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R.W. Heiniger Vernon G. James Center North Carolina State University.

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Presentation on theme: "R.W. Heiniger Vernon G. James Center North Carolina State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 R.W. Heiniger Vernon G. James Center North Carolina State University

2 NC STATE UNIVERSITY 1. Increasing Market Opportunities and Potential 2. Growing Grain Sorghum in North Carolina 3. Advantages and Drawbacks to Grain Sorghum 4. The Future for Grain Sorghum

3 NC STATE UNIVERSITY  Key Markets are:  Henderson – IAMS plant  Waverly, VA – Feed processing  Raeford, NC – Ethanol (Price per bushel except Sorghum price per cwt.) SRW Wheat7.69 per bushel Yellow Corn 6.29 per bushel Yellow Sorghum 10.75 per cwt 6.02 per bu Yellow Soybeans 13.65 per bushel




7 1. Hybrid Selection for Yield and Disease Resistance 2. Planting Date 3. Row Spacing and Seeding Rate 4. Fertility 5. Weed Control 6. Insect and Disease Control  Sorghum requires careful management

8 NC STATE UNIVERSITY Pioneer 86G08 65 Pioneer 85G4669 DeKalb DK4466 DeKalb DKS44-2070 Early - Medium HybridsLate Hybrids DeKalb/Asgrow A57171 DeKalb DKS54-0072 DeKalb/Asgrow A60372 DeKalb DKS54-0372 Pioneer 84G6272 Pioneer 83G6672 Pioneer 83G1573 Pioneer 84G7771  Maturity – Disease Tolerance – Yield: These are the keys to a hybrid that produces high yield in North Carolina.

9 NC STATE UNIVERSITY Monsanto MSE 532 Pioneer 83G66 Pioneer 83G15 Pioneer 82G10 DeKalb DKS53-67 Pioneer 84G62 Monsanto MSE 536 Pioneer 85G46 NC+ NC+ 7B51 Pioneer 84G62 DeKalb DKS54-00 DeKalb /Asgrow A603 DeKalb DKS54-00 Sorghum Hybrids for this Area 123.6 117.3 116.8 115.4 114.9 112.7 111.8 106.3 105.1 98.5 97.6 97.0 2008 State Trial





14 Seed Spacing in inches Target Plant Populations (plants per acre) 2.9 2.0 1.5 301. 1.0 361. Recommended 401. Recommended When Planting after June 15th increase seeding rates by 20,000 seeds per acre Assumes 70% emergence When planting in good to ideal conditions emergence will be 85% or greater. Reduce seeding rates accordingly. Sandy Organic or Piedmont SoilsIrrigation Row Width80,00090,000100,000120,000 150,000

15 NC STATE UNIVERSITY Start with Bicep or Harness for good early weed control Quick Emergence and Early Growth Combination of Atrazine and

16 NC STATE UNIVERSITY Postemergence Weed Control in Sorghum

17 NC STATE UNIVERSITY Postemergence Weed Control in Sorghum

18 NC STATE UNIVERSITY Current recommendations –1.5-2 lb N/cwt = 0.84-1.12 lb N/bu –25% @ plant –+40 lb if silage Need Good P and K indexes: 60 or better Crop requires 35 to 40 lbs of phosphorus Crop requires 50 lbs of potassium

19 NC STATE UNIVERSITY Half bloom 5-leaf From: Vanderlip, 1979, Kansas State University

20 NC STATE UNIVERSITY c b a a a a a

21 c bc ab a

22 NC STATE UNIVERSITY  N response significant (above check)  Yield and chlorophyll meter  If planted early:  Optimum @ plant: 120 lb N – 95 bu/ac (1.26 lb N/bu)  Optimum sidedress: 60 lb N – 86 bu/ac (0.70 lb N/bu)  If planted late:  Optimum: sidedress 60 lb N – 47 bu/ac (1.28 lb N/bu)  Chlorophyll meter detects:  N rate response for early and late plantings  Greener w/ sidedress N if early planted

23 NC STATE UNIVERSITY Ear worms and birds can cause severe damage Maize Dwarf Mosaic and anthracnose can be severe with continuous sorghum or following corn Maturity selection can impact disease and pest avoidance

24 NC STATE UNIVERSITY Corn Earworm Damage

25 NC STATE UNIVERSITY Maize Dwarf Mosaic Virus Anthracnose Stalk Rot

26 Table 1. Anthracnose ratings for sorghum hybrids grown in North Carolina. 1 = poor diseases resistance; 10 = excellent resistance. Maturity refers to the number of days to flowering or mid-bloom. Hybrid Maturity (days) Anthracnose Rating Pioneer 83G15691 Pioneer 83G66727 Pioneer 84G62723 Pioneer 82G10735 Pioneer 8699651 Pioneer 86G08654 DeKalb DKS53-11702 DeKalb DK44684 DeKalb DK44-41675 DeKalb DKS54-00723 Asgrow A567703 Asgrow A570735 Asgrow A603752 Asgrow Seneca656 Garst 5515674 Garst 5631Y636 Garst 5360693 Disease Ratings for Anthracnose

27 NC STATE UNIVERSITY Harvest early - need to have facilities to dry grain Early harvest avoids: 1. lodging problems 2. Grain deterioration 3. Late tillering that interferes with harvest

28 1. Lower Input Costs 2. Sustainable Returns in Low Yield Environments 3. Better Nutrient Utilization than Corn - Highly Compatible with Swine or Poultry waste applications 4. Excellent Rotation Crop for Cotton or Soybean 5. More Residue Produced Compared to Corn 6. Chemical Weed Control Alternatives for Roundup Resistant Weeds 7. When Harvest Occurs on Time Less Mycotoxins in Grain

29 NC STATE UNIVERSITY 1. Fewer Available Markets 2. Does not have the High Yield Potential of Corn in Better Environments 3. Crop Failure and/or Low Yield can Occur with Little Moisture During Heading 4. Few Options for Post-Emergence Grass Control 5. Anthracnose and Earworms are Critical Threats 6. Less Production Information on Fungicides


31 1. Markets that Desire Sorghum 1. Ethanol – less mycotoxins, marginal land utilization 2. Feed Grains – Change in Milling Practices 3. Future Human Food Products?? 2. Severe Cost Increases in N, P, and K or Lack of Availability 2. Ideal Crop for Biomass or Carbon Sequestration

32 NC STATE UNIVERSITY 1. Multi-Dimensional Energy Crop – 30 mt per hectare yield 1. 3 to 4 tons of ethanol from sucrose 2. 9 to 12 tons of cellulosic ethanol 3. 6000 cubic meters of methane 2. Potential for 3 times more energy per hectare than corn and stover and 1.5 times more energy than switchgrass 3. Ideally suited for marginal soils in the southeastern US – can be grown with modest amount of nutrients 4. Production systems and hybrids already available

33 NC STATE UNIVERSITY Older Hybrid – 22053 New Hybrid – TAMU x HO8001

34 NC STATE UNIVERSITY Older Hybrid – 22053 New Hybrid – TAMU x HO8001 Common Hybrid – M81-E


36 Questions?

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