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الاستاذ الدكتور /حسن على قاسم بيان بالدرجات والأنشطة العلمية و الأكاديمية والتطبيقية اولا :- الدرجات العلمية بكالوريوس فى العلوم الزراعة - قسم فاكهة عام.

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Presentation on theme: "الاستاذ الدكتور /حسن على قاسم بيان بالدرجات والأنشطة العلمية و الأكاديمية والتطبيقية اولا :- الدرجات العلمية بكالوريوس فى العلوم الزراعة - قسم فاكهة عام."— Presentation transcript:

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2 الاستاذ الدكتور /حسن على قاسم بيان بالدرجات والأنشطة العلمية و الأكاديمية والتطبيقية اولا :- الدرجات العلمية بكالوريوس فى العلوم الزراعة - قسم فاكهة عام 1981 م كلية الزراعة جامعة الاسكندرية. ماجستير فى العلوم الزراعية - قسم فاكهة عام 1986 م كلية الزراعة جامعة الاسكندرية. Nutritional status of some apple cultivars in relation to fruit post- harvest physiolchmical changes ( الحالة الغذائية لبعض اصناف التفاح وعلاقتها بالتغيرات الفسيوكيميائية للثمار بعد الجمع.) دكتوراه فى العلوم الزراعية - قسم فاكهة عام 1991 م كلية الزراعة جامعة الاسكندرية. The effect of nitrogen,phosphorus and potassium fertilization on leaf and fruit mineral content,yield,fruit quality of Barkher apple trees and physiochemical changes of the fruit during cold storage ( تاثير تسميد اشجار التفاح صنف بارخر بالنيتروجين والفوسفور والبوتاسيوم على المحتوى المعدنى للاوراق والثمار وعلى كمية المحصول الناتج وجودته بعد الجمع واثناء التخزين المبرد.)

3 معيد – قسم البساتين ( الفاكهة ) - كلية الزراعة جامعة الاسكندرية عام 1981 م. مدرس مساعد - قسم البساتين ( الفاكهة ) - كلية الزراعة جامعة الاسكندرية عام 1987 م. مدرس - قسم البساتين ( الفاكهة )- كلية الزراعة جامعة الاسكندرية عام 1992 م. استاذ مساعد - قسم الفاكهة - كلية الزراعة جامعة الاسكندرية عام 1997 م. استاذ - قسم الفاكهة - كلية الزراعة جامعة الاسكندرية من عام 2004 م استاذ مشارك – قسم الانتاج النباتى - كلية علوم الاغذية والزراعة جامعة الملك سعود عام 2008 م ثانيا :- الوظائف الاكاديمية

4 بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم Recent Trends in Training Methods of Deciduous Fruit Trees Presented By Dr. Hassan Aly Kassem

5 Introduction Many special ways of training trees have been proposed over the past century and before (DeJong et al., 1999). Some systems are specific to dwarf trees, some are designed for better light distribution, some for ease of harvest, some for better support for crop, some for protection from wind, some for better fruit quality, and still others for better spray coverage to control pests. For the grower, choice of a system should be based on general cropping efficiency balanced with the cost of establishing and maintaining it. The success of a system in one area does not ensure its success in a different climate or economic situation (Westwood, 1995).

6 1. Cordon Form Single stem (height of 3-4 m). Single stem (height of 3-4 m). Short fruiting spurs (3 kg/tree = 45 tons / acre). Short fruiting spurs (3 kg/tree = 45 tons / acre). Dwarfing rootstocks. Dwarfing rootstocks. Close spacing (0.3x1.0 m) = trees / ha. Close spacing (0.3x1.0 m) = trees / ha. Trellis support. Trellis support. High yield with lower costs. High yield with lower costs. Orientation may be vertical, oblique or horizontal. Orientation may be vertical, oblique or horizontal. New Training Methods of Deciduous Fruit Trees

7 Vertical Cordon Horizontal Cordon Oblique Cordon

8 2. Pillar System (columnar canopy shape) (columnar canopy shape) It is a modified vertical cordon It is a modified vertical cordon without support. without support. Pruning to renew fruiting wood Pruning to renew fruiting wood every 3 years. every 3 years. Trees 2-3 m high have about 35 Trees 2-3 m high have about 35 production units. production units. Trees spacing Trees are planted at about 2x4 m Trees are planted at about 2x4 m = (1250 trees/ha). = (1250 trees/ha). Good spray coverage and light Good spray coverage and light distribution. distribution.

9 3. Dwarf Pyramid This system is a modification of This system is a modification of the cordon, in which low-headed, the cordon, in which low-headed, compact, central leader trees are compact, central leader trees are trained with lower branches longer trained with lower branches longer than upper ones. than upper ones. Narrow pyramid. Narrow pyramid. Trees spacing Trees are planted at about 1x3 m Trees are planted at about 1x3 m = (3333 trees/ha), with the = (3333 trees/ha), with the potential yield in the second year. potential yield in the second year.

10 4. Spindle Bush It is between the bush form and It is between the bush form and vertical cordon. vertical cordon. Unlike the cordon, in which Unlike the cordon, in which fruits are borne on short fruits are borne on short branches. branches. Height can be from 2-4 m Height can be from 2-4 m ( trees/ha). ( trees/ha).

11 Other Types of Spindle Bush a) Modified spindle bush like espalier for dwarf apples and pear. pear. b) Modified brunner-spindle system: 3-4 m spacing between trees and 5-6 m between rows 3-4 m spacing between trees and 5-6 m between rows (sweet cherries). (sweet cherries). Suitable for hand picking or mechanical harvesting. Suitable for hand picking or mechanical harvesting. Suitable for vigorous, semi-vigorous or semi-dwarf rootstocks. Suitable for vigorous, semi-vigorous or semi-dwarf rootstocks. c) Slender spindle system Vigorous growth of cv. and Rt, and the growth character of Vigorous growth of cv. and Rt, and the growth character of sweet cherries. sweet cherries. Produce dwarf trees for intensive orchards. Produce dwarf trees for intensive orchards. 4 m spacing between rows and m between trees 4 m spacing between rows and m between trees ( trees/ha). ( trees/ha).

12 5. Vertical Axis Like the vertical cordon and Like the vertical cordon and spindle bush. spindle bush. The branches become bent The branches become bent down from cropping, they are down from cropping, they are systematically renewed so as systematically renewed so as not become scaffolds. not become scaffolds. Pruning costs are less and Pruning costs are less and cropping begins early. cropping begins early. Requires support, usually 2-3 Requires support, usually 2-3 wire trellis. wire trellis.

13 6. Meadow Orchard High-yielding varieties of apple are grafted to a dwarf root. High-yielding varieties of apple are grafted to a dwarf root. Trees are planted 30x45 cm apart (74000 trees/ha). Trees are planted 30x45 cm apart (74000 trees/ha). Trees are sprayed with a growth regulator to induce flower Trees are sprayed with a growth regulator to induce flower initiation. initiation. Trees are sprayed with retardant again in the second season Trees are sprayed with retardant again in the second season to keep growth at about 1 m height. to keep growth at about 1 m height. Tree produces only 1 kg (74 M/tha). Tree produces only 1 kg (74 M/tha). Mechanical harvest in which the combine harvester cuts off Mechanical harvest in which the combine harvester cuts off the trees just above the graft union. the trees just above the graft union. High cost/acre for trees alternate year cropping. High cost/acre for trees alternate year cropping. In Israel, the Meadow system has been adapted to annual In Israel, the Meadow system has been adapted to annual cropping of early peaches and nectarines. cropping of early peaches and nectarines.

14 Modification of the meadow orchard

15 7. Palmettes Similar in that all are fan-shaped. Similar in that all are fan-shaped. Oriented in a single plane Oriented in a single plane These forms can be adapted to different soils, climatic These forms can be adapted to different soils, climatic conditions and tree vigor. conditions and tree vigor. Good exposure to sunlight. Good exposure to sunlight. Horizontal Oblique A combination arms arms of the two

16 CandelabraFan [cherry and fig]

17 8. Tatura Trellis Trees rows run north-south and each tree has only two main Trees rows run north-south and each tree has only two main branches forming a Y, growing east and west above the alley branches forming a Y, growing east and west above the alley between rows. between rows. These branches, at a crotch angle of o. These branches, at a crotch angle of o. It is expensive to install. It is expensive to install.

18 Other Types of Tatura Trellis a) Geneva Y Trellis Trellis height of 2.0 m and angle of 60o between the arms Trellis height of 2.0 m and angle of 60o between the arms of the Y. of the Y. There are 3 support wires. There are 3 support wires.

19 b) Solen Y Two branches are selected as Two branches are selected as cordons. cordons. Each cordon is curved back Each cordon is curved back over the trunk and placed over the trunk and placed along the bottom wire of the along the bottom wire of the trellis. trellis. Secondary branches are Secondary branches are trained upward in a Y-shape, trained upward in a Y-shape, with 60 o between the arms of with 60 o between the arms of the Y. the Y. Seven support wires, Seven support wires, including the bottom one including the bottom one where the cordons lay. where the cordons lay.

20 c) V Trellis Two m height with 5 Two m height with 5 support wires. support wires. d) Perpendicular “V” or Kearney System Without trellis. Without trellis. Trees are spaced ~2 m in the row and 5-6 m between rows. Trees are spaced ~2 m in the row and 5-6 m between rows. Tree height ranges up to 4.5 m. Tree height ranges up to 4.5 m. High early yield and ease of orchard management. High early yield and ease of orchard management.

21 e) Murrumbidge Irrigation Area (MIA) Trellis Double-row opposed planar A shaped canopy. Double-row opposed planar A shaped canopy. Only one arm/tree is grown east or west across the major 6.0 m Only one arm/tree is grown east or west across the major 6.0 m inter row space. inter row space.

22 f) Mikado System Four main branch elements. Four main branch elements. Therefore, vegetative growth is Therefore, vegetative growth is partitioned into four and three partitioned into four and three elements of equal strength, elements of equal strength, respectively. respectively. These elements are arranged in These elements are arranged in a V-like shape. a V-like shape. Excellent light interception, high Excellent light interception, high fruit quality and efficient use of fruit quality and efficient use of orchard space. Lower investment orchard space. Lower investment cost for establishing orchards. cost for establishing orchards branch elements/ha using a 6000 branch elements/ha using a planting density of 1500 trees/ha. planting density of 1500 trees/ha. High yield in the third year High yield in the third year already. already.

23 9. Lincoln Canopy Mechanical harvest. Mechanical harvest. T-trellis. T-trellis.

24 10. Tapered Tree wall or Hedgerow Can be cordons, pillars, dwarf pyramids, or other more complex Can be cordons, pillars, dwarf pyramids, or other more complex systems. systems. Height of the wall may vary from 2-5 m. Height of the wall may vary from 2-5 m. High quality fruit production. High quality fruit production. Least input of labor and capital. Least input of labor and capital.

25 Tapered treewalls developed in Oregon. (A)Starking/M.9 treewall spaced 15 x 4 ft., (B)Golden Delicious/M.26 spaced 9 x 3 ft., and (C)Spur Golden/M.26 spaced 6 x 3 ft.

26 11. Modified Egyptian System Modification of the other system to convert the Egyptian conditions. Modification of the other system to convert the Egyptian conditions. Apple grafted on MM106 Rt. and planted at 2 or 3 m apart within the Apple grafted on MM106 Rt. and planted at 2 or 3 m apart within the rows and 2 to 4 m between rows. rows and 2 to 4 m between rows. Base laterals are oriented down. Base laterals are oriented down. Top laterals are grown upright. Top laterals are grown upright.

27 12. Chemical Training Training IBA, ppm. IBA, ppm. Daminozide, MH, 1200 ppm. Daminozide, MH, 1200 ppm. TIBA, 50 ppm. TIBA, 50 ppm. Ethephon, ppm. Ethephon, ppm. SADH, 500 ppm. SADH, 500 ppm. Cytokinin, 100 ppm. Cytokinin, 100 ppm. Control SADH Ethephon Cytokinin

28 Training Methods In Relation to :

29 1. Growth, Yield, Fruit Quality and Photosynthesis

30 Fruit colour, soluble concentration (SSC), flesh firmness and titratable acidity of “Empire” and “Redchief Delicious” apple trees under four management systems. Mean titratable acidity (meq l -1 ) Mean flesh firmness (N) SSC (%)Fruit red colour (%)* SystemCultivar Tree age (years) and calendar year 4-year mean year mean Empire Delicious L.S.D 0.05 ** Slender Sp./M.9 Y-trellis/M.26 C.L./M.9/MM.111 C.L./M.7a L.S.D Slender Sp./M.9 Y-trellis/M.26 C.L./M.9/MM.111 C.L./M.7a Empire Slender Sp./M.9 Y-trellis/M.26 C.L./M.9/MM.111 C.L./M.7a Delicious L.S.D 0.05 ** * Red colour visually estimated as percentage of area with “good” red colour + ½ percentage of area with “compensating” red colour. ** Wherever main effect L.S.D values are not presented, the cultivar x system interaction was significant at P = N = 16 for cultivar means; n = 8 for system means; n = 4 for cultivar x system means. Source: Robinson et al.(1991)

31 Leaf area, leaf area index (LAI), total dry weight per unit leaf area (TDW/LA) and fruit dry weight per unit leaf area (FDW/LA) for “Flordaprince” peach trees trained either to central leader (CL) or Y shape (Y). FDW/LA (gm -2 ) TDW/LA (gm -2 ) LAI Leaf area (m 2 ) Training system ** NS NS * NS * NS NS NS ** ** ** CL Y NS, *, **: Non significant or significant at P < 0.05 or 0.01, respectively, according to Student test. Source: Caruso et al.(1999)

32 Trunk cross-sectional area (TCA), tree height and maximum canopy spread of dwarf “Royal Gala” apple trees grown under five different training systems. Eighth leafFourth leaf System Spread (m) Height (m) TCA (cm 2 ) Spread (m) Height (m) TCA (cm 2 ) Residual T x B T x B Residual T x B T x B*** 0.80 Slender spindle Low density V Geneva Y Solen Y* High density V MSD** Error term SE (n = 12) * One tree died in 2000, making n = 11 for the eighth leaf figures in this treatment. ** Minimum significant differences for the Waller-Duncan K-ratio t test (K ratio = 100). *** T x B = mean square for training system x block interaction. Source: Hampson et al.(2002)

33 Weight of wood removed (kg.m -1 of row) during dormant pruning of “Royal Gala” trees grown under different training systems. Year 6Year 3Year 2System Slender spindle Low density V Geneva Y High density V Solen Y MSD* SE (n = 4) *Minimum significant differences for the Waller-Duncan K-ratio t test (K ratio = 100). Interception of photosynthetically active radiation as a percentage of full sun values at the base of the canopy of “Royal Gala” trees grown under different training systems. Year 8Year 7Year 6System High density V Solen Y Geneva Y Low density V Slender spindle MSD* SE (n = 4) *Minimum significant differences for the Waller-Duncan K-ratio t test (K ratio = 100). Source: Hampson et al.(2002)

34 Cumulative yield (CY) per tree, cumulative yield per unit land area and cumulative yield efficiency (CYE, kg.cm -2 of trunk cross-sectional area) for “Royal Gala” apple trees in their fourth and eighth leaf (third and seventh cropping year, respectively) grown under different training systems. Eighth leafFourth leaf System CYE (kg.cm -2 ) CY (t/ha) CY (kg) CYE (kg.cm -2 ) CY (t/ha) CY (kg) T x B Residual Residual T x B*** Residual Residual 1.0 Slender spindle Geneva Y Solen Y* Low density V High density V MSD** Denominator SE (n = 12) * One tree died in 2000, making n = 11 for the eighth leaf figures in this treatment. ** Minimum significant differences for the Waller-Duncan K-ratio t test (K ratio = 100). *** T x B = mean square for training system x block interaction. Source: Hampson et al.(2002)

35 2. Species, Variety, Rootstocks, Dense Planting and Costs

36 Apple orchard management systems studied ( ). DeliciousEmpire Rootstock interstock System Trees /ha Spacing (m) Trees /ha Spacing (m) x x x x x x x x 6.1 M.9 M.26 MM.111/M.9 M.7a Slender spindle Y-trellis Interstems Central leader Source: Robinson et al.(1991)

37 Breakdown of system-specific costs of establishing and maintaining four orchard systems with “Ross” cling peach during the second through fifth years after planting. Source: De Jong et al. (1999) System-specific costs ($ ha -1 )

38 Effect of training system on harvest labor costs (worker – hours/t) during years 3, 4, 5 of production of “Ross” peach. Training system System Open VaseHiD KAC-VKAC-VCordon a a ab a a a a a bc a a c Source: De Jone et al.(1999)

39 Training system, planting density, tree spacing and crop yield (mean and standard error) for four planting and training systems in the sixth year after planting. Crop yield (t.ha -1 ) Spacing (m) Density (trees/ha) Training system 56.5 b 75.5 a 53.7 bc 41.2 c 2.5 x x x x KAC-V Hid KAC-V Cordon Open Vase Source: Grossman and Dejang (1998)

40 Costs and returns per hectare for central leader and Tatura trellis systems for apple in Australia (values in 1000s U.S. dollars). Year Costs / Returns Central leader Sales Capital costs Operating cost Harvest/packing Overhead Net cash flow Tatura trellis Sales Capital costs Operating cost Harvest/packing Overhead Net cash flow Source: Westwood (1995)

41 Comparison of establishment costs of 3 trellis system for Asian pears ($/ha) TotalIrrigationTrainingTreesLaborMaterial System Tatura Lincoln Treewall Source: Westwood (1995)

42 Establishment costs per acre for four production systems. Source: Tom Auvil (2000)

43 Relationship of four systems with varying tree density and fruit production during four seasons. Source: Tom Auvil (2000)

44 Per box cost of production during four seasons was directly tied to production level. Source: Tom Auvil (2000)

45 Pruning of Deciduous Fruit Trees The kind of fruit is important in determining the best pruning method because of the different flowering habits and the different ultimate fruit size at harvest. Fruits such as peach, that initiate their flowers on current shoots and that have naturally large fruits respond better to heavy pruning than those that set flowers on older spurs (apple and pear) and have naturally small fruits (cherry). The kind of fruit is important in determining the best pruning method because of the different flowering habits and the different ultimate fruit size at harvest. Fruits such as peach, that initiate their flowers on current shoots and that have naturally large fruits respond better to heavy pruning than those that set flowers on older spurs (apple and pear) and have naturally small fruits (cherry).

46 Conclusion In general, It could be concluded that V and Y training systems gave the greatest LAI, light interception and yield efficiency as compared with SS, CL and inter-stem CL training systems. Density was the predominant factor affecting tree growth, LA, light interception and fruit yield years regardless of training system.

47 THANK YOU


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