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Rice Family: Poaceae Botanical name: Oryza sativa.

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Presentation on theme: "Rice Family: Poaceae Botanical name: Oryza sativa."— Presentation transcript:

1 Rice Family: Poaceae Botanical name: Oryza sativa


3 Rice history The domestication of rice In Southeast Asia.
In Thailand B.C 2. In Ancient India. Mohenjodaro (now in Pakistan) B.C. 3. In China. 7040 yrs old. 4. In Africa (Niger river delta). 1500 B.C.

4 World’s rice growing region

5 Rice facts As a food source for more than a third of world population.
>90% is grown and consumed in Asia. 148 million ha is grown annually. 11% of world’s arable land is planted with rice.

6 World production World ranking China India Indonesia Bangladesh
Vietnam Thailand Myanmar


8 Rice production area and yield
Country Rice area (000 ha) Yield (t/ha) China 30,503 6.23 India 44,600 3.01 USA 1,232 7.04 Egypt 660 9.09 Australia 145 9.6 Uruguay 185 6.35 Japan 1,770 6.7 Indonesia 11,523 4.43 Thailand 10,048 2.33 Vietnam 7,655 4.25 Malaysia 692 2.98 World 153,766 3.89

9 Rice production in Malaysia
Rice is a crucial part of everyday Malaysian diet. In 1998, Malaysia produced 1.94 million metric tons of rice.[1] Malaysia still only produces eighty percent of what it needs to support itself and must import the rest.[5] The average Malaysian citizen consumes 82.3 kilograms of rice per year.


11 Yield production in Malaysia
Average Yield of Wetland Paddy, by State, Malaysia, Main Season, 2009/2010(‘000 kg/ha )

12 http://www. doa. gov. my/c/document_library/get_file

13 http://www. statistics. gov

14 PADI GRANARY AREAS Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA),
Granary Areas refer to major irrigation schemes (areas greater than 4,000 hectares) and recognized by the Government in the National Agricultural Policy as the main paddy producing areas. Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA), Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority(KADA), Kerian-Sungai Manik Integrated Agriculture Development Area, Barat Laut Selangor Integrated Agriculture Development Area, Seberang Perak Integrated Agriculture Development Area, Penang Integrated Agriculture Development Area, North Terengganu Integrated Agriculture Development (KETARA) Integrated Agriculture Development Kemasin Semerak

15 Origin of cultivated rice
Only two cultivated species i. O. sativa The Asian rice. Grown world wide O. glaberrima The African rice. Grown in limited scale in West Africa

16 The evolutionary pathway of cultivated species
GONDWANA LAND (common ancestor) South and Southeast Asia West Africa Wild perennial O. rufipogon O. longistaminata Wild annual O. nivara O. breviligulata Cultivated O. sativa O. sativa O. glaberrima indica japonica Temperate Tropical

17 The rice ecosystem Four major ecosystems are recognized i. Irrigated rice ii. Rainfed lowland rice iii. Upland rice iv. Flood prone (deep water) rice

18 Proportion of rice ecosystem
Floodprone 8% Upland 12% Rainfed lowland 25% Irrigated 55%

19 Irrigated rice Contributes 75% of world rice production.
Modern varieties and modern cultivation techniques further increase crop productivity. Irrigated wet season and irrigated dry season.

20 Rainfed lowland rice About ¼ of the world rice area.
Lower yield relative to irrigated rice (approx 2-3 t per ha).

21 Upland rice Worldwide about 16 mill ha.
Grown under rainfed, well drained soils without surface soil accumulation. Low yield, 1-2 ton ha., mainly due to weeds and low nutrients.

22 Flood prone rice Worldwide about 9 mill ha.
Grown in low lying land in river deltas. Varieties have elongation ability.

23 Any questions

24 Rice morphology

25 Schematic representation
of mature rice plant Fig. 1 Schematic representation of mature rice plant. Itoh J et al. Plant Cell Physiol 2005;46:23-47 ©2005 by Oxford University Press

26 Schematic representation
of rice plant Leaf blade Inflorescence (Panicle) Leaf sheath Fig. 1 Schematic representation of mature rice plant. Crown root Itoh J et al. Plant Cell Physiol 2005;46:23-47

27 Rice botany

28 The reproductive structures
The floret (the flower): includes the lemma and palea

29 Spikelet development in rice
Fig. 7 Spikelet development in rice. (A) Mature spikelet. (B) Mature flower. (C) Early spikelet meristem producing rudimentary primordium. (D) Formation of empty glume primordia. (E) Formation of lemma primordium. (F) Formation of palea primordium. (G) Formation of stamen primordia. (H) Formation of carpel and ovule primordia. (I) Formation of embryo sac. PA, palea; LE, lemma; EG, empty glume; RG, rudimentary glume; ST, stamen; PI, pistil; LO, lodicule; CA, carpel; OV, ovule. Mature spikelet Itoh J et al. Plant Cell Physiol 2005;46:23-47 ©2005 by Oxford University Press

30 Rice flower

31 Leaf development in rice.
Fig. 5 Leaf development in rice. (A) Mature leaf. (B) Cross-section of mature leaf blade. Upper side is adaxial. (C) Close-up of the midvein in (B). (D) Longitudinal section of shoot apex. (E) Cross-section around shoot apex. Lacuna formation is observed in the leaf sheath of P5 (asterisk). Margin of the leaf sheath is pointed (arrowhead). (F) Expression of OSH1 in the shoot apex. Down-regulation of OSH1 is observed in the P0 (arrow). (G) Expression of OsPNH1 in the shoot apex. The arrowhead indicates the expression in the central region of the P0. (H) SEM image of SAM and late P1 primordium. (I) Expression of OsSCR around shoot apex. OsSCR expression is observed in the P1 but not in the SAM. (J) SEM image of early P1 and P2 primordium. (K) Cross-section of the center of the P2 differentiating procambial strand. (L) SEM image of the P3. The arrow indicates the blade–sheath boundary. (M, N) Early development of ligule. Periclinal division is shown (arrow). (O) SEM image of the P4. Elongation of the sheath (below the arrow) does not yet start. (P) Cross-section of large vascular bundle of P4 leaf sheath. LB, leaf blade; LG, ligule; AU, auricle; LJ, lamina joint; LS, leaf sheath; LV, large vascular bundle; SV, small vascular bundle; SC, sclerenchymatous cell; PL, phloem; XY, xylem; BS, bundle sheath cell; BC, bulliform cell; SA, shoot apical meristem; PS, procambial strand; LP, ligule primordium. Itoh J et al. Plant Cell Physiol 2005;46:23-47 ©2005 by Oxford University Press

32 Flower The spikelets develop into grains/seeds

33 Root development in rice.
Fig. 6 Crown root development in rice. (A) Establishment of initial cells. (B) Establishment of epidermis–endodermis and root cap initials. (C) Differentiation of epidermis–endodermis initial into epidermis and endodermis. (D) Cortex differentiation. (E) Establishment of fundamental organization of root primordium. (F) Onset of cell vacuolation (arrowhead) in cortex and elongation (arrow) in stele. (G) Crown root emergence. IC, initial cells; PV, peripheral cylinder of vascular bundle; C, root cap or its initial; EE, epidermis–endodermis initials; S, stele (central cylinder); EP, epidermis; EN, endodermis; CO, cortex; COL, columella; MXII, late meta-xylem vessel. Itoh J et al. Plant Cell Physiol 2005;46:23-47 ©2005 by Oxford University Press

34 Growth stage of the rice plant
Will take between 3-6 months from germination to maturity depending on the variety and environment. Can be divided into three agronomic stages of development : 1) Vegetative 2) Reproductive 3) Grain filling and ripening/maturation

35 Growth stage of the rice plant..conti.
Vegetative stage - From germination to panicle initiation. Active tillering. Increase leaf area. Reproductive – Culm elongation, decline in tiller number, emergence of flag leaf, booting, heading and anthesis. Grain filling & ripening/maturation– Anthesis to maturity The duration of grain filling mainly affected by temperature. Generally about 30 to 65 days. Grain growth – increase in size and weight, changes in grain color and senescene of leaves.

36 Days Seed Seedling emergence Tillering Maximum tillering
Panicle initiation Booting Anthesis Ripening 10 20 30 40 50 60 90 100 Days

37 Rice varieties About 120,000 varieties are known throughout the world.
Diverse genetic variation based on International Rice Genome Sequencing project, with 60,000 rice genes.

38 Rice varieties Grown between 55⁰N in China and 36⁰S in Chile.
Classification based on the maturation period : > 180 days; Seraup 50, Mayang Segumpal and Merak Sepilai. days; Radin Ebos and Subang Intan. <150 days; Varieties recognized by MARDI such as MR1, MR7, MR10, MR84, MR 103, MR 123, MR 167, MR219, MR220, MR221, MR222, MRQ74 and others. Some varieties mature within 80 days and other such as Rayada (Deep water variety) the growth cycle takes 280 days.

39 Rice varieties

40 Tall conventional variety
cm tall, thus, easily lodged. Growth duration days to mature. Yield varies with crop management. e.g. Variety Origin Seraup 27 Malaya Mayang Ebos Serendah Kuning Siam 29 Renyong Seribu Gantang

41 Improved high-yielding variety
The ideotype. Also known as semi-dwarf. Short stature, thus, not easily lodged. Growth duration days to mature. Produce large number of unproductive tillers. e.g. IR 8, MR71, MR219, MR232, MR253, MR263, MR269

42 New plant type variety The ideotype. Also a semi-dwarf.
Short stature, with very little unproductive tillers. Super rice. Growth duration days to mature. Plant has dark green and erect leaves. Vigorous and deep root system.

43 The hybrid rice Chinese scientists have perfected the technology since 1970s. Hybrid rice produces 20-30% higher yield. The commercial production is the F1 seeds, which can be expensive to farmers.

44 How hybrid rice is produce
A male sterile line – the rice variety without a viable pollen. Considered as a female and accept pollen from other variety. A male (pollen) parent – with normal reproduction function. Both varieties plant in the same field.

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