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Genes Located on chromosomes Thousands found in each animal Control inherited characteristics – Carcass traits – Growth rate – Feed efficiency Two types.

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Presentation on theme: "Genes Located on chromosomes Thousands found in each animal Control inherited characteristics – Carcass traits – Growth rate – Feed efficiency Two types."— Presentation transcript:

1 Genes Located on chromosomes Thousands found in each animal Control inherited characteristics – Carcass traits – Growth rate – Feed efficiency Two types of inherited traits  Dominant  Recessive

2 Genes Dominant gene – Hides the effect of another gene – Polled condition in cattle is dominant – The gene is represented by a capital letter Recessive – Gene that is hidden by another – The gene is represented by a lower case letter

3 Genes Example: The dominant gene is written- P The recessive gene is written-p P= Polled p= horned

4 Homozygous and Heterozygous Homozygous gene pair – Carries two genes for a trait – Polled cow might carry the gene PP Heterozygous (or hybrid) – Carries two different genes that affect a trait – Polled cows might carry a recessive gene with the dominant Pp

5 Punnett Square P= Polled p= horned Example: Two polled cattle that are homozygous for the polled trait PP PPP P Polled Dam Polled Sire

6 Punnett Square N= Normal size n= Dwarfism Example: Normal size in cattle is dominant to dwarfism NN NNN nNn Normal Dam Sire Carrier

7 Punnett Square N= Normal size n= Dwarfism Example: What if both parents are carriers for a trait or disorder? Nn NNNNn n nn Normal Dam Sire Carrier Result: one out of every four births could result in a dwarf animal (1:2:1)

8 Monohybrid Cross A monohybrid cross is an estimation of a predicted outcome for a single trait. If a homozygous horned cow (pp) is bred with a heterozygous polled bull (Pp), what percent of the calves will be polled?

9 Dihybrid Cross A dihybrid cross is a estimation of a predicted outcome for two traits. What results if an Angus bull that is homozygous black and polled (BBPP) is bred with a red shorthorn cow which is homozygous red and horned (bbpp). The bull BBPP can be simplified to BP (black & polled is the only possible contribution for the bull). The cow bbpp can be simplified to bp (red & horned is the only possible contribution for the cow).

10 Dihybrid Cross Black = 100% Polled = 100% Horned = 0%

11 Dihybrid Cross Now if two of the offspring which are heterozygous for black/red and polled/horned (BbPp) are mated. How do you do a Punnett square for two heterozyous animals? Use all possible gene combinations. Both the bull and cow are BbPp. What are the possible contributions? BP, Bp, bP, bp for both animals. (4 x 4 grid)

12 Dihybrid Cross

13 Black Polled = 9 out of 16 or 56.25% Black Horned = 3 out of 16 or 18.75% Red Polled = 3 out of 16 or 18.75% Red Horned = 1 out of 16 or 6.25%

14 Dihybrid Cross If a heterozygous bull (BbPp) is mated to a homozygous cow (BBPP). What are the outcomes?

15 Dihybrid Cross

16 If a (BbPp) bull is mated to a (BBPp) cow. what are the outcomes?

17 Dihybrid Cross

18 Assignment Complete a Punnett Square for two animals that are heterozygous for two traits: Polled=P Black= B (Alternatives are horned and red) Dam Sire

19 Practice Black is dominant (B), and red is recessive (b). "Predict the offspring from the cross of a red bull and a black cow if the black cow's mother was red".

20 First things first: the only way for the red bull to be red (the recessive trait) is if it's genotype is homozygous recessive (2 little letters), so the red bull is "bb". Now, the black cow's genotype could be either "BB" or "Bb". If its mommy was red (bb), then this black cow MUST have inherited a little "b" from its mommy. So the black one in our cross is "Bb" (not "BB"), and our cattle cross is: Bb x bb.

21 Heritability Objective: – Discuss hertability estimates for beef and swine

22 Heritability Estimated the likelihood of a trait being passes on from the parent to the offspring – Low heritability slow herd improvement – High heritability faster improvement

23 Heritability Swine rates are usually lower than cattle Heritiability for carcass traits are higher than reproductive traits Estimates vary from 0 to 70%

24 Trait% Heritable Number Born5 Weaning Wight30 Yeild Grade30 Carcass Grade35 Yearling Weight40 Scrotal Circumference50 Retail Yeild60 Rib Eye Area 70

25 Trait% Heritable Litter Size10 Weaning Wight (3 wks)15 Birth Weight20 Feed Efficiency30 Carcass length50

26 Trait% Heritable Number Born13 Weaning Wight 30 Birth Weight30 Feed Efficiency20 Carcass (percent lean)35


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