Presentation on theme: "NEBULA A nebula is a cloud of hydrogen gas and dust in space. Nebulae are the birthplaces of stars. There are different types of nebula: An Emission Nebula:"— Presentation transcript:
NEBULA A nebula is a cloud of hydrogen gas and dust in space. Nebulae are the birthplaces of stars. There are different types of nebula: An Emission Nebula: such as Orion nebula, glows brightly because the gas is energized by the stars that have formed in it. In a Reflection Nebula, light reflects on the grains of dust in a nebula.
PROTOSTAR A protostar is a large object that forms by contraction of the gas of a giant molecular cloud in the interstellar medium. The protostellar phase is one of the early stages in the process of forming a star. It starts with a core of increased density in a molecular cloud and ends with the formation of a T Tauri star, which then becomes a main sequence star. This is held by the T Tauri wind, a type of super solar wind that shows the change from the star accreting mass into radiating energy.
BROWN DWARF A black dwarf is a hypothetical stellar remnant, it is created when a white dwarf becomes cool to no longer give out significant heat or light. Since the required time for a white dwarf to reach the given state is calculated to be longer than the age of the universe of 13.7 billion years. No black dwarfs are expected to exist in the universe yet, but the temperature of the coolest white dwarfs is one observational limit on the age of the universe.
MAIN SEQUENCE After a star has formed, it creates energy at the core region of the star by fusing hydrogen atoms into helium. During this stage of the star's lifetime, it is determined by its mass, but also based upon its chemical composition and other factors. All main sequence stars are in hydrostatic equilibrium, where outward thermal pressure from the core is balanced by the inward gravitational pressure from the overlying layers.
HYDROGEN FUSION In the basic Hydrogen fusion cycle, four Hydrogen nuclei come together to make a Helium nucleus. There are actually electrons, neutrinos and photons involved that make up the fusion of Hydrogen into Helium.
RED GIANT This is a large bright star with a cool surface. It is formed during the later stages of the evolution of a star like the Sun, as it runs out of hydrogen fuel at its centre. Red giants are 10 and 100 times larger than our Sun. They are very bright because they are so large, although their surface temperature is lower than that of the Sun, about 2000-3000 � C. Very large stars (red giants) are often called Super Giants.
HELIUM FUSION The fusion of helium-4 nuclei (alpha particles) is known as the triple-alpha process, because fusion of just two helium nuclei only produces beryllium-8. If the core temperature of a star exceeds 100 million Kelvin's (100 megakelvins. Depending upon the temperature and density, an additional helium nucleus may fuse with carbon-12 to form oxygen-16, and at very high temperatures, additional fusions of helium to oxygen and heavier nuclei may occur.
PLANITARY NEBULA A planetary nebula is an emission nebula consisting of a glowing shell of gas and plasma formed by certain types of stars when they die. The name originated in the 18th century because of their similarity in appearance to giant planets when viewed through small optical telescopes, and is unrelated to the planets of the solar system. They are a relatively short-lived phenomenon, lasting a few tens of thousands of years, compared to a typical stellar lifetime of several billion years.
WHITE DWARF A white dwarf, also called a degenerate dwarf, is a small star composed mostly of electron-degenerate matter. They are very dense; a white dwarf's mass is comparable to that of the Sun and its volume is comparable to that of the Earth. Its faint luminosity comes from the emission of stored thermal energy. White dwarfs comprise roughly 6% of all known stars in the solar neighborhood. The unusual faintness of white dwarfs was first recognized in 1910 by Henry Norris Russell, Edward Charles Pickering, and Williamina Fleming. the name white dwarf was coined by Willem Luyten in 1922. http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/image/9612/ngc2440 _hst2.jpg
BLACK DWARF A black dwarf is a hypothetical stellar remnant, created when a white dwarf becomes sufficiently cool to no longer emit significant heat or light. Since the time required for a white dwarf to reach this state is calculated to be longer than the current age of the universe of 13.7 billion years, no black dwarfs are expected to exist in the universe yet, and the temperature of the coolest white dwarfs is one observational limit on the age of the universe. http://naasbeginners.co.uk/MESSIEROBJECTS_files/M57.jpg
HIGH MASS STARS http://lcogt.net/files/jbarton/crab%20nebula.jpg
MASSIVE MAIN SEQUENCE A massive main sequence star is just a bigger main sequence star that dies faster because it is bigger therefore it uses hydrogen and helium faster. http://odin.physastro.mnsu.edu/~eskridge/astr101/kauf20_17a.JPGhttp://www.mpia-hd.mpg.de/MCs_MPIA/figures/ngc346_xmm- ntt-irac.jpg
RED SUPER GIANT Red supergiant (RSGs) are supergiant stars (luminosity class I) of spectral type K or M. They are the largest stars in the universe in terms of volume, although they are not the most massive. Betelgeuse and Antares are the best known examples of a red supergiant. http://jso-mccabe.com/Img_2009/M48_Open_Cluster_Cropped_Text.jpg
SUPERNOVA A supernova is a stellar explosion. Supernova are extremely luminous and cause a burst of radiation that often briefly outshines an entire galaxy, before fading from view over several weeks or months. During this short interval, a supernova can radiate as much energy as the Sun could emit over its life span. http://www.astronomyreport.com/Images/Young_Su pernova_Remnant.jpg
NEUTRON STAR A neutron star is a type of remnant that can result from the gravitational collapse of a massive star during a Type II, Type Ib or Type Ic supernova event. Such stars are composed almost entirely of neutrons, which are subatomic particles without electrical charge and roughly the same mass as protons. Neutron stars are very hot and are supported against further collapse because of the Pauli exclusion principle. This principle states that no two neutrons can occupy the same place and quantum state simultaneously. http://www.dailygalaxy.com/my_weblog/images/2007/07/16/nasa_neutron_star_2.jpg
BLACK HOLE In general relativity, a black hole is a region of space in which the gravitational field is so powerful that nothing, not even light, can escape. The black hole has a one-way surface, called an event horizon, into which objects can fall, but out of which nothing can come. It is called "black" because it absorbs all the light that hits it, reflecting nothing, just like a perfect black-body in thermodynamics. Quantum analysis of black holes shows them to possess a temperature and Hawking radiation. http://images2.fanpop.com/images/photos/3000000/Black-Hole-s-Galaxy-M64-space-3031378-520-584.jpg
RED DWARF These are very cool, faint and small stars, approximately one tenth the mass and diameter of the Sun. They burn very slowly and have estimated lifetimes of 100 billion years. Proxima Centauri and Barnard's Star are red dwarfs.