8Rice production area and yield CountryRice area (000 ha)Yield (t/ha)China30,5036.23India44,6003.01USA1,2327.04Egypt6609.09Australia1459.6Uruguay1856.35Japan1,7706.7Indonesia11,5234.43Thailand10,0482.33Vietnam7,6554.25Malaysia6922.98World153,7663.89
9Rice production in Malaysia Rice is a crucial part of everyday Malaysian diet. In 1998, Malaysia produced 1.94 million metric tons of rice.Malaysia still only produces eighty percent of what it needs to support itself and must import the rest.The average Malaysian citizen consumes 82.3 kilograms of rice per year.
14PADI GRANARY AREAS Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA), Granary Areas refer to major irrigation schemes (areas greater than 4,000hectares) and recognized by the Government in the National AgriculturalPolicy as the main paddy producing areas.Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA),Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority(KADA),Kerian-Sungai Manik Integrated Agriculture Development Area,Barat Laut Selangor Integrated Agriculture Development Area,Seberang Perak Integrated Agriculture Development Area,Penang Integrated Agriculture Development Area,North Terengganu Integrated Agriculture Development (KETARA)Integrated Agriculture Development Kemasin Semerak
15Origin of cultivated rice Only two cultivated speciesi. O. sativaThe Asian rice. Grown world wideO. glaberrimaThe African rice. Grown in limited scale in West Africa
16The evolutionary pathway of cultivated species GONDWANA LAND(common ancestor)South and Southeast Asia West AfricaWild perennial O. rufipogon O. longistaminataWild annual O. nivara O. breviligulataCultivated O. sativa O. sativa O. glaberrimaindica japonicaTemperate Tropical
17The rice ecosystemFour major ecosystems are recognized i. Irrigated rice ii. Rainfed lowland rice iii. Upland rice iv. Flood prone (deep water) rice
18Proportion of rice ecosystem Floodprone 8%Upland 12%Rainfed lowland25%Irrigated 55%
19Irrigated rice Contributes 75% of world rice production. Modern varieties and modern cultivation techniques further increase crop productivity.Irrigated wet season and irrigated dry season.
20Rainfed lowland rice About ¼ of the world rice area. Lower yield relative to irrigated rice (approx 2-3 t per ha).
21Upland rice Worldwide about 16 mill ha. Grown under rainfed, well drained soils without surface soil accumulation.Low yield, 1-2 ton ha., mainly due to weeds and low nutrients.
22Flood prone rice Worldwide about 9 mill ha. Grown in low lying land in river deltas.Varieties have elongation ability.
34Growth stage of the rice plant Will take between 3-6 months from germination to maturity depending on the variety and environment.Can be divided into three agronomic stages of development :1) Vegetative2) Reproductive3) Grain filling and ripening/maturation
35Growth stage of the rice plant..conti. Vegetative stage - From germination to panicle initiation.Active tillering.Increase leaf area.Reproductive – Culm elongation, decline in tiller number, emergence of flag leaf, booting, heading and anthesis.Grain filling & ripening/maturation– Anthesis to maturityThe duration of grain filling mainly affected by temperature. Generally about 30 to 65 days.Grain growth – increase in size and weight, changes in grain color and senescene of leaves.
37Rice varieties About 120,000 varieties are known throughout the world. Diverse genetic variation based on International Rice Genome Sequencing project, with 60,000 rice genes.
38Rice varieties Grown between 55⁰N in China and 36⁰S in Chile. Classification based on the maturation period :> 180 days; Seraup 50, Mayang Segumpal and Merak Sepilai.days; Radin Ebos and Subang Intan.<150 days; Varieties recognized by MARDI such as MR1, MR7, MR10, MR84, MR 103, MR 123, MR 167, MR219, MR220, MR221, MR222, MRQ74 and others.Some varieties mature within 80 days and other such as Rayada (Deep water variety) the growth cycle takes 280 days.
40Tall conventional variety cm tall, thus, easily lodged.Growth duration days to mature.Yield varies with crop management.e.g.VarietyOriginSeraup 27MalayaMayang EbosSerendah KuningSiam 29RenyongSeribu Gantang
41Improved high-yielding variety The ideotype. Also known as semi-dwarf.Short stature, thus, not easily lodged.Growth duration days to mature.Produce large number of unproductive tillers.e.g. IR 8, MR71, MR219, MR232, MR253, MR263, MR269
42New plant type variety The ideotype. Also a semi-dwarf. Short stature, with very little unproductive tillers.Super rice.Growth duration days to mature.Plant has dark green and erect leaves.Vigorous and deep root system.
43The hybrid riceChinese scientists have perfected the technology since 1970s.Hybrid rice produces 20-30% higher yield.The commercial production is the F1 seeds, which can be expensive to farmers.
44How hybrid rice is produce A male sterile line – the rice variety without a viable pollen. Considered as a female and accept pollen from other variety.A male (pollen) parent – with normal reproduction function.Both varieties plant in the same field.