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DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY 3671: Multi-wavelength Astronomy Dr. Matthew Burleigh www.star.le.ac.uk/~mbu.

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Presentation on theme: "DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY 3671: Multi-wavelength Astronomy Dr. Matthew Burleigh www.star.le.ac.uk/~mbu."— Presentation transcript:

1 DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY 3671: Multi-wavelength Astronomy Dr. Matthew Burleigh

2 Dr. Matt Burleigh Gamma Ray Xray EUV UV Optical IR Micro-wave Radio 100MeV 100keV 0.1keV 1000A 5000A 1micron 1cm 100m The Electro-magnetic Spectrum

3 Dr. Matt Burleigh Multi-wavelength Astronomy WavebandWavelength/EnergyTemperature What can be studied Gamma rays 100keV-100MeV >10 8 K accretion disks, gamma- ray bursts X-rays<1-100keV K Hot gas in clusters of galaxies, stellar coronae, accretion disks, Ultra-violet A K Hot stars, white dwarfs, instellar gas Optical ,000A K Sun-like stars. Infra-red micron K Dust, planets, brown dwarfs Microwave1cm<10K Background radiation of the Universe (remnant of Big Bang) Radio>1m<10K Radiation from electrons moving in a magnetic field: pulsars

4 Dr. Matt Burleigh Wavelength scales Rather annoyingly, astronomers use a variety of wavelength scales depending on the waveband involved (see diagram on last slide)Rather annoyingly, astronomers use a variety of wavelength scales depending on the waveband involved (see diagram on last slide) –Radio astronomers use m and cm –Infra-red astronomers use microns –Optical and UV astronomers use Angstroms or nano- meters –X-ray and gamma ray observers switch to an energy scale, i.e. in electron-Volts

5 Dr. Matt Burleigh Conversion factors E = h  = hc/  in Joules E = h  = hc/  in Joules 1eV = 1.6x J1eV = 1.6x J Wavelength  in Angstroms -> Energy in keVWavelength  in Angstroms -> Energy in keV –keV = 12.4/ –keV = 12.4/ 1Angstrom = m1Angstrom = m 1 nm = m1 nm = m 1  m (micron) = m = 10,000A1  m (micron) = m = 10,000A –Point at which optical becomes infra-red!

6 Dr. Matt Burleigh What is multi-wavelength astronomy? Astronomers used to think of themselves as either ‘optical’, ‘radio’, ‘IR’ or ‘Xray’Astronomers used to think of themselves as either ‘optical’, ‘radio’, ‘IR’ or ‘Xray’ But modern astrophysics requires studying an object across the whole EM spectrumBut modern astrophysics requires studying an object across the whole EM spectrum Different physical processes can be studied at different wavelengthsDifferent physical processes can be studied at different wavelengths Xray, gamma ray and radio astronomers need to identify their sources with optical counterpartsXray, gamma ray and radio astronomers need to identify their sources with optical counterparts

7 Dr. Matt Burleigh The Milky Way: Optical Stars, Dust lanes

8 Dr. Matt Burleigh The Milky Way: IR See through dust

9 Dr. Matt Burleigh The Milky Way: Xray Hot gas

10 Dr. Matt Burleigh Andromeda (M31): Optical

11 Dr. Matt Burleigh Andromeda (M31): IR Star forming regions in spiral arms

12 Dr. Matt Burleigh Andromeda (M31): UV Young, hot stars in spiral arms

13 Dr. Matt Burleigh Andromeda (M31): Xray Xray binaries, supernova remnants, hot gas

14 Dr. Matt Burleigh Orion in the optical and xrays Optical Xrays

15 Dr. Matt Burleigh Multi-wavelength study of Xray sources

16 Dr. Matt Burleigh Binary stars: Sirius A & B Chandra: Xrays Optical photograph

17 Dr. Matt Burleigh Binary white dwarfs revealed in the ultra-violet OpticalUV: white dwarf companion (star Ab) HST

18 Dr. Matt Burleigh Brown dwarfs & extra-solar planets in the infra-red Gl 229: Red dwarf + brown dwarf companion HST IR image

19 Dr. Matt Burleigh Brown dwarfs & extra-solar planets in the infra-red J band (IR) image from Gemini North of a nearby white dwarf Estimate a 10Mjup planet would have a magnitude of J~20.5

20 Dr. Matt Burleigh Effect of atmosphere Band Stopped by Observe from Example Gamma rays Ionisation, compton scattering Balloon, space Xrays Ionisation O 2, N 2 Space UV O 2, N 2, O 3 disassociation Space OpticalClear!Ground

21 Dr. Matt Burleigh Effect of atmosphere Band Stopped by Observe from Example Infra-red <10microns CO 2, H 2 O but clear bands mountain Infra-red >20 microns Molecular absorption Space, aircraft Sub mm Molecular absorption Mountain RadioClear!Ground

22 Dr. Matt Burleigh Types of observation Photometry – the brightness of an object in a certain waveband Time-resolved photometry -

23 Dr. Matt Burleigh Types of observation Spectroscopy -

24 Dr. Matt Burleigh Course Outline Overview: Today – –The electro-magnetic spectrum – –What is multi-wavelength astronomy? – –Observing at different wavelengths

25 Dr. Matt Burleigh Course Outline Basic physical processes: Tomorrow – –Attenuation of radiation by matter (important to IR, UV and X-ray) – –BB radiation (how to decide which waveband to observe in) Emission processes

26 Dr. Matt Burleigh Optical astronomy TelescopesTelescopes –Modern telescope design –Diffraction limit, resolution –Seeing –Adaptive optics DetectorsDetectors –CCDs

27 Dr. Matt Burleigh Optical astronomy TechniquesTechniques –Spectroscopy: grating equation, resolution –Imaging: magnitude system, filters, colour

28 Dr. Matt Burleigh Infra-red Astronomy Infra-redInfra-red –Absorption by and emission from dust –Interstellar reddening –Detectors, telescopes and satellite missions

29 Dr. Matt Burleigh Ultraviolet Astronomy UltravioletUltraviolet –Satellite Missions –Interstellar absorption –Curve of growth

30 Dr. Matt Burleigh Radio Astronomy Radio astronomyRadio astronomy –Differences between optical and radio –The radio telescope –Interferometers –Examples: Pulsars, radio galaxies, neutral H

31 Dr. Matt Burleigh The High-Energy Universe X-ray astronomyX-ray astronomy –History –X-ray detectors –Absorption processes –X-ray emitting objects –Accretion onto compact objects –Black holes and the Eddington luminosity

32 Dr. Matt Burleigh Complimentary courses 4326 Interaction radiation/matter – Wynn4326 Interaction radiation/matter – Wynn Galaxies – O’Brien Galaxies – O’Brien Active Galaxies – Stewart Active Galaxies – Stewart Interstellar Medium - Jameson Interstellar Medium - Jameson Binary stars – Wynn Binary stars – Wynn 3677 Life in the Universe – Raine/Sims/Burleigh3677 Life in the Universe – Raine/Sims/Burleigh 4424 High Energy Astrophysics – Ward/Watson4424 High Energy Astrophysics – Ward/Watson

33 Dr. Matt Burleigh Lecture timetable Thursdays 10.30am LRBThursdays 10.30am LRB Fridays 1.30pm LRBFridays 1.30pm LRB 3 rd Yr Support course TBD

34 Dr. Matt Burleigh Books Modern Astrophysics – Carroll & OstlieModern Astrophysics – Carroll & Ostlie High Energy Astrophysics – Longair (Cambridge University Press) ISBN High Energy Astrophysics – Longair (Cambridge University Press) ISBN Active Galactic Nuclei – Robson (Wiley) ISBN Active Galactic Nuclei – Robson (Wiley) ISBN Active Galactic Nuclei – Peterson (Cambridge University Press) ISBN Active Galactic Nuclei – Peterson (Cambridge University Press) ISBN Observational Astronomy - KitchinObservational Astronomy - Kitchin


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