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LIFE CYCLE OF STARS By: Annette Miles. This is a Hubble Heritage image of Sagittarius Star field. From left to right the image is 13.3 light-years across.

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Presentation on theme: "LIFE CYCLE OF STARS By: Annette Miles. This is a Hubble Heritage image of Sagittarius Star field. From left to right the image is 13.3 light-years across."— Presentation transcript:

1 LIFE CYCLE OF STARS By: Annette Miles

2 This is a Hubble Heritage image of Sagittarius Star field. From left to right the image is 13.3 light-years across. What do you notice by looking at this image?

3 From the picture you should have noticed that stars have _______________.The different colors indicate the __________________ of a star. different colors surface temperature

4 All Types of Stars The H-R diagram is a graph that plots the relationship between a star’s surface ___________ and its absolute __________, the actual brightness of a star. temperature magnitude

5 All Types of Stars The temperature is shown along the bottom. _____ (blue) stars are at the left, and _____ (red) stars are at the right. The absolute magnitude is shown along the left side. ______ stars are at the top, _______ stars are at the bottom. Hot cool Bright dimmer

6 All Types of Stars The diagonal pattern of stars is called the ______________. This is the stage that a star will fall in for _____ of its existence. Our Sun is a main sequence star. Can you find it on the graph? main sequence most

7 All Types of Stars During its life cycle, stars will change into different ______ and move across the H-R graph. stages

8 How a star is born:

9 Stars begin their lives as clouds of dust and gas called a ________. Imagine an enormous cloud of gas and dust many light-years across. _______ begins to pull the materials together. The matter begins to cluster and becomes a dense region called a ________. nebula protostar Gravity

10 Eventually, enough gas and dust have been collected into a giant ball. In the center of the ball the temperature reaches around _________ degrees. Then _____________ begins. The ball of gas and dust starts to glow. A new star is born! nuclear fusion 15 million

11 The protostar is now a stable __________________ and will remain in this state for thousands to billions of years. The average temperature of a main sequence star is ________. After that, the ________ fuel will be depleted and the star will begin to ____. main sequence star hydrogen die 11,000°F

12 A star ________ as it grows old. As the core runs out of hydrogen and then helium, the core contacts and the outer layers expand, cool, and become less bright; an average size star becomes a __________. A red giant star is a star with a mass like our Sun that is in the last phase of its life. expands red giant

13 What happens to a star at the end of its life depends on the size of the star. A star like our Sun with ____ to ________ mass will become a red giant. A red giant’s size is about _______________that of the original main sequence star. This is how our Sun will increase in size at the end of its life. 100-1,000 times low medium

14 When the remaining fuel is exhausted, the outer layers of the star start to ________ into space. This creates an outer shell surrounding a ___________. A white dwarf is a stable star with no ___________. It radiates its left- over heat for billions of years. The outer shell is a _______________. (A planetary nebula has nothing to do with planets). drift off white dwarf nuclear fuel planetary nebula

15 NGC 3132 is a striking example of a planetary nebula. This expanding cloud of gas, surrounding a dying star, is known to amateur astronomers in the southern hemisphere as the "Eight-Burst" or the "Southern Ring" Nebula.

16 In this detailed view from NASA's Hubble Space Telescope, the so- called Cat's Eye Nebula looks like the penetrating eye of the disembodied sorcerer Sauron from the film adaptation of "The Lord of the Rings."

17 This is an image of MyCn18, a young planetary nebula located about 8,000 light-years away, taken with the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST).

18 This is picture of the Helix planetary nebula, a giant shell of gas 700 light years given off by a star dying into a white dwarf. It has been given the name ‘The Eye of God’ by the scientists due to its strong resemblance to a giant eye peering out of space.

19 The white dwarf is visible as a tiny white dot in the center of the picture. The red color in the middle of the eye denotes the final layers of gas blown out when the star died. The brighter red circle in the very center is the glow of a dusty disk circling the white dwarf.

20 When the heavy gases of the planetary nebula have traveled passed the ___________ pull, it leaves behind the white dwarf. White dwarfs slowly cool and _____ away. They fall into the lower left corner of the H-R diagram. gravitational fade

21 Within this Hubble Space Telescope close- up view into M4 are many white dwarfs (circled).

22 The white dwarf star will eventually cool and become ____. When it stops shinning, the dead star is called a ____________. These stars are burnt out and do not have any light or heat. black dwarf dim

23 Large, massive stars will burn up their fuel (hydrogen) much ______ than smaller stars. When the fuel begins to run out, the core will contract and the star will _______ into what is known as a _______________, the ________ stars in existence. super red giant largest faster expand

24 Here is the red supergiant star Betelgeuse, the bright reddish star in the constellation Orion. It has steadily shrunk over the past 15 years, according to University of California, Berkeley, researchers.

25 Red giant stars only live for a ______ time. They use up their hydrogen much faster. When these stars get old, they may _______ under their own weight and ________ in a brilliant flash of light. This death by explosion is called a __________. This artist's illustration provided by NASA shows what the brightest supernova ever recorded, known as SN 2006gy, may have looked like when it exploded. short supernova collapse explode

26 (Left) Brightest Known Supernova Detected National Geographic - October 15, 2007 (Right) A supernova

27 Multiwavelength X- ray, infrared, and optical compilation image of Kepler’s supernova remnant. This 1991 image shows a small portion of the Cygnus Loop supernova remnant.

28 What happens to the supernova? They form a ___________. These stars are extremely small and incredibly ______. Their protons and electrons have become ________. neutron star neutrons dense

29 neutron star

30 Video that has the sound of a pulsar. When a neutron star begins to spin, it becomes a ______. These emit regular pulses of _____ waves and other electromagnetic radiation at rates of up to ____________ pulses per second. Crab Nebula's X-ray- emitting pulsar wind nebula pulsarradio one thousand

31 Astronomers are baffled by this pulsar that is heavier than the Sun and smaller than New York which alternatively switches on and off between radio and X- ray emissions.

32 NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope (formerly known as GLAST) has spied the first "gamma ray-only”. This pulsar is the first known pulsar to “blink” in pure gamma rays.

33 If leftover materials from a supernova are too massive to become a neutron star, they may collapse into a _________. A _________ is a massive object with _______ so strong that not even _____ can escape. black hole gravity light

34 One of the biggest black holes discovered. It is the size of an entire galaxy. (Right)

35 An image of the core of the Whirlpool galaxy M51 (NGC 5149) taken by the Hubble Space Telescope. It shows an immense ring of dust and gas that is thought to surround and hide a giant black hole in the center of the galaxy.

36 Videos on Black Holes and Life Cycle of Stars

37,2933,293993,00.html mages/Content/neutron-star-magnetar-ga.jpg RESOURCES

38 ty.html

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