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1 Boundless Lecture Slides Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Available on the Boundless Teaching Platform

2 Using Boundless Presentations The Appendix The appendix is for you to use to add depth and breadth to your lectures. You can simply drag and drop slides from the appendix into the main presentation to make for a richer lecture experience. Free to edit, share, and copy Feel free to edit, share, and make as many copies of the Boundless presentations as you like. We encourage you to take these presentations and make them your own. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless Teaching Platform Boundless empowers educators to engage their students with affordable, customizable textbooks and intuitive teaching tools. The free Boundless Teaching Platform gives educators the ability to customize textbooks in more than 20 subjects that align to hundreds of popular titles. Get started by using high quality Boundless books, or make switching to our platform easier by building from Boundless content pre-organized to match the assigned textbook. This platform gives educators the tools they need to assign readings and assessments, monitor student activity, and lead their classes with pre-made teaching resources. Get started now at: If you have any questions or problems please

3 Boundless is an innovative technology company making education more affordable and accessible for students everywhere. The company creates the world’s best open educational content in 20+ subjects that align to more than 1,000 popular college textbooks. Boundless integrates learning technology into all its premium books to help students study more efficiently at a fraction of the cost of traditional textbooks. The company also empowers educators to engage their students more effectively through customizable books and intuitive teaching tools as part of the Boundless Teaching Platform. More than 2 million learners access Boundless free and premium content each month across the company’s wide distribution platforms, including its website, iOS apps, Kindle books, and iBooks. To get started learning or teaching with Boundless, visit boundless.com.boundless.com Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at About Boundless

4 Pairs of Unit Factors, or Genes Alleles Can Be Dominant or Recessive Equal Segregation of Alleles Independent Assortment Linked Genes Violate the Law of Independent Assortment Epistasis Laws of Inheritance Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Laws of Inheritance Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at

5 A gene is a stretch of DNA that helps to control the development and function of all organs and working systems in the body. Genes are passed from parent to offspring; the combination of these genes affects all aspects of the human body, from eye and hair color to how well the liver can process toxins. A human will inherit 23 chromosomes from its mother and 23 from its father; together, these form 23 pairs of chromosomes that direct the inherited characteristics of the individual. If the two copies of a gene inherited from each parent are the same, that individual is said to be homozygous for the gene; if the two copies inherited from each parent are different, that individual is said to be heterozygous for the gene. Pairs of Unit Factors, or Genes Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at factors-or-genes Gene pairs enable genetic combinations View on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Laws of Inheritance

6 Dominant alleles are expressed exclusively in a heterozygote, while recessive traits are expressed only if the organism is homozygous for the recessive allele. A single allele may be dominant over one allele, but recessive to another. Not all traits are controlled by simple dominance as a form of inheritance; more complex forms of inheritance have been found to exist. Alleles Can Be Dominant or Recessive Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at dominant-or-recessive Recessive traits are only visible if an individual inherits two copies of the recessive allele View on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Laws of Inheritance

7 Each gamete acquires one of the two alleles as chromosomes separate into different gametes during meiosis. Heterozygotes, which posess one dominant and one recessive allele, can receive each allele from either parent and will look identical to homozygous dominant individuals; the Law of Segregation supports Mendel's observed 3:1 phenotypic ratio. Mendel proposed the Law of Segregation after observing that pea plants with two different traits produced offspring that all expressed the dominant trait, but the following generation expressed the dominant and recessive traits in a 3:1 ratio. Equal Segregation of Alleles Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at segregation-of-alleles The Law of Segregation states that alleles segregate randomly into gametes View on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Laws of Inheritance

8 Mendel's law of independent assortment states that genes do not influence each other with regard to the sorting of alleles into gametes; every possible combination of alleles for every gene is equally likely to occur. The calculation of any particular genotypic combination of more than one gene is, therefore, the probability of the desired genotype at the first locus multiplied by the probability of the desired genotype at the other loci. The forked line method can be used to calculate the chances of all possible genotypic combinations from a cross, while the probability method can be used to calculate the chance of any one particular genotype that might result from that cross. Independent Assortment Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at assortment Independent assortment of 2 genes View on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Laws of Inheritance

9 Two genes close together on the same chromosome tend to be inherited together and are said to be linked. Linked genes can be separated by recombination in which homologous chromosomes exchange genetic information during meiosis; this results in parental, or nonrecombinant genotypes, as well as a smaller proportion of recombinant genotypes. Geneticists can use the amount of recombination between genes to estimate the distance between them on a chromosome. Linked Genes Violate the Law of Independent Assortment Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at violate-the-law-of-independent-assortment Unlinked genes assort independently View on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Laws of Inheritance

10 In many cases, several genes may contribute to a particular phenotype; when the actions of one gene masks the effects of another, this gene is said to be epistatic to the second. Epistasis can occur when a recessive genotype masks the actions of another gene, or when a dominant allele masks the effects of another gene. Epistasis can be reciprocal: either gene, when present in the dominant (or recessive) form, expresses the same phenotype. Any single characteristic that results in a phenotypic ratio that totals 16 (such as 12:3:1, 9:3:4, or others) is typical of a two-gene interaction. Epistasis Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Epistasis in mouse coat color View on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity > Laws of Inheritance

11 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Appendix

12 Key terms chromosome a structure in the cell nucleus that contains DNA, histone protein, and other structural proteins dominant a relationship between alleles of a gene, in which one allele masks the expression (phenotype) of another allele at the same locus epistasis the modification of the expression of a gene by another unrelated one gene a unit of heredity; the functional units of chromosomes that determine specific characteristics by coding for specific proteins genetics the branch of biology that deals with the transmission and variation of inherited characteristics, in particular chromosomes and DNA independent assortment separate genes for separate traits are passed independently of one another from parents to offspring law of segregation a diploid individual possesses a pair of alleles for any particular trait and each parent passes one of these randomly to its offspring linkage the property of genes of being inherited together recessive able to be covered up by a dominant trait recombination the formation of genetic combinations in offspring that are not present in the parents Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

13 Gene pairs enable genetic combinations A child will inherit half of its genes (one of each of its 23 pairs) from its mother and the other half from its father. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikipedia. "BenToddJealousFamily." CC BY-SA View on Boundless.comCC BY-SAhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:BenToddJealousFamily.jpgView on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

14 Recessive traits are only visible if an individual inherits two copies of the recessive allele The child in the photo expresses albinism, a recessive trait. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/Figure_12_03_01.jpgView on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

15 The Law of Segregation states that alleles segregate randomly into gametes When gametes are formed, each allele of one parent segregates randomly into the gametes, such that half of the parent's gametes carry each allele. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Wikimedia. "Autorecessive." CC BY-SA View on Boundless.comCC BY-SAhttp://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Autorecessive.svgView on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

16 Independent assortment of 2 genes This dihybrid cross of pea plants involves the genes for seed color and texture. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/Figure_12_03_02.jpgView on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

17 Independent assortment of 3 genes The forked-line method can be used to analyze a trihybrid cross.Here, the probability for color in the F2 generation occupies the top row (3 yellow:1 green).The probability for shape occupies the second row (3 round:1 wrinked), and the probability for height occupies the third row (3 tall:1 dwarf).The probability for each possible combination of traits is calculated by multiplying the probability for each individual trait.Thus, the probability of F2 offspring having yellow, round, and tall traits is 3 × 3 × 3, or 27. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/Figure_12_03_03.jpgView on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

18 Linked genes can be separated by recombination The process of crossover, or recombination, occurs when two homologous chromosomes align during meiosis and exchange a segment of genetic material.Here, the alleles for gene C were exchanged.The result is two recombinant and two non-recombinant chromosomes. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/Figure_12_03_04.jpgView on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

19 Unlinked genes assort independently This figure shows all possible combinations of offspring resulting from a dihybrid cross of pea plants that are heterozygous for the tall/dwarf and inflated/constricted alleles. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/Figure_12_03_06_new.jpgView on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

20 Epistasis in mouse coat color In mice, the mottled agouti coat color (A) is dominant to a solid coloration, such as black or gray.A gene at a separate locus (C) is responsible for pigment production.The recessive c allele does not produce pigmentnand a mouse with the homozygous recessive cc genotype is albino regardless of the allele present at the A locus.Thus, the C gene is epistatic to the A gene. Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Connexions. "Print." CC BY 3.0 View on Boundless.comCC BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/Figure_12_03_05.jpgView on Boundless.com Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

21 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity A horse has 64 chromosomes. How many does it inherit from each parent? A) 32 B) 64 C) 16 D) 8

22 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Mendel's Experiments and Heredity A horse has 64 chromosomes. How many does it inherit from each parent? A) 32 B) 64 C) 16 D) 8

23 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Which of the following traits is NOT controlled by genetics? A) Hair color B) A poison oak rash C) Shoe size D) Colon cancer

24 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Which of the following traits is NOT controlled by genetics? A) Hair color B) A poison oak rash C) Shoe size D) Colon cancer

25 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity If an individual expresses a phenotype associated with a dominant gene, does he or she have a recessive allele for that gene? A) You cannot tell unless you know what the parent's phenotypes are. B) You cannot tell unless you know the genotype of that person. C) You cannot tell unless you know how old the offspring are. D) You cannot tell unless you know how many offspring are produced.

26 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Saylor OER. "BIO102: Introduction to Evolutionary Biology and Ecology « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://www.saylor.org/courses/bio102/ Mendel's Experiments and Heredity If an individual expresses a phenotype associated with a dominant gene, does he or she have a recessive allele for that gene? A) You cannot tell unless you know what the parent's phenotypes are. B) You cannot tell unless you know the genotype of that person. C) You cannot tell unless you know how old the offspring are. D) You cannot tell unless you know how many offspring are produced.

27 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity A plant with red flowers (Rr) is crossed with another plant with red flowers (Rr). What is the probability that an offspring from this cross will have white flowers (rr)? A) 1/2 B) 3/4 C) 1/4 D) 0

28 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Mendel's Experiments and Heredity A plant with red flowers (Rr) is crossed with another plant with red flowers (Rr). What is the probability that an offspring from this cross will have white flowers (rr)? A) 1/2 B) 3/4 C) 1/4 D) 0

29 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity For human blood type, the A and B alleles are codominant, while the O allele is recessive. If an AB mother had children with a B blood type father (genotype BO), what proportion of the children would express the B protein alone? A) 1/4 B) 1/2 C) 3/4 D) 0/4

30 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Saylor OER. "BIO102: Introduction to Evolutionary Biology and Ecology « Saylor.org – Free Online Courses Built by Professors." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://www.saylor.org/courses/bio102/ Mendel's Experiments and Heredity For human blood type, the A and B alleles are codominant, while the O allele is recessive. If an AB mother had children with a B blood type father (genotype BO), what proportion of the children would express the B protein alone? A) 1/4 B) 1/2 C) 3/4 D) 0/4

31 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity If the genotype of one animal is AaBb, and the genotype of the other animal is Aabb, what percentage of their offspring will be AaBb? A) 9/16 B) 1/4 C) 1/2 D) 3/16

32 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Mendel's Experiments and Heredity If the genotype of one animal is AaBb, and the genotype of the other animal is Aabb, what percentage of their offspring will be AaBb? A) 9/16 B) 1/4 C) 1/2 D) 3/16

33 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Two genes, A and B, are linked. Consider that one parent has the genotype AaBb and the other has the genotype aabb. Which of the following genotypes would NOT be considered a recombinant in the offspring? A) AaBb B) It is impossible to tell. C) aaBb D) Aabb

34 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Two genes, A and B, are linked. Consider that one parent has the genotype AaBb and the other has the genotype aabb. Which of the following genotypes would NOT be considered a recombinant in the offspring? A) AaBb B) It is impossible to tell. C) aaBb D) Aabb

35 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Two individuals, both with the genotype AaBb, produce a number of offspring. The dominant "A" allele masks the effect of the "B" genotype. What phenotypic ratio do you expect to see in the offspring? A) 12:3:1 B) 9:3:3:1 C) 9:3:4 D) 15:1

36 Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Boundless - LO. "Boundless." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://www.boundless.com/ Mendel's Experiments and Heredity Two individuals, both with the genotype AaBb, produce a number of offspring. The dominant "A" allele masks the effect of the "B" genotype. What phenotypic ratio do you expect to see in the offspring? A) 12:3:1 B) 9:3:3:1 C) 9:3:4 D) 15:1

37 Attribution Wikibooks. "Human Physiology/Genetics and inheritance." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Connexions. "Laws of Inheritance." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wiktionary. "genetics." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/genetics Wiktionary. "chromosome." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/chromosome Wiktionary. "gene." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/gene Connexions. "Laws of Inheritance." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wikipedia. "Dominance (genetics)." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dominance_(genetics) Wikipedia. "Recessive." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recessive Wiktionary. "recessive." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/recessive Wikipedia. "dominant." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/dominant Wikipedia. "law of segregation." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/law%20of%20segregation Wikibooks. "Structural Biochemistry/Foundation of Genetics." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0 Connexions. "Laws of Inheritance." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wikipedia. "independent assortment." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/independent%20assortment Connexions. "Laws of Inheritance." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Connexions. "Laws of Inheritance." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wiktionary. "recombination." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/recombination Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity

38 Wiktionary. "linkage." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/linkage Connexions. "Laws of Inheritance." CC BY 3.0 BY 3.0http://cnx.org/content/m44479/latest/?collection=col11448/latest Wiktionary. "epistasis." CC BY-SA 3.0 BY-SA 3.0http://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/epistasis Free to share, print, make copies and changes. Get yours at Mendel's Experiments and Heredity


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