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Chapter 14 Vertebrates - Part I Fish, Amphibians & Reptiles.

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Presentation on theme: "Chapter 14 Vertebrates - Part I Fish, Amphibians & Reptiles."— Presentation transcript:

1 Chapter 14 Vertebrates - Part I Fish, Amphibians & Reptiles

2 Ch 14.1 – Chordates & Vertebrates A.Chordates have 4 characteristics present at some stage of their development: - Notochord - Postanal Tail - Postanal Tail - Nerve Cord - Pharyngeal Pouches - Pharyngeal Pouches

3 1. The internal notochord extends along the length of the body supporting it a) It extends to the postanal tail which is a muscular structure at end of the body Postanal Tail

4 2. A nerve cord develops parallel to the notochord and becomes the brain and spinal cord a) If the animal is a vertebrate, the notochord will be replaced by backbones that surround and protect the nerve cord

5 3. Pharyngeal pouches are found in a region b/w the mouth and digestive tube and will develop into lungs or gills

6 B. Vertebrates are chordates that have some additional distinctive characteristics 1. Have an endoskeleton which includes a stack of vertebrae and cartilage that forms the backbone

7 a) Backbone protects spinal nerve cord b) Skull protects the brain

8 2. Vertebrates are either cold-blooded ectotherms or warm-blooded endotherms 3. Vertebrates appeared in various stages beginning with water dwelling animals about 420 million years ago to as recently as 38 million years ago when modern mammals appeared

9 Ch 14.2 - Fish A.F ish Characteristics - ectotherms with streamline shape 1. Breathing & Respiration a) Gills – used for gas exchange (breathing) in water

10 b) Oxygenated blood pumped through a small two-chambered heart

11 2. Sensory systems are well developed a) Lateral line system of pores on the side of body allows to sense slightest water movements around them

12 3. Tail & Fins a) Muscular tail used to propel forward b) Fins used for steering

13 4. Scales – attached to endoskeleton; cover and protect the body Placoid Scales (Sharks) Cosmoid Scales (Lungfish) Ganoid scales (Gar) Cycloid Scales (Perch) Ctenoid Scales (Paradise Fish) Dried Scale w/Annuli Rings

14 5. Feeding Adaptations – use variety of structures including beaks, electric shock, and filter feeding Whale Shark Parrot Fish Electric Eel Lamprey

15 6. Reproduction 1. Sexual reproduction used and offspring develop in eggs 2. Some use external fertilization while others use internal fertilization

16 B. Classification of Fish (3 groups) 1. Jawless Fish a) Round, jawless, toothed mouths b) Long, tube-like bodies c) Slimy, scaleless skin d) Endoskeleton of cartilage

17 e) Examples: Hagfish & Lamprey

18 2. Cartilaginous Fish a) Moveable jaws b) Endoskeleton of cartilage c) Well developed teeth d) Tiny scales that make skin feel like sandpaper

19 e) Examples: Sharks, Skates & Rays

20 3. Bony Fish a) Make up 95% of fish species b) Endoskeleton made of bone c) Most have swim bladder to allow control of buoyancy to rise or fall in water

21 d) 3 types of bony fish  Lobe-finned – have fleshy, lobe-like fins Coelocanth

22  Lungfish – have one lung and gills allowing them to live in shallow water African lungfish

23  Ray-finned – have fins made of long, thin bones covered with skin; lots of variety in body plans

24 C. Importance of Fish 1. Provide food for many animals 2. Help keep insect populations in balance

25 Ch 14.3 - Amphibians A.Amphibian Characteristics – from Greek word amphibos meaning “double life” 1. Ectotherms most with smooth skin 2. Some breath through pores in skin; others have small simple lungs in chest 3. Have a 3-chambered heart

26 Characteristics Continued 3. Engage in hibernation during Winter and estivation during Summer 4. Require water for reproduction; eggs are fertilized externally in or near water 5. Undergo developmental process called metamorphosis

27 Amphibian Metamorphosis

28 B. Types of Amphibians 1. Frogs – have well developed leg muscles for jumping and swimming; able to see in nearly all directions Leopard Frog

29 More Frogs Horned Frog African Dwarf Frog Green Tree Frog Red-Eyed Tree Frog Barking Tree Frog Bronze Frog

30 And More… Green Frog Chorus Frog Bullfrog Bullfrog Tadpole

31 Poison Dart Frogs

32 2. Toads – have shorter hind legs and dryer, bumpy skin Fact or Fiction: You get warts from touching a toad… False!! American Toad

33 More Toads Fowler’s Toad Southern Toad Australian Cane Toad American Toad

34 3. Salamanders – nocturnal amphibians that resemble lizards but have smooth, moist skin instead of scales Tiger Salamander

35 More Salamanders Spotted Salamander 3-lined Salamander Cave SalamanderSlender Salamander Black Salamander Not yet named

36 Salamander Metamorphosis Have feathery external gills during tadpole stages

37 4. Newts – salamanders that remain living under water for much of their adult lives Eastern Newts

38 C. Importance of Amphibians 1. Help keep insect populations in balance 2. Provide food for other animals 3. Very sensitive to pollution and other environmental changes so can be used as biological indicators

39 E. Amphibian Evolution 1. Thought to have evolved from lobe- finned fish about 350 million years ago

40 Ch 14.4 - Reptiles A.Reptile Characteristics 1. Ectotherms with thick, dry skin covered in scales a) Skin may be shed several times each year

41 2. Respiration & Breathing a) Reptiles are land animals that breath with lungs b) Blood is circulated through a 3-chambered heart for most however crocodilians have 4

42 3. Reproduction a) Internal fertilization is used and eggs are then laid by the female b) Produce amniotic eggs which provide a complete environment for the embryo’s development

43 4. Diversity – reptiles live on every continent except Antarctica and in all but polar oceans

44 B. Reptiles are placed into 3 groups:  Lizards & Snakes  Turtles  Crocodilians

45 1. Lizards a) elongated bodies with 4 legs, b) external ears c) unhinge able jaw for swallowing prey d) more than 5000 species

46 Lizards… Chameleon Anoles iguana

47 More Lizards… Thorny Devil Amphisbaenia (Legless) Gecko

48 And More… Fence Lizard

49 And Even More… Horned Toad (Short-Horned Lizard) Texas Horned Lizard

50 And More Again… Ground Skink Broadhead Skink

51 Frilled Lizard

52 Venomous Lizards Beaded Lizard Gila Monster Komodo Dragon


54 2. Snakes a) More than 2700 species b) Elongated bodies with no legs c) Can unhinge jaw for feeding


56 d) All have teeth but the poisonous ones have fangs which are hollow teeth that venom is released from to kill their prey

57 e) Snakes do not have outer ears for hearing sound waves, however they can sense vibrations created by movements

58 f) Some can smell with nose but ALL can detect scent molecules with their tongue; when brought back into mouth molecules touch Jacobson’s organ on roof of mouth which interprets smell when brought back into mouth molecules touch Jacobson’s organ on roof of mouth which interprets smell "I smell you!"

59 g) Some have a heat-sensitive pit organ between each eye and nostril which together help it accurately aim its strike pit organpit organ at its warm-blooded prey

60 Non-venomous Snakes Garter Snake Ribbon Snake Rat Snake Racer Green Snake Scarlet King

61 More Non-venomous… Corn Snake Rubber Boa Hognose Snake Corn Snake Hognose Snake Coachwhip

62 Boa Constrictors (Non-Venomous)  Have Pit Organs

63 Pythons Related to Boa Constrictors – (Non-Venomous)

64 Anacondas AKA Water Boas (Another non-venomous constrictor)

65 Venomous Snakes AKA Vipers Rattlesnakes Coral Snakes Copperheads Water Moccasins/ Cottonmouths

66 Cobras King Cobra – world’s largest poisonous snake

67 3.Turtles – have a 2 part shell made of a hard bony plate that protects from predators

68 4. Crocodilians – lizard shaped with large deep scales on backs; 3 groups a) Crocodiles – triangular shaped snout

69 b) Alligators – rounded snout

70 c) Gavials – slender snout w/bump on end; found in water ways of India

71 C. Reptile Importance – necessary predators to keep the insect population under control D. Reptile Evolution – first appeared in fossil record about 345 million years ago; are decedents of dinosaurs

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