Presentation on theme: "T HE M OON AND THE S UN. O UR M OON ON F EBRUARY 2, 2011M OON How has the Moon changed the last week? Is there a volunteer to draw what they saw on the."— Presentation transcript:
O UR M OON ON F EBRUARY 2, 2011M OON How has the Moon changed the last week? Is there a volunteer to draw what they saw on the board? What shape would you predict tonight? Does anyone know the name of this Moon phase? Why does this change occur? Did anyone observe the Moon at the same time each evening? Was the Moon always in the same location in the sky?
P HASES OF THE M OONM OON Cycle requires 29.5 days The synodic month Each phase depends on its position relative to the Sun as it orbits Earth
T HE M OON RISES 53 MINUTES LATER EACH DAY Crescent waxing Moon sets in the west at sunset Full Moon rises in the east at sunset Crescent waning Moon rises at sunrise
When the bright part is getting bigger, the Moon is waxing. When it is getting smaller, the Moon is waning. When the Moon is more than half-lit, it is called a gibbous Moon. When the moon is less than half-lit, it is called a crescent Moon. Notice the direction of the crescent moon, waxing versus waning.
W HAT IS THE NAME OF THE M OON ’ S PHASE LAST NIGHT ? Waning crescent
M OON ’ S F ORMATION F ORMATION A large size planet, thought to be the size of Mars, collided with Earth- 4.4 billion years ago Heavier more dense material was held by the Earth’s gravitational pull The debris formed the moon 5.17
D AY SIDE OF THE M OON : HIGH TEMPERATURES N IGHT SIDE : VERY LOW TEMPERATURES Surface scarred with meteor impact craters implies lack of crustal movement. The period (the time it takes to make one complete turn)around the axis and its revolution around Earth are the same. The same lunar hemisphere always faces Earth
T HE SIDEREAL MONTH : WHEN THE E ARTH, M OON, AND DISTANT STARS ARE ALIGNED
S EASONS The impact, set the Earth on its axis 23.5 degrees Seasons help regulate the Earth’s temperature
M OON ’ S GRAVITATIONAL FORCE INFLUENCES THE E ARTH ’ S TIDES TIDES Variations of tides is determined by the Moon’s location in respect to the Earth and Sun.
The Sun and Earth lie in one plane The Moon’s orbit around Earth lies in another The shadows of either Moon or Earth are normally avoided Two times a year this pattern is changed. New moon Sun Earth 5.2° Full moon
L UNAR E CLIPSE, A UGUST 28, 2007 The moon passes through the Earth’s shadow
F EBRUARY 9, 2009 Penumbra lunar eclipse Sketch a diagram of a lunar eclipse. Label the Sun, Moon, Earth, umbra and penumbra. Sketch a circle where a penumbra lunar eclipse would be located.
J UNE 15, 2011, L UNAR ECLIPSE Draw a diagram showing a lunar eclipse and label with the following terms: Sun; Earth; Moon; umbra and penumbra
O UR S TARS TAR Early people worshiped the Sun Mid-1800s: size and distance was understood Late 1800s: gravitational contraction A shrinking gas cloud heats up because some of the gravitational energy is converted to thermal energy
C OLLAPSE OF LARGER STAR : S UPERNOVA Formation of heavier elements Protostar heats up- fusion: H He Star is created Supernova explosion creates more complex elements
W HY DOES THE S UN S HINE ? Einstein’s theory of relativity in 1905 E = mc 2 E= energy M= mass C= speed of light(186,000m/s) An enormous amount of energy produced from a tiny mass
W HY D OES THE S UN S HINE ? Fusion: Fusion: the combination of elements- increasing the atomic number
W HERE IS OUR SUN IN THIS PROCESS ? 5 billion years old 5 billion more years to go
H YDROGEN FUEL IS EXHAUSTED IN CORE : FUSION CONTINUES IN OUTER SHELL Core contracts. The contraction causes an increase in temperature.
R ED G IANT F ORMS : INCREASE OF ENERGY Outer gaseous shell expands
In 5 billion years our sun will form a red giant star The size will increase to include the location of the Earth’s orbit When all fuel is consumed, gravitational force will cause collapse into a planetary nebula
P LANETARY N EBULA Collapsed expanding spherical cloud of gas Helix Nebula: planetary nebula 450 light years away
W HITE DWARF IS FORMED No more nuclear reactions Gravitational force will no longer pull gas into contraction Glows because of its residual heat
H OW DOES THE S UN MAINTAIN ITS SIZE ? High temperatures and densities are in the Sun’s core Gravitational force pulls inward Pressure pushes outward Gravitational equilibrium
T HE S UN ’ S STRUCTURE The sun is a ball of plasma - free flowing atomic particles can create and respond to magnetic fields Different densities and temperatures of the plasma give the Sun a layered structure
S UN ’ S SIZE SIZE 300,000 times the mass of Earth Diameter is 865,000 miles (Earth’s diameter, 8,000 miles)
S OLAR A CTIVITYA CTIVITY Sun’s surface churns with rising and falling gas Sunspots: spots that are less bright because they are cooler Regions with strong magnetic fields Charged particles from the plasma follow the magnetic field lines
S OLAR A CTIVITY Solar flares: changes in magnetic field lines near sunspots Magnetic field lines become twisted and are unable to maintain the shape Generating X-rays and charged particles nearly the speed of light
S OLAR W IND A stream of charged particles continually blown outward in all directions from the Sun Earth’s strong magnetic field protects the planet from the magnetic field Forms the tails of comets as they move toward the Sun Magnetosphere: formed from the magnetic field, shown in blue
S OLAR W IND AuroraAurora: borealis (northern); australis (southern) borealis (northern Solar wind particles get inside the magnetosphere Trapped particles gain energy and are able to follow the magnetic field into the Earth’s atmosphere Particles collide with atmospheric atoms and molecules Collisions cause moving lights