# Do-Now  If you owe me a project put it in the basket  Take out the planet packet you had for homework  As I come around a check answer the following.

## Presentation on theme: "Do-Now  If you owe me a project put it in the basket  Take out the planet packet you had for homework  As I come around a check answer the following."— Presentation transcript:

Do-Now  If you owe me a project put it in the basket  Take out the planet packet you had for homework  As I come around a check answer the following questions using R.A.C.E  Date and title the page Inner Planets  What do the four inner planets all have in common?  Anything Blue goes in your notes today! 1

The Solar System By Miss Scillieri Memorial School 6 th Grade

3 Relative Sizes of the Planets, plus Pluto Image from http://www.nineplanets.org/gif/NinePlanets.jpg Mercury Venus Earth Mars Not pictured, the dwarf planet Ceres Not pictured The dwarf planet Eris Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune

4 Image from http://www.nineplanets.org/gif/NinePlanets.jpg Clean picture comparing relative sizes

Another perspective 5 Image from http://media.skyandtelescope.com/images/TwelvePlanets_l.jpg Another perspective Renamed Eris

The Inner Planets  Mercury  Venus  Earth  Mars 6

Characteristics of the Inner Planets  They are 4 planets closest to the sun: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Located inside Asteroid Belt  Very similar to each other, they are small and have rocky surfaces. They are dense. Do NOT have rings  Often called “terrestrial planets” because they resemble Earth, “terra-” means “Earth” 7

Mercury  Size- about 38% of Earth’s diameter it is 4878 km  Distance from sun- about 39% of Earth’s distance it is 58,000,000 km  Surface- thin, hard rocky surface covered with many plains and craters  Atmosphere- very thin 8

Mercury  Ability to support life- none, there is NOT any sign of life on Mercury, lack of water and oxygen along with hot temperatures make life unlikely  Moons- none  Rotation- 59 Earth days  Revolution-.24 Earth years  Daytime(sunlit side) temperature 430ºC Nighttime(shaded side) temperature -190ºC 9

10 Mercury Image on left from http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/BrowseTheSolarSystem/gifs/mercury2.gif Image on right from http://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/images/browse/mercury/mercury1.jpg

Venus  Size- slightly smaller than Earth 95% of Earth’s diameter, it is 12,104 km  Distance from sun- about 2/3 of Earth’s, it is 108,000,000 km from sun  Surface- covered with rock similar to some parts of Earth, has volcanoes with lava flows and strange domes 11

Venus  Atmosphere- Very thick and cloudy, mostly carbon dioxide, clouds partly sulfuric acid. The thick atmosphere traps heat making it HOT!  Atmospheric pressure is 90 times heavier than Earth’s and would crush a human 12

Venus  Atmosphere continued- Mostly carbon dioxide so greenhouse effect is strong  Has clouds of sulfuric acid  Ability to support life- Life does NOT appear to exist on Venus, lack of water along with harsh temperatures and atmosphere make life on Venus unlikely 13

Venus  Sometimes called “Earth’s twin” or “Earth’s sister planet” due to similarity  Retrograde rotation- rotates “backward” from east to west (opposite of Earth)  Rotates very slowly, one rotation takes about 8 Earth months and one revolution around sun takes about 7.5 Earth months (One day is longer than one year)  Moons- None 14

Venus 15 Image on left from http://rocksfromspace.open.ac.uk/images/venus.jpg

EarthEarth  Size- 12,756 km diameter  Distance from Sun- 150,000,000 km  Surface- Crust is a solid rocky surface, 70% is covered by water  Atmosphere- up to 100 km thick, made up of 78% Nitrogen, 21% Oxygen, 1% other gases 16

EarthEarth  Ability to Support Life- Life does exist on Earth. Gaseous oxygen, liquid water and moderate temperatures are hospitable for life on Earth  Rotation takes 24 hours  Revolution takes 365.25 days  Earth has one moon 17

EarthEarth 18 Image on left from http://www.physorg.com/newman/gfx/news/2005/earth12.jpg Image on right from http://z.about.com/d/space/1/7/c/e/earth_moon.jpg

Mars  Size- 53% of Earth’s diameter, it is 6794 km  Distance from Sun- about 1.5 times distance of Earth It is 228,000,000 km from sun  Surface-Rocky surface with carbonite rocks high in iron, creating red color Polar ice caps contain frozen water and carbon dioxide 19

Mars  Atmosphere- Very thin, with thin clouds Mostly carbon dioxide  Ability to support life- It is possible that primitive bacteria may have lived on Mars or may now live there but none has been found. Existence of liquid water makes life on Mars a possibility 20

Mars  Has polar ice caps of frozen water and frozen carbon dioxide  Rotation- 1.03 Earth days  Revolution- 1.9 Earth years  Mars has largest volcano in solar system, called Olympus Mons  Moons- 2 Phobos and Deimos 21 Image of Phobos from http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/221818main_PIA10368-516.jpg

Mars 22 Image on left from http://www.lunarplanner.com/Images/Mars2003/Mars.jpg Image on right from http://www.spacetoday.org/images/Mars/MarsRovers2003/MarsRover2003_1.jpg

Do-Now  Come in quietly  Take out HW- As I check answer the Do Now in Blue  If you were absent check the folder! It is due tomorrow  Answer the following question? What do the four outer planets have in common?  Anything in Blue goes in your notes today! 23

The Outer Planets  Jupiter  Saturn  Uranus  Neptune  Pluto (a dwarf Planet) 24

Characteristics of The Outer Planets  These are the planets outside of the Asteroid Belt, they are: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and the dwarf planets Pluto and Eris  Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune are called “Gas Giants”. They are much larger than Earth and do not have solid surfaces 25

Characteristics of The Outer Planets  Pluto and Eris are small and rocky, like the terrestrial planets.  The gas giants do not have well-defined surfaces but have deep atmospheres that are typically about 75% hydrogen, 24% helium, and 1% other elements  Gas giants likely have solid cores of rock, ice, frozen carbon dioxide and other compounds 26

Jupiter  Size- diameter is 11 times Earth’s, It is 142,800 km  Distance from Sun- 5.2 times further than Earth. It is 778,000,000 km  Surface and atmosphere of gas and liquid it does not have a well-defined surface  Has a deep atmosphere of about 86 % hydrogen,14 % helium, and tiny amounts of methane, ammonia, phosphine, water, acetylene, ethane, germanium, and carbon monoxide. 27

Jupiter  Ability to support life- Lacks water, oxygen and moderate temperatures needed to support life. NO known life  Largest planet in solar system with 300 times the mass of Earth  Rotation-.41 Earth days (fastest)  Revolution- 29 Earth years 28

Jupiter  Moons- 63  Has dark rings  Great Red Spot is storm on Jupiter, twice as big as Earth 29

Jupiter 30 Image on left from http://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/images/browse/jupiter/jupiter.jpg Image on right from http://www.spacetoday.org/images/SolSys/Jupiter/JupiterBelowIo2001.jpg Jupiter and moon Io

Saturn  Size- About 9.44 times size of Earth. It is 120,540 km  Distance from sun- About 9.5 times distance from sun as Earth. 1,427,000,000 km  Surface and atmosphere –has no surface. Just thick mixture of gases. 31

Saturn  Ability to support life- Lacks water, oxygen, and moderate temperatures needed to support life  Second largest planet in solar system  Rotation- 0.43 Earth days  Revolution- 29 Earth years 32

Saturn  Moons- scientists are unsure because of distance and composition. Estimated at 60  Low density planet, could float in water  Has beautiful rings that look like thick and thin bands of color  Titan- its biggest moon is bigger than Mercury. Pictures show landforms once formed by flowing liquid. Scientists are studying if the moon can support life. 33

Saturn 34 Image on right from http://www.adlerplanetarium.org/cyberspace/planets/saturn/images/saturns_ring_plane.jpg Image on left fromhttp://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/images/full/saturn/saturn.jpg

Uranus  Size- About 4 times diameter of Earth. It is 51,200 km  Distance from Sun- About 19 times farther from sun than Earth. It is 2,871,000,000 km  Surface and atmosphere of a gas giant, it does not have a well-defined surface, 35

Uranus  The surface of Uranus consists of blue- green clouds made up of tiny ice crystals of methane, and rock. The crystals of methane have frozen out of the planet's atmosphere.  Uranus' atmosphere is about 83% hydrogen, 15% helium and 2% methane. 36

Uranus  Ability to support life- Lacks water, oxygen, and moderate temperatures needed to support life, NO known life  Rotation- 0.72 Earth days, is retrograde rotation like Venus, and rotates on side  Revolution- 84 Earth years  Uranus rotates on a 90 tilt and from bottom to top instead of side to side  Moons- 27. Icy and cratered surfaces  Rings- 11 dark rings. They are not as prominent or pretty as Saturn’s 37

Uranus 38 Image on left from http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/image/uranus.jpg Image on right from http://www.nasa.gov/images/content/139938main_uranus_ring.jpg

Do-Now  Come in quietly  Take out notebook open up to yesterday’s notes Sit with your Color Team Red, Orange, Blue, and Green. Do-Now  Blue Team- fill in the first column on your graphic organizer- FIRST COLUMN ONLY!  Green, Orange, and Red Teams – Write 2-3 sentences describing Neptune’s rings, moons, and composition. 39

Today we are going to the movies  We will watch the brain pops on the following titles  Jupiter  Saturn  Uranus  Neptune  Pluto 40

Assignment  Blue (Uranus)- after movie you will complete KWL chart  Green (Saturn) – after movie you will write a story about visiting Saturn and what you need to pack in your suitcase to survive  Red (Pluto) will use information text to complete graphic organizer  Orange (Neptune)- will draw a poster advertising why it is such a great planet. 41

THIS IS GRADED  Last week’s center, this center, and tomorrow center will be combined into one big grade for the 2 nd Marking Period.  This assignments like all assignments deserve your upmost respect, attention, and effort!  This can easily be turned into an individual ESSAY instead of a group station! 42

Neptune  Size- Almost 4 times diameter of Earth. It is 49,500 km  Distance from Sun- Almost 30 times farther from sun than Earth. It is 4,497,000,000 km  Surface and atmosphere of a gas giant, it does not have a well- defined surface  Neptune's composition is similar to Uranus. Cold and blue from methane clouds. 43

Neptune continued  Atmosphere is mostly hydrogen and helium with a small amount of methane.  Ability to support life- Lacks significant water, oxygen, and moderate temperatures needed to support life. NO known life. 44

Neptune continued  Rotation- 0.67 Earth days  Revolution- 165 Earth years  Visible clouds in atmosphere  Moons- 13  3 Very dark rings, 1 very faint ring 45

Neptune 46 Image on left from http://www.diracdelta.co.uk/science/source/n/e/neptune/neptune.jpg Image on right from http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/Neptune-visible.jpg

Pluto  Size- about 17% of diameter of Earth. It is 2200 km  Distance from sun- more than 39 times farther than Earth. It is 5,913,000,000 kilometers  Rocky, icy surface is very small  Thin atmosphere of methane gas 47

Pluto continued  Ability to support life- Lacks water, oxygen, and warmth needed for life NO known life  Moons- 1 Charon (book), 3- Charon, Hydra and Nix (web and NASA)  Rotation- 6.4 Earth days  Revolution- 248 Earth years 48

Pluto 49 Image on left from http://www.crh.noaa.gov/Image/fsd/astro/Pluto1.jpg Image on right from http://www.jb.man.ac.uk/public/Pluto1.jpg

The Dwarf Planets  Ceres- new dwarf planet, it was classified as the largest asteroid in the Asteroid Belt (it is between Mars & Jupiter). Say  Pluto- was classified as a planet, now classified as a dwarf planet  Eris- new dwarf planet, past Pluto it is an icy body near the edge of our solar system. Say 50

The Dwarf Planets and their Moons 51 Image from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/our_solar_system/dwarf_planets/images/dwarf_planet_sizes_sm.jpg

Planets and Dwarf Planets compared  Dwarf planets are smaller than planets  Both orbit the Sun  Both are large enough that their gravity pulls them into the shape of a sphere  Planets clear smaller objects out of their orbit. Dwarf planets can not because of their weaker gravity 52 Information from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/our_solar_system/dwarf_planets/dwarf_planets.html

Background info on Dwarf Planets  There are currently three official dwarf planets. Pluto, formerly the smallest of the nine "traditional" planets, was demoted to dwarf planet status. Ceres, the largest asteroid in the main asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, was also declared a dwarf planet. The third and final (for now!) dwarf planet is Eris, an icy body on the edge of our Solar System that was discovered recently in 2005. Eris was temporarily labeled 2003 UB313 when it was first discovered, and given the nickname "Xena", before astronomers settled on the official name of Eris.PlutoCeresEris 53 Text from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/our_solar_system/dwarf_planets/dwarf_planets.html

Background info on Dwarf Planets continued  What's the difference between regular planets and dwarf planets ? As you might guess, it's partly an issue of size, with dwarf planets being smaller. But just how big does a planet need to be to become a full-fledged planet instead of a dwarf? You might think the minimum size requirement is arbitrary, but the size cutoff is actually based on other properties of the object and its history in the Solar System. Both planets and dwarf planets orbit the Sun, not other planets (in which case we call them moons). Both must be large enough that their own gravity pulls them into the shapes of spheres ; this rules out numerous smaller bodies like most asteroids, many of which have irregular shapes. Planets clear smaller objects out of their orbits by sucking the small bodies into themselves or flinging them out of orbit. Dwarf planets, with their weaker gravities, are unable to clear out their orbits. Though there are just three dwarf planets now, their number is expected to grow. Scientists estimate there may be 70 dwarf planets amongst outer solar system objects that have been discovered already. Since we don't know the actual sizes or shapes of many of the objects we've found (because they are so far away), we can't yet determine whether they are actually dwarf planets or not. More observations and better telescopes will help us determine which other objects are dwarf planets. Astronomers speculate that there may be 200 or so dwarf planets out through the distance of the Kuiper Belt, an icy band of frozen planetoids on the edge of our Solar System.regular planetsorbitSunirregular shapesorbitsKuiper Belt 54 Text from http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/our_solar_system/dwarf_planets/dwarf_planets.html

Additional Sources  http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/our_solar _system/dwarf_planets/dwarf_planets.html http://www.windows.ucar.edu/tour/link=/our_solar _system/dwarf_planets/dwarf_planets.html  http://www.pantheon.org/miscellaneous/pronunc iations.html http://www.pantheon.org/miscellaneous/pronunc iations.html  http://www.nasa.gov http://www.nasa.gov  http://www.nineplanets.org 55

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