Presentation on theme: "Geography of the Periodic Table Unit 4 – Periodic Table Mrs. Callender."— Presentation transcript:
Geography of the Periodic Table Unit 4 – Periodic Table Mrs. Callender
Lesson Essential Question: What information does the periodic table tell me?
Horizontal Row on a periodic table is called a PERIOD.
The vertical columns of the periodic table are called GROUPS, or FAMILIES. The elements in any group of the periodic table have similar physical and chemical properties!
Metals METALS -Good conductors of heat and electricity. -Malleable -Ductile -High tensile strength -Have a luster -Lose electrons becoming positive ions.
Metalloids -Properties of both metals and nonmetals. -More brittle than metals but less brittle than nonmetals. -Semiconductors of electricity. -High tensile strength. -Lose and gain electrons to get to happy eight land.
Semiconductor Anything that's computerized or uses radio waves depends on semiconductors. Today, most semiconductor chips and transistors are created with silicon. "Silicon Valley" and the "silicon economy -- silicon is the heart of any electronic device.
Nonmetals -Poor conductors of heat and electricity. -Tend to be brittle. -Many are gaseous at room temperature.
HYDROGEN Hydrogen belongs to a family of its own. Hydrogen is a diatomic, reactive gas. Hydrogen was involved in the explosion of the Hindenburg. Hydrogen is promising as an alternative fuel source for automobiles
ALKALI METALS Very reactive metals, always combined with something else in nature (like in salt). Soft enough to cut with a butter knife S 1 Electrons Reactivity increases as you move down the column.
ALKALINE EARTH METALS Reactive metals that are always combined with nonmetals in nature. Several of these elements are important mineral nutrients (such as Mg and Ca
ALKALINE EARTH METALS
NOBLE GASES – INERT GASES Elements in group 18 VERY unreactive, monatomic gases Used in lighted “neon” signs Used in blimps to fix the Hindenburg problem. Have a full valence shell.
NOBLE GASES – INERT GASES
TRANSITION METALS Elements in groups 3-12 Less reactive harder metals Includes metals used in jewelry and construction. Metals used “as metal.”
RARE EARTH METALS
ElementEtymologyUses Promethium For Titan Promethius who brought fire to mortals. Nuclear Batteries Thulium For the mythical northern land of Thule. Portable X-ray machines CeriumDwarf planet Ceres. Yellow color in glass and ceramics, Self cleaning ovens and cracking catalyst in oil refineries. Dysprosium From the Greek “dysporsitos” meaning hard to get. Rare earth magnets and lasers Lutetitium For Lutetia, the city which became Paris. PET scan detectors, high refractive index glass.
Halogens Have seven valence electrons. s 2 p 5 Gain 1 electron, -1 charge. Never found pure in nature because they are too reactive. Fluorine is the most reactive. In their pure form they are diatomic, F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2
Chalcogens Have six valence electrons. s 2 p 4 Gain 2 electrons, -2 charge.