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That other pesky 95% Dark Energy and Dark Matter Prof. Lawrence Wiencke Department of Physics Engineering Colorado School of Mines Nov 9 2011.

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Presentation on theme: "That other pesky 95% Dark Energy and Dark Matter Prof. Lawrence Wiencke Department of Physics Engineering Colorado School of Mines Nov 9 2011."— Presentation transcript:

1 That other pesky 95% Dark Energy and Dark Matter Prof. Lawrence Wiencke Department of Physics Engineering Colorado School of Mines Nov

2 The Dark Side 95% of the Universe Is Dark!

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6 Energy budget of Universe Stars and galaxies are only ~0.5% Neutrinos are <1% Rest of ordinary matter (electrons and protons) are ~5% Dark Matter ~25% Dark Energy ~70% Anti-Matter 0%

7 THE HIGGS!?# No Dark Matter No Dark Energy

8 M81Spitzer Space Telescope

9 Expected if the mass of the galaxy = the mass we can see Observed Some sort of invisible Mass must extend out ~10 times further than the stars! Rotation speed Distance from the center Vera Rubin 1980s

10 Full Court Press!! Produce at an accelerator Detect them in our halo Detect annihilation products

11 Dark Matter annihilating in our halo should produce positrons, neutrinos and gamma rays

12 Evidence for Dark Matter from Lensing Einstein: Gravity bends light Light travels along straight lines unless it passes a massive object. Light coming from behind a massive object such as a star, a galaxy, a cluster of galaxies or a clump of dark matter will be bent the same way a glass lens works. The more massive the object, the more gravity it has and the more the light is bent

13 giant arcs are galaxies behind the cluster, gravitationally lensed Zoom in on a galaxy cluster – Gravity from the invisible matter is bending light and we can see the distorted images that result

14 Michael S Turner Discovery of Cosmic Microwave Background, 1964

15 Michael S Turner The Universe circa 380,000 yrs The Universe circa 380,000 yrs WMAP ±0.001% Fluctuations

16 fraction of a second later Hot Primordial Soup 380,000 years later Radiation Last Scattered thousand-million years later Today DARK MATTER from the Primordial Soup DARK MATTER from the Primordial Soup

17 Most of the matter is dark and it’s not even “normal” stuff! Tip of the Iceberg

18 STRING THEORY - 11 dimensions and more ….. Go to 11???

19 19 What is Dark Energy ? “ ‘Most embarrassing observation in physics’ – that’s the only quick thing I can say about dark energy that’s also true.” Edward Witten

20 Discovery! – 1998 Hi z Supernova Team Supernova Cosmology Project Brian P. Schmidt Saul Perlmutter Adam G. Riess Nobel Prize in Physics 2011

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22 Inquiring into Dark Energy 22 NSTA - Baltimore 2006 A dying star becomes a white dwarf. 1. Create a White Dwarf

23 Inquiring into Dark Energy 23 NSTA - Baltimore 2006 The white dwarf strips gas from its stellar companion…. 2. Dump more mass onto it

24 Inquiring into Dark Energy 24 NSTA - Baltimore 2006 ….and uses it to become a hydrogen bomb. Bang! 3. Until it explodes

25 Inquiring into Dark Energy 25 NSTA - Baltimore 2006 The explosion is as bright as an entire galaxy of stars…. …..and can be seen in galaxies across the universe. 4. Observe it in a distant galaxy

26 The Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) is a telescope Fermilab helped build and operate. It has a 2.4m mirror and no Dome Located in New Mexico First started collecting images in MegaPixel digital camera SDSS has measured ~ 1 million galaxies and over 500 type 1a Supernova and also found that the expansion of the universe is accelerating

27 SDSS-II Supernova Survey ~500 Well studied SNe Ia, suitable for framing

28 Our Universe’s Expansion is Accelerating! time expansion open closed accelerating Now

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30 “The most beautiful thing we can experience is the mysterious. It is the source of all true art and all science. Those to whom this emotion is a stranger, who can no longer pause to wonder and stand rapt in awe, are as good as dead: their eyes are closed.” Albert Einstein

31 95% of the Universe Is Dark! What can we learn about it? Will!!

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