A. by explaining causes and effects B. by telling events in sequential order C. by describing a problem and its solution D. by comparing and contrasting two things
F. advanced G. cultured H. knowledgeable I. wise These probes collect information using sophisticated scientific instruments. With their superior technology, they can send data and photos back to Earth. What does sophisticated mean in the excerpt above?
A. by showing how the missions solved a problem B. by describing the progress of the missions over time C. by explaining what caused the missions to be successful D. by comparing the Voyager I and II missions to previous missions
F. to explain that Voyager II had a different flight path G. to show that both Voyager probes traveled to Jupiter H. to explain why Voyager I was launched after Voyager II I. to show why Voyager I reached Jupiter before Voyager II
A. giant gas planet B. unexplored place C. end of its journey D. targeted location In March of 1979, nineteen months after its launch, Voyager I reached the first destination, passing by the planet Jupiter. What does destination mean in the excerpt above?
F. exciting G. motionless H. rapid I. violent Voyager I discovered turbulent volcanic activity on Io, which was causing great disturbances on its surface. What does turbulent mean in the excerpt above?
A. architect B. inspect C. technique D. teenager But scientists have developed technology that can take them to distant planets without leaving Earth. The origin of the word technology is the Greek root techne, which means “skill.” Which of the following words is most likely to come from the same root as technology?
F. to show how the mission of Voyager II changed G. to show what scientists hope to learn about deep space H. to show how far away Uranus and Neptune are from Earth I. to show what Voyager II found out about Uranus and Neptune
A. the first photographs of Saturn’s rings B. the discovery of volcanic activity on Io C. new information about Uranus’s dark rings D. new information about Jupiter’s Great Red Spot
F. details G. discoveries H. messages I. photographs Scientists expect to receive messages from the Voyager probes until 2020. After thirty years of travel, they will no longer be able to generate the electrical power needed to continue sending transmissions back to Earth. What does transmissions mean in the excerpt above?
A. by contrasting two events B. by telling events in sequence C. by listing solutions to a problem D. by describing the effects of an event
F. to show how far away from Earth these planets are G. to show why Uranus and Neptune were discovered first H. to show how Pluto is different from Uranus and Neptune I. to show why scientists thought Pluto was the ninth planet
A. asteroid B. astound C. disaster D. plaster In 2006, a group of scientists from the International Astronomical Union met to answer these questions. The origin of the word astronomical is the Greek root astro which means “star.” Which word is the most likely to come from the same root as astronomical?
F. gigantically G. mostly H. originally I. partially But Pluto was very different from the gas giants, or huge planets made up primarily of gases. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are at least ten times the size of Earth and made of mostly gases, rather than rock. What does primarily mean in the excerpt above?
A. by describing the discoveries in sequence B. by telling how the discoveries solved a problem C. by describing the effect of the discoveries on scientists D. by telling what caused scientists to make the discoveries
F. importance G. popularity H. time I. title If not, how could Pluto – which Eris closely resembled – hold the title of planet? Scientists began to rethink Pluto’s status as a planet. What does status mean in the excerpt above?
A. to show how many moons Pluto has B. to show what planets and dwarf planets are C. to show why scientists started to question Pluto D. to show what scientists know about the Kuiper Belt
F. group G. object H. style I. system Pluto and Eris would now belong to a new category, a type of body called dwarf planets. What does category mean in the sentence above?
A. very few B. new type C. wide variety D. large number Whatever Pluto is, many more bodies remain to be discovered at the edge of the solar system. Since 2006, scientists have found a multitude of icy bodies in the Kuiper belt that might be dwarf planets. What does multitude mean in the excerpt above?
F. to show that some scientists still think Pluto is a planet G. to show that scientists are no longer looking for new bodies H. to explain why a new system for naming planets was created I. to describe more bodies like Pluto that were being discovered
Compare and contrast how the authors of “Voyage to the Planets” and “A Planet No More” present information about planets. How do the authors present information about the discovery of and scientific data about Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto? Include accurate, explicit text evidence from both articles that gives information about planets.