Rice history The domestication of rice 1.In Southeast Asia. In Thailand 4000 B.C 2. In Ancient India. Mohenjodaro (now in Pakistan) 6750 B.C. 3.In China. 7040 yrs old. 4. In Africa (Niger river delta). 1500 B.C.
World’s rice growing region
Rice facts As a food source for more than a third of world population. >90% is grown and consumed in Asia. 148 million ha is grown annually. 11% of world’s arable land is planted with rice.
World production World ranking 1.China 2.India 3.Indonesia 4.Bangladesh 5.Vietnam 6.Thailand 7. Myanmar
Rice production area and yield CountryRice area (000 ha)Yield (t/ha) China30,5036.23 India44,6003.01 USA1,2327.04 Egypt6609.09 Australia1459.6 Uruguay1856.35 Japan1,7706.7 Indonesia11,5234.43 Thailand10,0482.33 Vietnam7,6554.25 Malaysia6922.98 World153,7663.89
Rice production in Malaysia RiceRice is a crucial part of everyday Malaysian diet. In 1998, Malaysia produced 1.94 million metric tons of rice. Malaysia  MalaysiaMalaysia still only produces eighty percent of what it needs to support itself and must import the rest.   The average Malaysian citizen consumes 82.3 kilograms of rice per year.
Yield production in Malaysia Average Yield of Wetland Paddy, by State, Malaysia, Main Season, 2009/2010(‘000 kg/ha )
Granary Areas refer to major irrigation schemes (areas greater than 4,000 hectares) and recognized by the Government in the National Agricultural Policy as the main paddy producing areas. 1.Muda Agricultural Development Authority (MADA), 2.Kemubu Agricultural Development Authority(KADA), 3.Kerian-Sungai Manik Integrated Agriculture Development Area, 4.Barat Laut Selangor Integrated Agriculture Development Area, 5.Seberang Perak Integrated Agriculture Development Area, 6.Penang Integrated Agriculture Development Area, 7.North Terengganu Integrated Agriculture Development (KETARA) 8.Integrated Agriculture Development Kemasin Semerak PADI GRANARY AREAS
Origin of cultivated rice Only two cultivated species i.O. sativa The Asian rice. Grown world wide ii. O. glaberrima The African rice. Grown in limited scale in West Africa
The evolutionary pathway of cultivated species GONDWANA LAND (common ancestor) South and Southeast AsiaWest Africa Wild perennial O. rufipogon O. longistaminata Wild annualO. nivara O. breviligulata Cultivated O. sativa O. sativa O. glaberrima indica japonica Temperate Tropical
The rice ecosystem Four major ecosystems are recognized i.Irrigated rice ii.Rainfed lowland rice iii.Upland rice iv.Flood prone (deep water) rice
Growth stage of the rice plant Will take between 3-6 months from germination to maturity depending on the variety and environment. Can be divided into three agronomic stages of development : 1) Vegetative 2) Reproductive 3) Grain filling and ripening/maturation
Vegetative stage - From germination to panicle initiation. Active tillering. Increase leaf area. Reproductive – Culm elongation, decline in tiller number, emergence of flag leaf, booting, heading and anthesis. Grain filling & ripening/maturation– Anthesis to maturity The duration of grain filling mainly affected by temperature. Generally about 30 to 65 days. Grain growth – increase in size and weight, changes in grain color and senescene of leaves. Growth stage of the rice plant..conti.
Rice varieties About 120,000 varieties are known throughout the world. Diverse genetic variation based on International Rice Genome Sequencing project, with 60,000 rice genes.
Rice varieties Grown between 55⁰N in China and 36⁰S in Chile. Classification based on the maturation period : > 180 days; Seraup 50, Mayang Segumpal and Merak Sepilai. 150-180 days; Radin Ebos and Subang Intan. <150 days; Varieties recognized by MARDI such as MR1, MR7, MR10, MR84, MR 103, MR 123, MR 167, MR219, MR220, MR221, MR222, MRQ74 and others. Some varieties mature within 80 days and other such as Rayada (Deep water variety) the growth cycle takes 280 days.
Tall conventional variety 150-200 cm tall, thus, easily lodged. Growth duration 160-200 days to mature. Yield varies with crop management. e.g. VarietyOrigin Seraup 27Malaya Mayang EbosMalaya Serendah KuningMalaya Siam 29Malaya RenyongMalaya Seribu GantangMalaya
Improved high-yielding variety The ideotype. Also known as semi-dwarf. Short stature, thus, not easily lodged. Growth duration 120-150 days to mature. Produce large number of unproductive tillers. e.g. IR 8, MR71, MR219, MR232, MR253, MR263, MR269
New plant type variety The ideotype. Also a semi-dwarf. Short stature, with very little unproductive tillers. Super rice. Growth duration 120-150 days to mature. Plant has dark green and erect leaves. Vigorous and deep root system.
The hybrid rice Chinese scientists have perfected the technology since 1970s. Hybrid rice produces 20-30% higher yield. The commercial production is the F1 seeds, which can be expensive to farmers.
How hybrid rice is produce A male sterile line – the rice variety without a viable pollen. Considered as a female and accept pollen from other variety. A male (pollen) parent – with normal reproduction function. Both varieties plant in the same field.