Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Solar System : Planets

Similar presentations

Presentation on theme: "The Solar System : Planets"— Presentation transcript:

1 The Solar System : Planets
Prasad U3_SolarSystem

2 SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun 8 Planets 3+ Dwarf Planets Over 150 moons /
satellites of the planets Comets, meteors, asteroids, and interplanetary dust/space Prasad U3_SolarSystem

3 Simplified Evolution of Solar System
In the beginning, our Solar System was a huge disc of dirt, rocks, gas, ice, etc. In the middle of this disc, the Sun formed itself and began to glow. In some distances from the centre, the planets emerged from these rings of dirt, rocks and gas.

4 Scale of Solar System : Distances
Spacing between adjacent planets roughly doubles. Most orbits are roughly circular. Distance from Sun to Pluto: 40AU or about 1/1000 of a light year. All orbit in same direction. Most in same plane.

5 Scale of Solar System : Sizes

6 SUN : The Star Composition: 75% hydrogen and 25% helium by mass
Age: The Sun’s age is about 5 billion years. Differential rotation duration At the equator the surface rotates once every 25.4 days while near the poles it rotates once every 36 days Core conditions Temperature is 15.6 million Kelvin Pressure is 250 billion atmospheres Differential rotation dependent on its gaseous nature Equator speed much higher than polar speed Prasad U3_SolarSystem

7 Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion (in which hydrogen
is converted to helium within sun’s core). This energy is released as heat and light. Our sun is classified as a yellow main sequence star. A star’s temperature determines its “color.” The coldest stars are red. The hottest stars are blue. Surface temperature (Corona) : K In nuclear fusion, a little bit of mass gets converted into energy E=m c^2 Red Giants: Betelgeuse, Antares, Aldebaran, etc Blue Giants: Rigel, Vega, Deneb, etc Prasad U3_SolarSystem

8 Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Theory
Geocentric Theory (or “Ptolemaic” Theory – pronounced “Tole-ah-may-ic”) is an ancient view of the universe based primarily on religion, philosophy, and mathematical ideals. Heliocentric Theory (or “Copernican” Theory) is a revised view of the universe based on the studies of Nicholas Copernicus, who was a mathematician in the 1500’s. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

9 Prasad U3_SolarSystem

10 PLANETS A planet is a large, round heavenly body that orbits a star and shines with light reflected from the star. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

11 The Planets of the Solar System
Planets are categorized according to composition and size. There are two main categories of planets: Small rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, and Pluto) Gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) Prasad U3_SolarSystem

12 PLANETS: Revised Definition
In the Solar System, a planet is a celestial body that: is in orbit around the Sun, has sufficient mass to assume hydrostatic equilibrium (a nearly round shape), and has "cleared the neighbourhood" around its orbit. A non-satellite body fulfilling only the first two of these criteria is classified as a "dwarf planet".  The definition of "planet" set in 2006 by the International Astronomical Union (IAU). Pluto is 1/20th the size of Mercury and 10 times larger than Ceres. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

13 Revised Planets of the Solar System
Small rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) Gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) 5 Dwarf Planets Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris. Quaoar is a newly discovered Kuiper Belt object, found in June 2002 by Chad Trujillo and Mike Brown at Caltech in Pasadena. It's the largest Kuiper Belt object currently known, half the diameter of Pluto (about 1/8 the volume), and 1.6 billion kilometers (1 billion miles) further away than Pluto. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

14 The Relative Size of the Planets in the Solar System
Prasad U3_SolarSystem

15 What are the nine planets?
HINT: My Very Educated Mother Just Showed Us Nine Planets My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nachos Mercury Venus Earth Mars Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Pluto My Very Educated Mother Just Sent Us Nine Pizzas Mother Very Easily Made a Jam Sandwich Using Nectarines ^ ASTROID BELT Prasad U3_SolarSystem

16 MERCURY Closest planet to the sun About the size of Earth’s moon
Takes 88 days to complete one revolution around the sun No atmosphere Prasad U3_SolarSystem

17 MERCURY Orbit Appears to travel fastest 8th largest in size
highly eccentric (oval) perihelion (closest point) is 46 million km aphelion (farthest point) is 70 million km Appears to travel fastest 8th largest in size Prasad U3_SolarSystem

18 VENUS 2nd planet from Sun 6th largest in size
Brightest object in the early morning/evening sky Also called “morning star” and “evening star” Very dry atmosphere Prasad U3_SolarSystem

19 VENUS Greenhouse Effect: Inferior/Inner planet
Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere traps heat causing the surface temperature to increase upto F. Inferior/Inner planet Shows phases when viewed from Earth Galileo observed phases Copernicus used data to develop heliocentric theory. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

20 EARTH: The Blue Planet 3rd planet from the Sun
period of rotation: 24 hours period of revolution: days It is called the blue planet because of water Earth’s surface is composed of 71% water Oceans help maintain Earth’s stable temperatures. Only planet with known life Prasad U3_SolarSystem

21 Earth has a distinct atmosphere.
It screens Earth’s surface from harmful radiation from the sun. It prevents meteorites from reaching Earth’s surface. It traps heat to help maintain Earth’s stable temperatures. Scattering of light by the atmosphere makes the sky look blue in the day time and red at sunset/sunrise. Otherwise, sky would have looked dark even in day time. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

22 EARTH’s Moon Earth has one moon, about 1/6 mass of earth.
It takes the same amount of time for the moon to rotate once on its axis as it does for it to orbit the earth (27.3 days). Thus, the same side of the moon always faces us. The moon’s surface is covered in dust and rocky debris from meteor impacts. It has no water or atmosphere. The dark areas of the moon are large craters called maria (Latin: “seas”). Prasad U3_SolarSystem

23 The moon reflects light from the sun onto the earth’s surface
The moon reflects light from the sun onto the earth’s surface. Sometimes the moon may appear reddish-brown in color as the sunlight is deflected through dust in the earth’s atmosphere. The moon’s gravitational effects on the earth are most apparent in the “coming” and “going” of the tides . Prasad U3_SolarSystem

24 EARTH Age: At least 4 1/2 billion years
Mass: 6,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 (6.6 sextillion) tons (6.0 sextillion metric tons). Surface features: Highest land—Mount Everest, 29,035 feet (8,850 meters) above sea level. Lowest land—shore of Dead Sea, about 1,310 feet (399 meters) below sea. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

25 Temperature: Highest, 136 °F (58 °C) at Al Aziziyah, Libya
Temperature: Highest, 136 °F (58 °C) at Al Aziziyah, Libya. Lowest, °F (-89.6 °C) at Vostok Station in Antarctica. Average surface temperature, 59 °F (15 °C). Chemical makeup of the earth's crust (in percent of the crust's weight): oxygen 46.6, silicon 27.7, aluminum 8.1, iron 5.0, calcium 3.6, sodium 2.8, potassium 2.6, magnesium 2.0, and other elements totaling 1.6. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

26 Temperature: Highest, 134 °F (56
Temperature: Highest, 134 °F (56.7 °C) at Greenland Ranch in Death Valley, CA on July 10, Lowest, °F (-89.6 °C) at Vostok Station in Antarctica. Average surface temperature, 59 °F (15 °C). Chemical makeup of the earth's crust (in percent of the crust's weight): oxygen 46.6, silicon 27.7, aluminum 8.1, iron 5.0, calcium 3.6, sodium 2.8, potassium 2.6, magnesium 2.0, and other elements totaling 1.6. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

27 Size Comparison: Radius
Radius of Sun ~ 440,000 miles Radius of Earth ~ 4000 miles Radius of Moon ~ 1080 miles Radius of Sun is 110 times the radius of Earth (10 times the radius of Jupiter), and radius of Earth is 4 times the radius of Moon. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

28 MARS: The Red planet Mars is the 4th Planet from the Sun
Solid carbon dioxide is found at the poles Mars is known as the Red Planet because its soil is red colored Mons Olympus – largest volcano Moons: Phobos and Deimos Phobos (FEAR) and Deimos (DREAD/PANIC) They are quite small (<15km) and look rather like potatoes than like moons. Mars has been visited by robotic vehicles: Pathfinder, Spirit and Opportunity Prasad U3_SolarSystem

29 Asteroid Belt : Between Mars and Jupiter
Roughly 2 million rocks between Mars and Jupiter. Largest object, Ceres, is about 1000km across, but most objects are much, much smaller. Typically smaller than comets and larger than meteoroids. Largest are spherical (gravity dominates) but smaller can be irregularly shaped. 175 million miles broad annulus Prasad U3_SolarSystem

30 JUPITER 5th planet from the sun Largest planet in the solar system
Jupiter contains over 70% of the mass in the solar system outside the Sun. It is about 11 times the radius and 330 times the mass of the earth. One-tenth the radius of the sun From the earth, there are two obvious clues to this: 1. Jupiter, which rotates extremely rapidly (a period of about 10 hours), has a significant bulge at the equator. We call this oblateness, and Jupiter has an oblateness of about 6%, which means that the equatorial diameter is 6% greater than the polar diameter. 2. In addition, Jupiter rotates differentially, just as the Sun does. The period of rotation at the poles is about 10 minutes less than that of the equator, while the interior rotates at an intermediate speed. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

31 2nd brightest planet in the sky
Giant red spot 2nd brightest planet in the sky It is the first representative of the outer solar system. Unlike the inner planets, Jupiter is not a solid body, but instead is a ball of gas and liquid (mostly hydrogen and helium). Galeilian Moons: Io, Europa, Callisto, Ganymede Io Europa Prasad U3_SolarSystem

32 SATURN Sixth planet from the sun.
Saturn is a gas giant with strong surface winds (500 m/sec). Saturn is less dense than water. Saturn’s magnetic field is 20x less than Jupiter's, but its core rotation period (10.5 hours) is similar. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

33 SATURN’s Moons Titan is larger than planet Mercury!
Mimas has a huge crater. Epimetheus and Janus, just inside the orbit of Mimas, are continually exchanging orbits with one another in a "waltz" -- they are called the co-orbital satellites. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

34 URANUS Seventh planet from the sun
Most distant planet you can see without using a telescope Has faint rings I. Uranus (This data is from: A. Discovery and Orbit Uranus was discovered in 1781 by Herschel. This caused a sensation, because everyone had assumed they knew all the planets that there were. Its orbit is very slightly elliptical, its year is 84 Earth years long (because -- remember P2=a3 -- it's at an average distance "a" of A.U.). Its weirdest feature is that it's turned on its side: its axial tilt is 97deg to the plane of its orbit around the Sun (the ecliptic). Like the other planets, its own equator dominates the dynamics of its ring-and-moons system (not the plane of its orbit around the Sun), so the moons' orbits are really easy to measure right now, as the planet's south pole is pointing toward the inner solar system. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

35 NEPTUNE Eighth planet from the sun
The blue coloration of Neptune is probably due to the presence of methane Uranus is unique among the planets in the Solar System because of its axial tilt. While Earth is tilted at a mere 23.5 degrees, Uranus has rolled over completely sideways, with an axial tilt of 99-degrees. This has a significant impact on the planet’s seasons. The north pole of Uranus experiences 42 years of complete darkness, followed by 42 years of sunlight, where the Sun never dips below in the horizon. Astronomers aren’t sure why Uranus is flipped over sideways, but they think an impact from a protoplanet early in its history gave it the momentum it needed to roll over. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

36 Discovery of Uranus and Neptune
Sir William Herschel in England discovered Uranus on March 13, 1781. Irregularities in the predicted orbit of Uranus led astronomers Urbain Le Verrier in Paris and John Couch Adams in Cambridge to separately begin calculations to determine the nature and position of a new planet. Eventually, Neptune was discovered on September 23, 1846 by Berlin Observatory. It was a sensational moment for 19th century science and dramatic confirmation of Newton’s gravitational theory. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

37 PLUTO : Dwarf planet Formerly, ninth planet from the sun Pluto used to be the farthest and the smallest planet from the sun Rocky surface surrounded by frozen gases Pluto was located by 24-year old Clyde Tombaugh and named in 1930. The name Pluto was proposed by Venetia Burney, a eleven-year-old schoolgirl in Oxford, England, after the name for the god of the underworld. The name Pluto was proposed by Venetia Burney (1918–2009), an eleven-year-old schoolgirl in Oxford, England.[32] Venetia was interested in classical mythology as well as astronomy, and considered the name, a name for the god of the underworld, appropriate for such a presumably dark and cold world. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

38 Pluto has only one moon, Charon, and was discovered only in 1978.
Charon is half the size of Pluto itself, which is unusually large for a moon. Because they are so close in size, sometimes Pluto and Charon are considered to be double-planet. Pluto seems to lie on its side: its equator points straight up, and one of its poles points directly at the sun. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

39 Planets and Greek Mythology
Mercury (Hermes) is the god of commerce, travel and thievery in Roman mythology. The planet probably received this name because it moves so quickly across the sky. Venus (Aphrodite) is the Roman goddess of love and beauty. The planet is aptly named since it makes a beautiful sight in the sky, with only the Sun and the Moon being brighter. Earth (Gaia) is the only planet whose English name does not derive from Greek/Roman mythology. The name derives from Old English and Germanic. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

40 Planets and Greek Mythology
Mars (Ares) is the Roman god of War. The planet probably got this name due to its red color. Jupiter (Zeus) was the King of the Gods in Roman mythology, making the name a good choice for the largest planet in our solar system. Saturn (Cronus) is the Roman god of agriculture. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

41 Planets and Greek Mythology
Uranus is the ancient Roman deity of the Heavens, the earliest supreme god. Neptune (Poseidon), was the Roman god of the Sea. Given the beautiful blue color of this planet, the name is an excellent choice! Pluto (Hades) is the Roman god of the underworld in Roman mythology. Perhaps the planet received this name because it's so far from the Sun that it is in perpetual darkness. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

42 Planet Temperatures All planets revolve around the sun and are all at different distances from the sun. The farther the planet is away from the sun, the colder it will be. Planet Temp. (C) Mercury 150 Venus 450 Earth Mars -50 Jupiter -150 Saturn -190 Uranus -210 Neptune -230 Pluto -250 Prasad U3_SolarSystem

43 Planet’s Distance from the Sun
Prasad U3_SolarSystem

44 Number of Moons for Each Planet
Each planet has a different number of moons. Planet Moons Mercury, Venus Earth 1 Mars 2 Jupiter 63 Saturn 61 Uranus 27 Neptune 13 (out of date for number of moons) Pluto has 3 moons. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

45 Two ways of Discovering Planets of other stars
Observe a slight “wobble” of the star due to gravitational effects of the planet. Observe variation in the brightness of star due to eclipse as the planet passes between us and the star (or in total light received as star eclipses the planet).

46 Wobble Amplified: Motion of two revolving bodies under mutual gravity
If the mass of the star is much higher than the mass of the planet, then the distance of the center of the mass is much closer to the star than to the planet. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

47 Wobble Amplified: Motion of two revolving bodies under mutual gravity
Prasad U3_SolarSystem

48 Telltale Tug of a Planet
Both the planet and the star revolve around the common center of gravity. Prasad U3_SolarSystem

49 Star eclipsing planet, reducing total light
Prasad U3_SolarSystem

50 Planet eclipsing star, reducing total light
Prasad U3_SolarSystem

51 Examples
First image of a extra-solar planet.  The planet was discovered by the gravitational wobble it created on its parent star, Epsilon Eridani.  CoRoT-7b was discovered by noting a predictable slight decrease in the brightness of its parent star Combination of wobble and partial eclipse. Celestia Exploration Activity: Solar System Exploration: Welcome to the Planets: Prasad U3_SolarSystem

52 Beyond Planets: Kuiper Belt
Prasad U3_SolarSystem

53 Kuiper belt (30-100 AU) contains 100,000 comets Oort cloud extends out
to about 50,000 AU Prasad U3_SolarSystem

54 Solar System Debris : Comets
Comet Halley (1986)‏ Comet Hale-Bopp (1997)‏ Short Period Comets Long Period Comets year orbits Halley’s period : 76 year Orbits close to ecliptic Originate in Kuiper Belt A passing star may redirect Oort cloud objects, creating long period comets. Kuiper Belt object can be redirected by Neptune, creating a short-period comet. 105 or 106 year orbits Orbits: random orientations and large ellipticities Originate in Oort Cloud

55 Comet Trajectory

56 Perseid Meteor Shower in August
Prasad U3_SolarSystem

57 Leonid Meteor Shower: Debris from Comet Tempel Tuttle
Prasad U3_SolarSystem

58 Leonid Meteor Shower in November
Prasad U3_SolarSystem

59 Why Meteor Shower is best after Midnight ?
Orbital Velocity Rotational Velocity

60 Two Showers for Halley

Download ppt "The Solar System : Planets"

Similar presentations

Ads by Google