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1 of 38. 2 of 29 HUMAN LIFE EXPECTANCY What determines how long you will live? Why do some people grow to be 100 years old and some only live to be 50.

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Presentation on theme: "1 of 38. 2 of 29 HUMAN LIFE EXPECTANCY What determines how long you will live? Why do some people grow to be 100 years old and some only live to be 50."— Presentation transcript:

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2 2 of 29 HUMAN LIFE EXPECTANCY What determines how long you will live? Why do some people grow to be 100 years old and some only live to be 50 years old? What factors affect your everyday life expectancy?

3 3 of 29 Star Life Expectancy The “life expectancy” of a star depends on the star’s MASS. Which star below would you expect to live longer? Why? What are some similarities between a star’s life expectancy and a human’s life expectancy?

4 4 of 29 The Birth of a Star

5 5 of 29 The Birth of a Star When the temperature in the core of a protostar reaches roughly 15 million o C, nuclear fusion begins and a stable star is born.a stable star is born. A star is stable when its size remains constant over time. All stars have a stable period in their lives, the length of which is determined by their mass. The star now enters its stable phase and is called a main sequence star.

6 6 of 29 Stars are born in a nebula, or cloud of gas and dust

7 7 of 29 The left pillar is approximately 4 ly in length. Pillars of Creation Part of the Eagle Nebula, 7,000 ly from Earth, where many stars are forming

8 8 of 29 A main-sequence star is ‘powered’ by nuclear fusion reactions taking place in its core. In the Sun and most stars, hydrogen atoms fuse together to form helium. This provides the energy for life on Earth. Nuclear Fusion It would take 2,000 million nuclear power plants a whole year to produce the same amount of energy on Earth. This process releases huge amounts of energy. Each second, the Sun produces 400,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 watts of energy! Nuclear fusion involves light atomic nuclei joining together (fusing) to form heavier ones.

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10 10 of 29 Using nuclear fusion

11 11 of 29 What makes a star stable? Inside a star, the energy released by fusion produces an outward acting force. This causes star expansion. However, the star’s huge mass means that gravity is acting in the opposite direction, forcing particles towards the core. If these two forces are equal, then the star will not change its size. It is said to be stable. explosive force of fusion gravitational force 332,948 Earth masses

12 12 of 29 The Stable Phase Stars live the majority of their lives in this stable phase (a balancing act between gravity pulling fuel down to the core, and heat trying to expand it outward). In this phase, stars give off energy and heat, and as a result, change color. Our sun is about halfway through its 10 billion year stable phase. Protostars that never get large enough for fusion to begin become BROWN DWARVES. Material left over after the star forms becomes planets, asteroids, comets, etc.

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14 14 of 29 Stable star structure

15 15 of 29 The end of stability A star’s stable phase ends when most of its hydrogen has been consumed by fusion. The star enters it’s old age.it’s old age. The star increases massively in size, becoming a red giant. The reduced fusion causes the core to cool, lowering pressure causing the star to collapse upon itself under its own gravity. As the outer layers contract, they heat up. This triggers the fusion of the remaining hydrogen. The increased energy output in the outer layers causes them to expand.

16 16 of 29 What happens in the core? The core continues to contract. This causes it to reach new extremes of temperature (over 100 million Kelvin) and pressure. This gives helium atoms enough energy to fuse. Thus heavier atoms, such as carbon and oxygen, are produced. In the largest stars elements as heavy as iron can be produced. However such large stars will suffer a different fate to the Sun.

17 17 of 29 The death of a star

18 18 of 29 A white dwarf is formed at the end of the life cycle of a star that is about the same size as the Sun. The outer layers of the star are ejected away from the white dwarf core and form a planetary nebula What is a white dwarf? This photograph was taken with the Hubble Space Telescope and shows ancient white dwarf stars in the Milky Way. The white dwarf stars are shown ringed in blue.

19 19 of 29 Red supergiants

20 20 of 29 What is a supernova?

21 21 of 29 However, not all elements are made in the early stages of a star’s life. Some of the heavier elements are only made when a massive star explodes in a supernova at the end of its life.supernova Nuclear fusion in stars produces new atoms. How are elements made? When all the hydrogen has been used up, other elements are fused together to make the heavier elements of the periodic table. In the early stages of a star’s life, light elements such as helium are mainly formed.

22 22 of 29 After a supernova the core of a of star more than 8 times the size of the Sun becomes a Neutron Star.Neutron Star. A neutron star is so dense that on Earth 1 tsp would weigh 1 billion tons! What is a Neutron Star? This is a baby neutron star in the remains of a supernova.

23 23 of 29 After a really massive red giant collapses in a supernova explosion, it leaves an object so dense that nothing, not even light, can escape its gravitational pull. Some scientists believe that there are black holes at the centre of galaxies. If light cannot escape from a black hole, then how can a black hole be observed? How are black holes formed? The end of the life cycle of really massive stars is different to that of massive stars. This is called a black hole.

24 24 of 29 How can a black hole be ‘seen’?

25 25 of 29 How do stars begin and endbegin and end

26 26 of 29 Lifecycle of small stars

27 27 of 29 Lifecycle of large stars

28 28 of 29 Terms about the lifecycle of stars

29 29 of 29 Star Life Cycle

30 30 of What two elements make up most of the Sun? hydrogen and helium Questions about stars the Sun  red giant  white dwarf 5. What is the fate of a star similar to the Sun? A huge cloud of gas and dust from which a star is born. 2. What is a nebula? nuclear fusion 3. What process has allowed the Sun to emit light and heat energy over thousands of million of years? neutron star 4. Which is the most dense, a white dwarf or a neutron star?


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