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The Solar System : Planets Prasad1U3_SolarSystem.

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Presentation on theme: "The Solar System : Planets Prasad1U3_SolarSystem."— Presentation transcript:

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2 The Solar System : Planets Prasad1U3_SolarSystem

3 SOLAR SYSTEM The Sun PrasadU3_SolarSystem 3+ Dwarf Planets Over 150 moons / satellites of the planets Comets, meteors, asteroids, and interplanetary dust/space 2 8 Planets

4 Simplified Evolution of Solar System In the beginning, our Solar System was a huge disc of dirt, rocks, gas, ice, etc. In the middle of this disc, the Sun formed itself and began to glow. In some distances from the centre, the planets emerged from these rings of dirt, rocks and gas.

5 Scale of Solar System : Distances

6 Scale of Solar System : Sizes

7 SUN : The Star Composition: 75% hydrogen and 25% helium by mass Age: The Sun’s age is about 5 billion years. Differential rotation duration – At the equator the surface rotates once every 25.4 days – while near the poles it rotates once every 36 days Core conditions – Temperature is 15.6 million Kelvin – Pressure is 250 billion atmospheres PrasadU3_SolarSystem6

8 Sun’s energy comes from nuclear fusion (in which hydrogen is converted to helium within sun’s core). This energy is released as heat and light. Our sun is classified as a yellow main sequence star. – A star’s temperature determines its “color.” The coldest stars are red. The hottest stars are blue. – Surface temperature (Corona) : K Prasad7U3_SolarSystem

9 Geocentric vs. Heliocentric Theory Geocentric Theory (or “Ptolemaic” Theory – pronounced “Tole-ah-may-ic”) is an ancient view of the universe based primarily on religion, philosophy, and mathematical ideals. Heliocentric Theory (or “Copernican” Theory) is a revised view of the universe based on the studies of Nicholas Copernicus, who was a mathematician in the 1500’s. Prasad8U3_SolarSystem

10 Prasad9U3_SolarSystem

11 PLANETS A planet is a large, round heavenly body that orbits a star and shines with light reflected from the star. Prasad10U3_SolarSystem

12 The Planets of the Solar System Planets are categorized according to composition and size. There are two main categories of planets: – Small rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, and Pluto) – Gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) Prasad11U3_SolarSystem

13 PLANETS: Revised Definition Prasad12U3_SolarSystem In the Solar System, a planet is a celestial body that: is in orbit around the Sun, has sufficient mass to assume hydrostatic equilibrium (a nearly round shape), and has "cleared the neighbourhood" around its orbit. A non-satellite body fulfilling only the first two of these criteria is classified as a "dwarf planet".

14 Revised Planets of the Solar System 8 Planets – Small rocky planets (Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars) – Gas giants (Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune) 5 Dwarf Planets Ceres, Pluto, Haumea, Makemake, and Eris. Prasad13U3_SolarSystem

15 The Relative Size of the Planets in the Solar System Prasad14U3_SolarSystem

16 What are the nine planets? HINT: My Very Educated Mother Just Showed Us Nine Planets My Very Educated Mother Just Served Us Nachos Mercury Venus Earth Mars JupiterSaturnUranusNeptunePluto Prasad15U3_SolarSystem

17 MERCURY Closest planet to the sun About the size of Earth’s moon Takes 88 days to complete one revolution around the sun No atmosphere PrasadU3_SolarSystem16

18 MERCURY Orbit – highly eccentric (oval) – perihelion (closest point) is 46 million km – aphelion (farthest point) is 70 million km Appears to travel fastest 8th largest in size PrasadU3_SolarSystem17

19 VENUS 2nd planet from Sun 6th largest in size Brightest object in the early morning/evening sky – Also called “morning star” and “evening star” Very dry atmosphere PrasadU3_SolarSystem18

20 VENUS Greenhouse Effect: – Carbon dioxide in the atmosphere traps heat causing the surface temperature to increase upto F. Inferior/Inner planet – Shows phases when viewed from Earth Galileo observed phases Copernicus used data to develop heliocentric theory. PrasadU3_SolarSystem19

21 EARTH: The Blue Planet 3rd planet from the Sun period of rotation: 24 hours period of revolution: days It is called the blue planet because of water – Earth’s surface is composed of 71% water – Oceans help maintain Earth’s stable temperatures. Only planet with known life PrasadU3_SolarSystem20

22 Earth has a distinct atmosphere. – It screens Earth’s surface from harmful radiation from the sun. – It prevents meteorites from reaching Earth’s surface. – It traps heat to help maintain Earth’s stable temperatures. – Scattering of light by the atmosphere makes the sky look blue in the day time and red at sunset/sunrise. Otherwise, sky would have looked dark even in day time. PrasadU3_SolarSystem21

23 Earth has one moon, about 1/6 mass of earth. It takes the same amount of time for the moon to rotate once on its axis as it does for it to orbit the earth (27.3 days). – Thus, the same side of the moon always faces us. The moon’s surface is covered in dust and rocky debris from meteor impacts. – It has no water or atmosphere. – The dark areas of the moon are large craters called maria (Latin: “seas”). EARTH’s Moon Prasad22U3_SolarSystem

24 The moon reflects light from the sun onto the earth’s surface. Sometimes the moon may appear reddish-brown in color as the sunlight is deflected through dust in the earth’s atmosphere. The moon’s gravitational effects on the earth are most apparent in the “coming” and “going” of the tides. Prasad23U3_SolarSystem

25 EARTH Age: At least 4 1/2 billion years Mass: 6,600,000,000,000,000,000,000 (6.6 sextillion) tons (6.0 sextillion metric tons). Surface features: Highest land—Mount Everest, 29,035 feet (8,850 meters) above sea level. Lowest land—shore of Dead Sea, about 1,310 feet (399 meters) below sea. Prasad24U3_SolarSystem

26 Temperature: Highest, 136 °F (58 °C) at Al Aziziyah, Libya. Lowest, °F ( °C) at Vostok Station in Antarctica. Average surface temperature, 59 °F (15 °C). Chemical makeup of the earth's crust (in percent of the crust's weight): oxygen 46.6, silicon 27.7, aluminum 8.1, iron 5.0, calcium 3.6, sodium 2.8, potassium 2.6, magnesium 2.0, and other elements totaling 1.6. Prasad25U3_SolarSystem

27 Temperature: Highest, 134 °F (56.7 °C) at Greenland Ranch in Death Valley, CA on July 10, Lowest, °F (-89.6 °C) at Vostok Station in Antarctica. Average surface temperature, 59 °F (15 °C). Chemical makeup of the earth's crust (in percent of the crust's weight): oxygen 46.6, silicon 27.7, aluminum 8.1, iron 5.0, calcium 3.6, sodium 2.8, potassium 2.6, magnesium 2.0, and other elements totaling 1.6. Prasad26U3_SolarSystem

28 Size Comparison: Radius Radius of Sun ~ 440,000 miles Radius of Earth ~ 4000 miles Radius of Moon ~ 1080 miles Radius of Sun is 110 times the radius of Earth (10 times the radius of Jupiter), and radius of Earth is 4 times the radius of Moon. PrasadU3_SolarSystem27

29 MARS: The Red planet Mars is the 4th Planet from the Sun Solid carbon dioxide is found at the poles Mars is known as the Red Planet because its soil is red colored Mons Olympus – largest volcano Moons: Phobos and Deimos PrasadU3_SolarSystem28

30 Asteroid Belt : Between Mars and Jupiter PrasadU3_SolarSystem29

31 5 th planet from the sun Largest planet in the solar system – Jupiter contains over 70% of the mass in the solar system outside the Sun. It is about 11 times the radius and 330 times the mass of the earth. – One-tenth the radius of the sun PrasadU3_SolarSystem30

32 2 nd brightest planet in the sky It is the first representative of the outer solar system. Unlike the inner planets, Jupiter is not a solid body, but instead is a ball of gas and liquid (mostly hydrogen and helium). Galeilian Moons: Io, Europa, Callisto, Ganymede PrasadU3_SolarSystem31 Io Europa Giant red spot

33 SATURN Sixth planet from the sun. Saturn is a gas giant with strong surface winds (500 m/sec). Saturn is less dense than water. Saturn’s magnetic field is 20x less than Jupiter's, but its core rotation period (10.5 hours) is similar. PrasadU3_SolarSystem32

34 SATURN’s Moons Titan is larger than planet Mercury! Mimas has a huge crater. Epimetheus and Janus, just inside the orbit of Mimas, are continually exchanging orbits with one another in a "waltz" -- they are called the co-orbital satellites. PrasadU3_SolarSystem33

35 URANUS Seventh planet from the sun Most distant planet you can see without using a telescope Has faint rings PrasadU3_SolarSystem34

36 NEPTUNE Eighth planet from the sun The blue coloration of Neptune is probably due to the presence of methane PrasadU3_SolarSystem35

37 Discovery of Uranus and Neptune Sir William Herschel in England discovered Uranus on March 13, Irregularities in the predicted orbit of Uranus led astronomers Urbain Le Verrier in Paris and John Couch Adams in Cambridge to separately begin calculations to determine the nature and position of a new planet. Eventually, Neptune was discovered on September 23, 1846 by Berlin Observatory. – It was a sensational moment for 19th century science and dramatic confirmation of Newton’s gravitational theory. PrasadU3_SolarSystem36

38 PLUTO : Dwarf planet Formerly, ninth planet from the sun – Pluto used to be the farthest and the smallest planet from the sun – Rocky surface surrounded by frozen gases Pluto was located by 24-year old Clyde Tombaugh and named in The name Pluto was proposed by Venetia Burney, a eleven-year-old schoolgirl in Oxford, England, after the name for the god of the underworld.Venetia Burney Oxfordgod of the underworld PrasadU3_SolarSystem37

39 Pluto has only one moon, Charon, and was discovered only in Charon is half the size of Pluto itself, which is unusually large for a moon. – Because they are so close in size, sometimes Pluto and Charon are considered to be double-planet. PrasadU3_SolarSystem38

40 Planets and Greek Mythology Mercury (Hermes) is the god of commerce, travel and thievery in Roman mythology. – The planet probably received this name because it moves so quickly across the sky. Venus (Aphrodite) is the Roman goddess of love and beauty. – The planet is aptly named since it makes a beautiful sight in the sky, with only the Sun and the Moon being brighter. Earth (Gaia) is the only planet whose English name does not derive from Greek/Roman mythology. – The name derives from Old English and Germanic. PrasadU3_SolarSystem39

41 Planets and Greek Mythology Mars (Ares) is the Roman god of War. The planet probably got this name due to its red color. Jupiter (Zeus) was the King of the Gods in Roman mythology, making the name a good choice for the largest planet in our solar system. Saturn (Cronus) is the Roman god of agriculture. PrasadU3_SolarSystem40

42 Planets and Greek Mythology Uranus is the ancient Roman deity of the Heavens, the earliest supreme god. Neptune (Poseidon), was the Roman god of the Sea. Given the beautiful blue color of this planet, the name is an excellent choice! Pluto (Hades) is the Roman god of the underworld in Roman mythology. Perhaps the planet received this name because it's so far from the Sun that it is in perpetual darkness. PrasadU3_SolarSystem41

43 Planet Temperatures All planets revolve around the sun and are all at different distances from the sun. The farther the planet is away from the sun, the colder it will be. PlanetTemp. (C) Mercury150 Venus450 Earth0 Mars-50 Jupiter-150 Saturn-190 Uranus-210 Neptune-230 Pluto-250 Prasad42U3_SolarSystem

44 Planet’s Distance from the Sun Prasad43U3_SolarSystem

45 Number of Moons for Each Planet Each planet has a different number of moons. Prasad44U3_SolarSystem PlanetMoons Mercury, Venus0 Earth1 Mars2 Jupiter63 Saturn61 Uranus27 Neptune13 Pluto has 3 moons.

46 Two ways of Discovering Planets of other stars Observe a slight “wobble” of the star due to gravitational effects of the planet. Observe variation in the brightness of star due to eclipse as the planet passes between us and the star (or in total light received as star eclipses the planet).

47 Wobble Amplified: Motion of two revolving bodies under mutual gravity PrasadU3_SolarSystem46 If the mass of the star is much higher than the mass of the planet, then the distance of the center of the mass is much closer to the star than to the planet.

48 Wobble Amplified: Motion of two revolving bodies under mutual gravity PrasadU3_SolarSystem47

49 Telltale Tug of a Planet PrasadU3_SolarSystem48

50 Star eclipsing planet, reducing total light PrasadU3_SolarSystem49

51 Planet eclipsing star, reducing total light PrasadU3_SolarSystem50

52 Examples – First image of a extra-solar planet. – The planet was discovered by the gravitational wobble it created on its parent star, Epsilon Eridani. – CoRoT-7b was discovered by noting a predictable slight decrease in the brightness of its parent star – Combination of wobble and partial eclipse. PrasadU3_SolarSystem51

53 Beyond Planets: Kuiper Belt PrasadU3_SolarSystem52

54 PrasadU3_SolarSystem53 Kuiper belt ( AU) contains 100,000 comets Oort cloud extends out to about 50,000 AU

55 Solar System Debris : Comets Comet Halley (1986)‏ Comet Hale-Bopp (1997)‏ Short Period CometsLong Period Comets year orbits Halley’s period : 76 year Orbits close to ecliptic Originate in Kuiper Belt 10 5 or 10 6 year orbits Orbits: random orientations and large ellipticities Originate in Oort Cloud

56 Comet Trajectory

57 Perseid Meteor Shower in August &NR=1 &NR=1 PrasadU3_SolarSystem56

58 Leonid Meteor Shower: Debris from Comet Tempel Tuttle PrasadU3_SolarSystem57

59 Leonid Meteor Shower in November PrasadU3_SolarSystem58

60 Why Meteor Shower is best after Midnight ? Rotational Velocity Orbital Velocity Midnight

61 Two Showers for Halley


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