet Prop B727 Spoilers

6 Airfoils - Nomenclature  Chord line - straight line connecting the leading and trailing edges of an airfoil  Camber line – locus of all points equidistant from top and bottom of airfoil  Camber – distance between chord line and camber line  Thickness – maximum distance between top and bottom surfaces of wing  Leading Edge  Trailing Edge  Wingspan (b)  Aspect Ratio (AR = b 2 /S)  Chord line - straight line connecting the leading and trailing edges of an airfoil  Camber line – locus of all points equidistant from top and bottom of airfoil  Camber – distance between chord line and camber line  Thickness – maximum distance between top and bottom surfaces of wing  Leading Edge  Trailing Edge  Wingspan (b)  Aspect Ratio (AR = b 2 /S) Low p High p

7 FrostFrost  If wing is below dewpoint which is below freezing, frost will form  Sublimation of air to solid ice crystals  Disrupts smooth airflow over the wing  If wing is below dewpoint which is below freezing, frost will form  Sublimation of air to solid ice crystals  Disrupts smooth airflow over the wing  Why is this bad?  Decreases lift  Increases drag  Frost removed before take-off  Rime Ice  Clear Ice

8 Angle of Attack  Angle between wing chord line and relative wind  The angle of attack at which airplane stalls does not change  Angle between wing chord line and relative wind  The angle of attack at which airplane stalls does not change

9 Published NACA Data – NACA 2415

10 Airfoils - Nomenclature

11 FlapsFlaps  Flaps increase lift and decrease stall speed  Flaps allow steep rate of descent for approaches without increasing airspeed  Flaps increase lift and decrease stall speed  Flaps allow steep rate of descent for approaches without increasing airspeed Fowler Flap Split Flap Slotted Flap Plain Flap -Slotted Flap allows high pressure air underneath wing to join airflow above wing. This effectively increases velocity of top airflow and thus increases lift. -Fowler Flap effectively increases the wing area by rolling backwards on a roller system.

12 Laminar v. Turbulent Laminar flow about a sphere

13 Laminar v. Turbulent Turbulent flow about a sphere

14 Bernoulli’s Principle - Lift  “As the velocity of a fluid increases, its internal pressure decreases.”  From Newton’s 2 nd (F=ma)  Shown by Venturi tube  “As the velocity of a fluid increases, its internal pressure decreases.”  From Newton’s 2 nd (F=ma)  Shown by Venturi tube Low Pressure High Pressure A 1 V 1 =A 2 V 2

15 Bernoulli’s Principle Again Courtesy of FAA: Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, AC 61-23B

16 Bernoulli’s Principle Again Courtesy of FAA: Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, AC 61-23B

17 Bernoulli’s Principle Again Courtesy of FAA: Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, AC 61-23B

18 Lift Vector Courtesy of FAA: Pilot’s Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge, AC 61-23B

19 Drag Types  Induced drag is the unavoidable by-product of lift and increases as the angle of attack increases  Parasite drag is caused by any aircraft surface that deflects or interferes with smooth airflow around airplane  Skin-friction drag - between the outer surfaces of the aircraft and the air through which it moves. Reduced by using glossy, flat finishes on surfaces  Form drag - resistance of air to the shape of the aircraft. Form drag can be reduced by streamlining the aircraft shape.  Induced drag is the unavoidable by-product of lift and increases as the angle of attack increases  Parasite drag is caused by any aircraft surface that deflects or interferes with smooth airflow around airplane  Skin-friction drag - between the outer surfaces of the aircraft and the air through which it moves. Reduced by using glossy, flat finishes on surfaces  Form drag - resistance of air to the shape of the aircraft. Form drag can be reduced by streamlining the aircraft shape.

20 Drag – Body Comparison cylinder airfoil sphere

21 Wingtip Vortices – “Twin Tornadoes” ‘High pressure on the lower surface creates a natural airflow that makes its way to the wingtip and curls upward around it to the area of low pressure. When flow around the wingtips streams out behind the airplane, a vortex is formed. These twisters represent an energy loss and are strong enough to flip airplanes that blunder into them.’ A few words on wingtip vortices:

22 Wingtip Vortices

23 Why Winglets?  Equivalent to span extension w/o increased wingspan  Reduces wingtip vortices  Reduces drag  Equivalent to span extension w/o increased wingspan  Reduces wingtip vortices  Reduces drag NASA B-727 Wingtip Vortex Test Flight Learn more about winglets:

24 Drag – Ground Effect TIP: On a soft-field runway, you can takeoff at a lower speed and then accelerate while in “Ground Effect.”

25 Drag vs Angle of Attack Relationship between drag and angle of attack

26 Torque / P-factor (Left-Turning Tendencies)  Newton’s 3 rd law: “For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.”  Propeller rotates CW when viewed from pilot’s seat.  Torque reaction rotates the airplane CCW about longitudinal axis  P-factor (asymmetrical thrust) caused by descending blade taking a greater “bite” of air than ascending blade at high angle of attack  Newton’s 3 rd law: “For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.”  Propeller rotates CW when viewed from pilot’s seat.  Torque reaction rotates the airplane CCW about longitudinal axis  P-factor (asymmetrical thrust) caused by descending blade taking a greater “bite” of air than ascending blade at high angle of attack

27 Stability & Control  Center of Gravity concerns:  Unable to compensate with elevator in pitch axis  Weight and Balance becomes critical – taught in a coming lecture  Center of Gravity concerns:  Unable to compensate with elevator in pitch axis  Weight and Balance becomes critical – taught in a coming lecture  Inherently stable airplane returns to its original condition after being disturbed. Requires less effort to control

28 Stability & Control yaw roll pitch  The 3 axes of motion: roll, pitch, yaw

29 Tail Placements Looks like the A-10 Also called “H-Tail”

30 CanardsCanards  Stabilizer located in front of the main wings  Used on the Wright Flyer  More aerodynamically efficient than an elevator b/c canards provide positive lift  Stabilizer located in front of the main wings  Used on the Wright Flyer  More aerodynamically efficient than an elevator b/c canards provide positive lift

31 Accident Report – Loss of Elevator AIRCRAFT FINAL REPORT THE AIRCRAFT HAD JUST BEEN REPAIRED AFTER RECEIVING TORNADO DAMAGE. THIS REPAIR INCLUDED REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT OF THE ELEVATOR CONTROL TUBE. THE PILOT TAXIED TO THE RUNWAY FOR THE PURPOSE OF A TEST FLIGHT. ALL FLIGHT CONTROL CHECKS APPEARED NORMAL. AFTER LIFT-OFF, THE PILOT INTENDED TO LEVEL OFF AT 5 TO 10 FEET, THEN TOUCH DOWN AGAIN. HOWEVER, AFTER THE AIRPLANE BECAME AIRBORNE, HE LOST ELEVATOR CONTROL, AND THE AIRCRAFT CLIMBED STEEPLY TO 50 TO 75 FEET. THE PILOT THEN REDUCED POWER, THE AIRCRAFT'S NOSE DROPPED, AND THE AIRCRAFT DESCENDED. WITH NO ELEVATOR CONTROL, THE PILOT WAS UNABLE TO ARREST THE DESCENT, AND THE AIRCRAFT IMPACTED THE GROUND. A POST-CRASH EXAMINATION REVEALED THAT A BOLT AND NUT WERE MISSING FROM THE ELEVATOR CONTROL LINKAGE, WHICH ALLOWED THE LINKAGE TO BECOME DISCONNECTED. AIRCRAFT 1 CAUSE REPORT FAILURE OF MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL TO PROPERLY REINSTALL A BOLT AND NUT IN THE ELEVATOR CONTROL LINKAGE, WHICH RESULTED IN A DISCONNECT OF THE LINKAGE AND LOSS OF ELEVATOR CONTROL. AIRCRAFT FINAL REPORT THE AIRCRAFT HAD JUST BEEN REPAIRED AFTER RECEIVING TORNADO DAMAGE. THIS REPAIR INCLUDED REMOVAL AND REPLACEMENT OF THE ELEVATOR CONTROL TUBE. THE PILOT TAXIED TO THE RUNWAY FOR THE PURPOSE OF A TEST FLIGHT. ALL FLIGHT CONTROL CHECKS APPEARED NORMAL. AFTER LIFT-OFF, THE PILOT INTENDED TO LEVEL OFF AT 5 TO 10 FEET, THEN TOUCH DOWN AGAIN. HOWEVER, AFTER THE AIRPLANE BECAME AIRBORNE, HE LOST ELEVATOR CONTROL, AND THE AIRCRAFT CLIMBED STEEPLY TO 50 TO 75 FEET. THE PILOT THEN REDUCED POWER, THE AIRCRAFT'S NOSE DROPPED, AND THE AIRCRAFT DESCENDED. WITH NO ELEVATOR CONTROL, THE PILOT WAS UNABLE TO ARREST THE DESCENT, AND THE AIRCRAFT IMPACTED THE GROUND. A POST-CRASH EXAMINATION REVEALED THAT A BOLT AND NUT WERE MISSING FROM THE ELEVATOR CONTROL LINKAGE, WHICH ALLOWED THE LINKAGE TO BECOME DISCONNECTED. AIRCRAFT 1 CAUSE REPORT FAILURE OF MAINTENANCE PERSONNEL TO PROPERLY REINSTALL A BOLT AND NUT IN THE ELEVATOR CONTROL LINKAGE, WHICH RESULTED IN A DISCONNECT OF THE LINKAGE AND LOSS OF ELEVATOR CONTROL.


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