2This is a Hubble Heritage image of Sagittarius Star field This is a Hubble Heritage image of Sagittarius Star field. From left to right the image is 13.3 light-years across. What do you notice by looking at this image?
3From the picture you should have noticed that stars have _______________.The different colors indicate the __________________ of a star.different colorssurface temperature
4__________, the actual brightness of a star. All Types of StarsThe H-R diagram is a graph that plots the relationship between a star’s surface ___________ and its absolute__________, the actual brightness of a star.temperaturemagnitude
5All Types of Stars Hot cool Bright The temperature is shown along the bottom. _____ (blue) stars are at the left, and _____ (red) stars are at the right. The absolute magnitude is shown along the left side. ______ stars are at the top, _______ stars are at the bottom.HotcoolBrightdimmer
6All Types of StarsThe diagonal pattern of stars is called the ______________. This is the stage that a star will fall in for _____ of its existence. Our Sun is a main sequence star. Can you find it on the graph?main sequencemost
7All Types of StarsDuring its life cycle, stars will change into different ______ and move across the H-R graph.stages
9Stars begin their lives as clouds of dust and gas called a ________ Stars begin their lives as clouds of dust and gas called a ________. Imagine an enormous cloud of gas and dust many light-years across. _______ begins to pull the materials together. The matter begins to cluster and becomes a dense region called a ________.nebulaGravityprotostar
10Eventually, enough gas and dust have been collected into a giant ball Eventually, enough gas and dust have been collected into a giant ball. In the center of the ball the temperature reaches around _________ degrees. Then _____________ begins. The ball of gas and dust starts to glow. A new star is born!15 millionnuclear fusion
11The protostar is now a stable __________________ and will remain in this state for thousands to billions of years. The average temperature of a main sequence star is ________. After that, the ________ fuel will be depleted and the star will begin to ____.main sequence star11,000°Fhydrogendie
12A star ________ as it grows old A star ________ as it grows old. As the core runs out of hydrogen and then helium, the core contacts and the outer layers expand, cool, and become less bright; an average size star becomes a __________.expandsred giantA red giant star is a star with a mass like our Sun that is in the last phase of its life.
13This is how our Sun will increase in size at the end of its life. What happens to a star at the end of its life depends on the size of the star. A star like our Sun with ____ to ________ mass will become a red giant. A red giant’s size is about _______________that of the original main sequence star.lowmedium100-1,000 timesThis is how our Sun will increase in size at the end of its life.
14When the remaining fuel is exhausted, the outer layers of the star start to ________ into space. This creates an outer shell surrounding a ___________. A white dwarf is a stable star with no ___________. It radiates its left-over heat for billions of years. The outer shell is a _______________. (A planetary nebula has nothing to do with planets).drift offwhite dwarfnuclear fuelplanetary nebula
15NGC 3132 is a striking example of a planetary nebula NGC 3132 is a striking example of a planetary nebula. This expanding cloud of gas, surrounding a dying star, is known to amateur astronomers in the southern hemisphere as the "Eight-Burst" or the "Southern Ring" Nebula.
16In this detailed view from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, the so-called Cat's Eye Nebula looks like the penetrating eye of the disembodied sorcerer Sauron from the film adaptation of "The Lord of the Rings."
17This is an image of MyCn18, a young planetary nebula located about 8,000 light-years away, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST).
18This is picture of the Helix planetary nebula, a giant shell of gas 700 light years given off by a star dying into a white dwarf. It has been given the name ‘The Eye of God’ by the scientists due to its strong resemblance to a giant eye peering out of space.
19The white dwarf is visible as a tiny white dot in the center of the picture. The red color in the middle of the eye denotes the final layers of gas blown out when the star died. The brighter red circle in the very center is the glow of a dusty disk circling the white dwarf.
20When the heavy gases of the planetary nebula have traveled passed the ___________ pull, it leaves behind the white dwarf. White dwarfs slowly cool and _____ away. They fall into the lower left corner of the H-R diagram.gravitationalfade
21Within this Hubble Space Telescope close-up view into M4 are many white dwarfs (circled).
22The white dwarf star will eventually cool and become ____ The white dwarf star will eventually cool and become ____. When it stops shinning, the dead star is called a ____________. These stars are burnt out and do not have any light or heat.dimblack dwarf
23Large, massive stars will burn up their fuel (hydrogen) much ______ than smaller stars. When the fuel begins to run out, the core will contract and the star will _______ into what is known as a _______________, the ________ stars in existence.fasterexpandsuper red giantlargest
24Here is the red supergiant star Betelgeuse, the bright reddish star in the constellation Orion. It has steadily shrunk over the past 15 years, according to University of California, Berkeley, researchers.
25Red giant stars only live for a ______ time Red giant stars only live for a ______ time. They use up their hydrogen much faster. When these stars get old, they may _______ under their own weight and ________ in a brilliant flash of light. This death by explosion is called a __________.shortcollapseexplodesupernovaThis artist's illustration provided by NASA shows what the brightest supernova ever recorded, known as SN 2006gy, may have looked like when it exploded.
26(Left) Brightest Known Supernova Detected National Geographic - October 15, 2007 (Right) A supernova
27Multiwavelength X-ray, infrared, and optical compilation image of Kepler’s supernova remnant. This 1991 image shows a small portion of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant.
28What happens to the supernova. They form a ___________ What happens to the supernova? They form a ___________. These stars are extremely small and incredibly ______. Their protons and electrons have become ________.neutron stardenseneutrons
30Video that has the sound of a pulsar. When a neutron star begins to spin, it becomes a ______. These emit regular pulses of _____ waves and other electromagnetic radiation at rates of up to ____________ pulses per second.pulsarradioone thousandCrab Nebula's X-ray-emitting pulsar wind nebulaVideo that has the sound of a pulsar.
31Astronomers are baffled by this pulsar that is heavier than the Sun and smaller than New York which alternatively switches on and off between radio and X-ray emissions.
32NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly known as GLAST) has spied the first "gamma ray-only”. This pulsar is the first known pulsar to “blink” in pure gamma rays.
33If leftover materials from a supernova are too massive to become a neutron star, they may collapse into a _________. A _________ is a massive object with _______ so strong that not even _____ can escape.black holeblack holegravitylight
34One of the biggest black holes discovered One of the biggest black holes discovered. It is the size of an entire galaxy. (Right)
35An image of the core of the Whirlpool galaxy M51 (NGC 5149) taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. It shows an immense ring of dust and gas that is thought to surround and hide a giant black hole in the center of the galaxy.