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Class Update Observations Friday, Mar.5 8-9:30pm University of Minnesota (Telescopes, Star Gazing & Moon Craters) PRINT VERIFICATION SHEET Saturday, Mar.

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Presentation on theme: "Class Update Observations Friday, Mar.5 8-9:30pm University of Minnesota (Telescopes, Star Gazing & Moon Craters) PRINT VERIFICATION SHEET Saturday, Mar."— Presentation transcript:

1 Class Update Observations Friday, Mar.5 8-9:30pm University of Minnesota (Telescopes, Star Gazing & Moon Craters) PRINT VERIFICATION SHEET Saturday, Mar. 14 7-10pm MN Astronomical Society at Eagle Lake Observatory, Norwood-Young America (Telescopes, Star Gazing & NO MOON CRATERS) No verification sheet needed. Raquel and Gus present. Call/text tutor Gus for a ride 954-670-3713; meet at 6pm at Café Espresso Royale $5 per car Lab Dimensional Analysis & Significant Figures Quiz Mar. 3 or 5 depending on your lab section & day (open notebook) Mars & Saturn Writing Assignment due Mar. 24 with Test 2 Work on this over spring break (more details on calendar) Spring Break No class next week

2 What’s in our solar system? http://www.techastronomy.com/UserFiles/2007/7/22/solar_system4(1).jpg *Sun *Planets Terrestrial Jovian Dwarf Small Solar System Bodies *Meteoroids *Comets Dust

3 *Sun a. Most of mass (>99%) of solar system b. Star – produces own energy by fusion c. Hot http://sohowww.nascom.nasa.gov/gallery/images/large/eit001_prev.jpg

4 What’s in our solar system? http://www.techastronomy.com/UserFiles/2007/7/22/solar_system4(1).jpg *Sun *Planets Terrestrial Jovian

5 Terrestrial “Earth-like” Small, less massive Close to Sun (warm) Heavy elements High density Solid Surfaces Cratered Few moons Thin atmospheres Weak magnetic fields Slow rotation Fast revolution (Kepler) Jovian “Jupiter-like” Large, massive Far from Sun (cold) Rings Big storms, turbulent atmosphere, belt rotation Hydrogen rich (light elements) Low density Gas and Liquid Many moons Thick atmospheres Large magnetic fields (some tilted) Fast rotation Slower revolution **KNOW THIS**

6 Terrestrial Jovian Assignment: Highlights of Mars and Saturn See class website calendar for details 20 points on next test At least 10 sentences covering 10 highlights –5 for Mars and 5 for Saturn Print and bring to test 2 on 3/24/15

7 What’s in our solar system? http://www.techastronomy.com/UserFiles/2007/7/22/solar_system4(1).jpg *Sun *Planets Terrestrial Jovian Dwarf

8 What objects are planets and dwarf planets? International Astronomical Union 2006 http://www.iau.org/news/pressreleases/detail/iau0603/ QuestionPlanetDwarf Planet Orbits Sun?XX Round?XX Not a moon?XX Cleared orbit?X Not cleared orbit?X

9 Dwarf Planets Ceres Ceres Pluto Pluto Eris Eris Makemake Makemake Haumea Haumea Plutoids

10 Pluto Location

11 Pluto- Hard to classify

12 http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap120716.html Styx Keberus

13 Pluto: Planet or ? Round Moons Orbit tilted to plane of solar system Orbit more elliptical than other planets Sometimes Pluto is closer to sun than Neptune Denser than Jovians, less dense than Terrestrials One of many objects orbiting sun beyond Neptune

14 44 o orbit inclination Highly elliptical orbit July 2005 at 97 AU Sep 2005 It has a moon. Eris

15 Dwarf Planet Locations

16 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dc/Eris_ Orbit.svg/644px-Eris_Orbit.svg.png Other problem objects Large meteoroids (asteroids) Large meteoroids (asteroids) Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter Asteroid Belt between Mars and Jupiter

17 http://hubblesite.org/newscenter/newsdesk/archive /releases/2005/27/image/a Ceres (largest object in asteroid belt) Orbits sun Round Part of neighborhood of other objects =Dwarf Planet  ~600 mi  Better pictures and video from DAWN – more coming in 2015 http://www.universetoday.com/119235/bright-spots-on-ceres-likely- ice-not-cryovolcanoes/#more-119235

18 *Planet Terrestrial (small, dense…) Jovian (large, gaseous…) Dwarf Current definition of Dwarf Planet a. *Orbits a star b. *Round by own gravity c. *Has not cleared its neighborhood Dwarf Planets 1.Pluto 2.Eris 3.Haumea 4.Makemake 5.Ceres

19 Image: NASA Dwarf Planets Dwarf Planet Candidates

20

21 Haumea Show solar system simulator Image: NASA Asteroid BeltKuiper Belt Dwarf Planet Locations

22 What’s in our solar system? http://www.techastronomy.com/UserFiles/2007/7/22/solar_system4(1).jpg *Sun *Planets Terrestrial Jovian Dwarf Small Solar System Bodies *Meteoroids *Comets Dust

23 *Meteoroids   Definition: rocky matter in space   Small, rocky, oblong   Mostly between Mars and Jupiter (Asteroid Belt)   Asteroid – larger meteoroid *Comets   Icy   Some from beyond Neptune - Kuiper Belt Objects (40 AU)   Some from farther out (1/4 way to next star) - Oort Cloud (1LY=63000AU) Small Solar System Bodies http://herschel.jpl.nasa.gov/solarSystem.shtml

24 http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/d/dc/Eris_ Orbit.svg/644px-Eris_Orbit.svg.png Asteroid Belt – Cluster of meteoroids between Mars and Jupiter Kuiper Belt – Many icy, rock objects beyond Neptune Oort Cloud – Icy matter, including many comets way out here

25 Meteoroids/Asteroids *Orbit the sun *Orbit the sun *Mostly between Mars and Jupiter (Some throughout the solar system) *Mostly between Mars and Jupiter (Some throughout the solar system) *Rocky, sometimes icy *Rocky, sometimes icy *Most are oblong *Most are oblong *Larger ones often called asteroids *Larger ones often called asteroids Gaspra

26 Largest asteroid, Ceres, at ~600 mi. is a dwarf planet Largest asteroid, Ceres, at ~600 mi. is a dwarf planet 2 nd largest asteroid, Vesta, at ~300 mi. but not as round or massive, so it remains an asteroid 2 nd largest asteroid, Vesta, at ~300 mi. but not as round or massive, so it remains an asteroid *Meteoroids Small (grain size) to Minnesota size

27 Vesta 2nd Largest Object in Asteroid Belt Planet or Dwarf planet or Asteroid?

28 http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap120919.html Vesta

29 http://www2.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/images/gaspra.gif 12 mi X 7 mi Examples of Asteroids/meteoroids Gaspra

30 MathildeGaspra ~12mi X 7 mi Ida

31 Gaspra (asterioid) Deimos (moon) Phobos (moon)

32 Deimos http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap090316.html

33 Lutetia from Rosetta/ESA ~100 km diameter http://www.esa.int/esa-mmg/mmg.pl?b=b&type=I&mission=Rosetta&single=y&start=4

34 36mi X 14 mi http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap990807.html Ida and Dactyl

35 Eros 21 mi NEAR Shoemaker

36 37 mi x 29 mi Crater 20 mi wide X 6 mi deep Detail 1200 ft Mathilde

37 http://www.isas.jaxa.jp/e/snews/2005/1102.shtml Asteroid Itokawa Mission Hayabusa

38 *Meteorite- Meteor on Earth *Meteoroid- Matter orbiting in space *Meteor- Matter glowing in Earth’s atmosphere *Asteroid – Larger meteoroids

39 *Meteor (Shooting star, falling star) *Small (grain to pea size) Fast (~50 mi/s) Nearby (40 to 80 miles) Collide with Earth’s atmosphere, glow Most do not reach ground in tact Add thousands of tons to Earth each year

40 Fireball Larger (marble size+) Larger (marble size+) Basketball size+ can reach ground Basketball size+ can reach ground

41 Chelyabinsk Meteor Still from a video of the Chelyabinsk meteor streaking across the sky. The video is available at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SMnZr5DDRlA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SMnZr5DDRlA

42 Why study meteorites? *Composition and origin of Moon, Mars, and asteroids

43 Why study meteorites? *Estimate origin and age of our solar system (4.6 billion yrs)

44 Why study meteorites? *Origin of life Murchison meteorite (1969)

45 Why study meteorites? *Possible catastrophes for us *Possible catastrophes for us

46 Why study meteorites? *Summary: Composition of Moon, Mars, & asteroids Composition of Moon, Mars, & asteroids Estimate origin and age of solar system Estimate origin and age of solar system Origin of life Origin of life Possible catastrophes for us Possible catastrophes for us

47 Barringer Crater in Winslow, AZ

48 Meteor Crater in Winslow, AZ Barringer Crater Crater: 4/5 mile across, ~500 feet deep Occurred ~50 000 years ago Energy ~ 20 Megatons of TNT Original meteor ~ house size, 300 000 tons Speed 40 000 mi/h

49 Samples Iron-Nickel Types of meteorites Stony-IronStony

50 *Comets *cosmic snowball * frozen gas, rock and dust *icy, fuzzy appearance, tail Bayeux Tapestry

51 Comets *Hang in sky for days/weeks

52 Comet McNaught http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap070212.html Credit & Copyright: Minoru Yoneto

53 Comet – orbit *Most have elliptical orbits *Some in plane of solar system but some not

54 *Comet – why do we see them? 1.Nears Sun & melts 2.Debris reflects sunlight 3.Sunlight blows debris away Interactive comet orbit at http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/comets/comet_model_interactive.html http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/comets/comet_model_interactive.html

55 Tail = gas/ice/dust blown back by sun Nucleus = Dense center Head = Nucleus + surrounding gas/ice/dust *Comet Parts (Head and tail look dense but are not)

56 Frozen, dirty iceberg Comet Borrelly http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/target/Other?subselect =Target:Borrellyhttp://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/target/Other?subselect =Target:Borrelly: Comet Nucleus– Old Description

57 Comet Nucleus– New Description *Many are frozen, dirty icebergs *Others are loose collections of ice, gas, dust (Shoemaker- Levy 9 - 1993)

58 APOD – Wild 2

59 Size ~ 1/2 Manhattan (14kmX4km) Comet Tempel 1 Size: ~1/3 Manhattan ~8kmX5km Average Comet Size (nucleus): few miles Average Comet Tail: millions of miles http://apod.nasa.gov/apod/ap110216.html

60 Comet Parts Tail: Ions, gas, dust blown away by sun *Two tails: Gas tail – Ions and gas, blown straight back from Sun (white) Dust tail – Lags behind so looks curved (blue)

61

62

63 Period of Comet *Short Period comets In plane of solar system In plane of solar system Halley (76 yr), Halley (76 yr), Tempel-Tuttle (33 yr) Tempel-Tuttle (33 yr) *Long Period comets Out of plane Out of plane Hale-Bopp (~4000 yr) Hale-Bopp (~4000 yr) http://www.eso.org/outreach/info-events/hale- bopp/comet-hale-bopp-summary-apr07-97-rw.html

64 Comet Orbit Most have very elliptical orbits Short period comets generally orbit in the plane of the solar system Long period comets orbit from all directions Suggests two “hideouts” or origins

65 *Comet “Hideouts” Oort Cloud ~ 100 000 AU (~1 LY) long period comets, out-of-plane of SS Kuiper Belt ~ 40 – 1000 AU Kuiper Belt Objects (KBOs) short period comets, in-plane of SS

66 Comet “Hideouts”

67 *Why study comets? Water carriers? Water carriers? Original material of solar system Original material of solar system Life? Life?

68 Rosetta and Philae at Comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko http://www.universetoday.com/119296/dust-whirls-swirls-and-twirls-at-rosettas-comet/

69 Reminder: Meteors and comets seen for different reasons Reminder: Meteors and comets seen for different reasons Meteors: In Earth’s atmosphere Comets: Not in Earth’s atmosphere

70 *Meteor Shower Comet leaves trail of ice and dust Comet leaves trail of ice and dust Earth sweeps through the comet dust Earth sweeps through the comet dust See 10s to 100s of meteors per hour See 10s to 100s of meteors per hour http://astrobob.areavoices.com/2011/10/19/orionid-meteor-shower- could-make-your-wildest-dreams-come-true/

71 Meteor showers Best ones Perseids Aug 10-14 Perseids Aug 10-14 Leonids Nov 14-19 Leonids Nov 14-19 Geminids Dec 10-13 Geminids Dec 10-13 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6XTBrYWrey0

72 Meteor Streak from Meteor Shower http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/asteroidwatch/meteor.php

73 What’s in our solar system? http://www.techastronomy.com/UserFiles/2007/7/22/solar_system4(1).jpg *Sun *Planets Terrestrial Jovian Dwarf Small Solar System Bodies *Meteoroids *Comets Dust – small particles in the cosmos

74 Next Lecture Greenhouse Gasses Threats to Our Environment - Dinosaur Extinction


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