2 While on the Main Sequence stars of all mass burn hydrogen into helium
3 How long a star lives on the Main Sequence depends on its mass
4 As the star burns its hydrogen, it accumulates a helium ash Because energy flow in the central regions of the star is by radiation, the helium ash isn’t being stirred out.
5 As time goes by, the helium ash gets in the way To continue to burn hydrogen with all that helium in the way, the star gets a little hotter, a little bigger and a little brighter .
6 At the center of the star, a dead helium core starts to form The central helium core is not fusing. It’s just being squeezed by gravity and added to by the hydrogen fusing above it
7 Once the hydrogen runs out, the helium ash gets compressed until it becomes degenerate When something is degenerate all the low energy states are filled.Only the highest energy states are left for new electrons
8 What does it mean to be Degenerate? Electron energy levels crowded together almost continuousAll low energy levels are full according to the Pauli Exclusion PrincipleOnly place for additional electrons to go is in high energy levels which means they must move very fastAdding more mass decreases the volumeTemperature is same everywhere
9 If you add mass to a degenerate object it shrinks
10 When the helium core shrinks, it heats up When the helium core shrinks, it heats up. This causes hydrogen to start fusing in a shell around the coreBecause the core is shrinking as more mass is added to it, it heats up. As it heats up that causes the shell fusion around it to speed up and the star stars to expand
11 The expansion to a red giant is all due to the battle between gravity and pressure
12 Evolution off the Main Sequence is the reverse of forming a protostar
14 Once fusion in the core stops the core shrinks and heats up while the outer surface expands and cools
15 The core doesn’t completely collapse due to degeneracy
16 Helium Fusion starts when the core reaches 100,000,000°
17 In stars with low mass the helium ignition is explosive In the degenerate core the temperature is the same everywhere
18 Once helium fusion settles down the star resides on the “horizontal branch” for a while The energy production will stabilize so the star will shrink in size (some). It will then start a second life burning helium into carbon
19 For low mass stars: a second red giant stage when the helium in the core runs out
21 Thermal Pulses cause whole layers of star to lift off Near the end, shell fusion becomes unstable resulting in thermal pulses which push layers of the star into space
22 Planetary nebulae recycle most of a stars’ matter back out into space By this time, convection is starting to reach farther down into the interior of the star and dredge up the products of fusion
23 The Death of a Low Mass Star <8 solar masses Planetary nebulae can have very complex forms. The details of how they create those forms is not well understood but probably has something to do with magnetic fields or if the star is in a binary system.
24 The death of a low mass star on the H-R Diagram
25 After planetary nebula dissipates only a white dwarf is left X-ray lightVisible light
26 White Dwarf Stars are degenerate matter Chandrasekhar Limit 1.4 MsunThey are composed mostly of carbon with some oxygen