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The Solar System - Its Origin and Early Development Sun and eddy.

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1 The Solar System - Its Origin and Early Development Sun and eddy

2 The Solar System consists of the Sun and the other celestial objects gravitationally bound to it: the eight planets, three dwarf planets and their 165 known moons.  4 terrestrial planets or inner planets  The Asteroid Belt  4 gas giants or outer planets  The Kuiper Belt  The Oort Cloud  Three dwarf planets scattered thru the solar system Solar System

3 General Characteristics of the Solar System Planetary orbits and rotation –Planet and satellite orbits are in a common plane –Nearly all planet and satellite orbital and spin motions are in the same direction –Rotation axes of nearly all planets and satellites are roughly perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic

4 General Characteristics of the Solar System Chemical and physical properties of the planets –The terrestrial planets are small, have a high density, and are composed of rock and metallic elements –The Jovian planets are large, have a low density, and are composed of gases and frozen compounds

5 The three dwarf planets are Pluto, the largest known Kuiper belt object; Ceres, the largest object in the asteroid belt; and Eris, which lies in the scattered disc. General Characteristics of the Solar System

6 Planetary Distances: In order of their distances from the Sun Mercury 0.4 AU Venus 0.7 AU Earth 1.0 AU Mars 1.5 AU Jupiter 5.0 AU Saturn 10.0 AU Uranus 19.0 AU Neptune 30.0 AU Pluto (dwarf planet) 39.0 AU Light travels through space at 300,000-km/s. So it takes about 8 minutes for light from the sun to travel 1 AU and reach us. How long would it take light from the sun to reach Pluto? 39 x 8 = 312 minutes, or 5.2 hours!

7 Mass of the Solar System Almost all the mass in our solar system is in the sun. Mass of the Solar System Sun 99.80% Jupiter 0.10% Comets 0.05% Other 7 planets 0.04% –Total of Sun + Planets + Comets = 99.99%

8 Planets A planet is any body in orbit around the Sun that a)has enough mass to form itself into a spherical shape and b)has cleared its immediate neighborhood of all smaller objects. There are eight known planets that meets this qualification: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

9 Dwarf Planets On August 24, 2006 the International Astronomical Union defined the term "planet" for the first time, excluding Pluto and reclassifying it under the new category of dwarf planet along with Eris and Ceres. Images of the Asteroid Ceres As It Rotates One Quarter

10 Dwarf Planets A dwarf planet is not required to clear its neighborhood of other celestial bodies. Other objects that may become classified as dwarf planets are Sedna, Orcus, and Quaoar.

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12 Small Solar System Bodies Natural satellites, or moons, are those objects in orbit around planets, dwarf planets and SSSBs, rather than the Sun itself.

13 The Solar System The eight bodies officially categorized as planets are often further classified in several ways: Chemical Composition Size Position Relative to the Sun Position Relative to the Earth By History

14 Chemical Composition Terrestrial or rocky planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars: The terrestrial planets are composed primarily of rock and metal and have relatively high densities, slow rotation, solid surfaces, no rings and few satellites. Jovian or gas planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune: The gas planets are composed primarily of hydrogen and helium and generally have low densities, rapid rotation, deep atmospheres, rings and lots of satellites.

15 Size Small planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars. The small planets have diameters less than km. Giant planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. The giant planets have diameters greater than km. The giant planets are sometimes also referred to as gas giants.

16 Relative the the Sun Inner planets: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Outer planets: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune. The asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter forms the boundary between the inner solar system and the outer solar system.

17 Relative the the Earth Inferior planets: Mercury and Venus. closer to the Sun than Earth. The inferior planets show phases like the Moon's when viewed from Earth. Earth. superior planets: Mars thru Neptune. farther from the Sun than Earth. The superior planets always appear full or nearly so.

18 History Classical planets: Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter, and Saturn. Known since prehistorical times. Visible to the unaided eye Modern planets: Uranus, Neptune. Discovered in modern times. Visible only with optical aid (telescopes) The IAU has recently decided that "classical" should refer to all eight planets (Mercury thru Neptune, including Earth but not Pluto). This is contrary to historical usage but makes some sense from a 21st century perspective.

19 Origin of the Solar System The Solar System is believed to have formed according to the nebular hypothesis, first proposed in 1755 by Immanuel Kant and independently formulated by Pierre- Simon Laplace.

20 This theory holds that 4.6 billion years ago the Solar System formed from the gravitational collapse of a giant molecular cloud. This initial cloud was likely several light-years across and probably birthed several stars. Origin of the Solar System

21 About 4.5 billion years ago it is believed that the Solar System consisted of a large cloud of gas and dust, called a nebula. This cloud started rotating, and the dust particles combined to form planetesimals. As the cloud rotated faster, it flattened, and the planetesimals formed. The Sun is at the center, and secondly, the planets in orbit around the Sun. This model explains qualitatively many features of the Solar System, including the fact that the planets essentially all revolve around the Sun in the same plane. Origin of the Solar System

22 Nebular Hypothesis of Solar System Formation.

23 The Solar System – the Relative Sizes of the Planets

24 The Terrestrial Planets Terrestrial planets seem to have experienced a similar early history, with extensive volcanism, cratering, and internal differentiation Each has a metallic core and a silicate mantle crust, and shows evidence of continuing lava flows and meteorite impact Outgassing produced an atmosphere as light gases from the interior rose to the surface during volcanism

25 MERCURY Mercury, the planet nearest the Sun, is the second smallest planet in our solar system. It is only slightly larger than the Earth's moon. The surface is covered with craters. This tiny planet does not have any rings or moons. Evidence of craters

26 Diameter: one third the size of Earth Distance: 0.4 AU Atmosphere: no atmosphere Features: Craters with smooth plains and most extreme temperature range No life because of atmosphere No moons or satellites MERCURY

27 Mercury Closest to the sun. Temperature ranges from 427°C in daylight to -173°C at night. Revolves slowly, in two Mercury years three Mercury days will have passed. One third the size of the Earth. Period of Rotation = 88 days Period of Revolution = 59 days

28 Mercury Missions Environment, Geochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) is the first mission sent to orbit the planet closest to the sun. On Oct. 6, 2008, the probe flew by Mercury for the second time this year, using the planet’s gravity for a critical assist needed to keep the spacecraft on track for its orbit insertion around the planet three years from now.

29 VENUS impact craters lava flows Venus is one of the brightest objects in our sky, so it is clearly visible to the naked eye. It can be tricky to spot because it is always near the Sun. It rises and sets with the Sun each day. Ancient civilizations believed Venus was actually two different objects, so they called the one that rose the Morning Star, and the one that set the Evening Star.

30 VENUS Almost same size as the Earth. Hottest surface in our solar system. The average daytime surface temperature is 464°C, compared to the Earth’s 15°C. This is hot enough to melt lead. Named for the Roman goddess of love and beauty. Originally the Greek goddess Aphrodite. Period of Rotation = days Period of Revolution = 243 days

31 VENUS Missions Venus is covered by a thick layer of clouds that extends between 45 and 70 km above the surface. These rapidly- moving clouds are mainly composed of micron-sized droplets of sulphuric acid and other aerosols (fine solid or liquid droplets suspended in a gas), the origin of which is unknown. Venus Express is ESA’s first mission to Venus. Launched in November 2005, the spacecraft arrived at the planet on 11 April 2006 and began science observations within a month. Since then, it has continuously been making new discoveries and revising our knowledge of Venus.

32 EARTH and MOON What similarities and differences do you notice between the Earth and the Moon? Why do they have such different surface features?

33 MARS Olympus Mons is the largest volcano in our solar system! Martian crater Mars is very bright, which makes it easy to spot in the night sky. It was named after the Roman god of war because its reddish color reminded the people of blood. Although people have never landed on Mars, we have sent robotic explorers there.

34 Mars Mars is the Latin name for Ares, the Greek god of war. Mars has an atmosphere that is mainly carbon dioxide. It is very thin, only 0.01 atmosphere’s at the surface. Mars even has clouds, but they are thin also. The winds can create dust storms that cover much of the planet and last for months.

35 A surprising find made by Mariner 9 was the existence of several canyons that are much larger than Earth’s Grand Canyon. The largest, Valles Marineris, is thought to have formed by slippage of material along huge faults in the crustal layer. In this respect, it would be comparable to the rift valleys of Africa.

36 Mars Mars has two very small moons, Phobos and Diemos. They are named after the horses that pulled Mars’s chariot. The larger Deimos is only 23-km in diameter. Mars is about half the size of the Earth. A 100 pound sixth grader would weigh 39 pounds on Mars. It is very cold on Mars, with the average temperature ranging from -140° C to 20° C.

37 Mars Mars surface has a wide variety of landscapes. Olympus Mons is the largest volcano in our solar system. Its base would cover the state of Colorado. It is three times taller than Mt. Everest. There are many other volcanoes on Mars, but none seem to be active at this time. Period of Rotation = days Period of Revolution = 243 days

38 Mars Missions There have been many missions to Mars, starting with the Viking craft in There are currently two orbiters and two rovers collecting data on Mars. Manned missions are also currently being planned, around 2025 or so.

39 Mars Missions Next NASA Mars Mission Rescheduled For 2011 NASA's Mars Science Laboratory will launch two years later than previously planned, in the fall of The mission will send a next-generation rover with unprecedented research tools to study the early environmental history of Mars. The composition and markings of some Martian rocks indicate that liquid water was once present on Mars’s surface. The marking shown in the center of the rock, however, was created by a NASA rover during chemical analysis.

40 ASTEROID BELT Most asteroids can be found in the Asteroid Belt, which is located between Mars and Jupiter. Asteroids are rocky and metallic objects that orbit the Sun, but are too small to be considered planets. They are known as minor planets. Asteroids range in size from Ceres, which has a diameter of about 1000 km, down to the size of pebbles.

41 The main asteroid belt occupies the orbit between Mars and Jupiter, between 2.3 and 3.3 AU from the Sun.

42 Ceres (2.77 AU) is the largest body in the asteroid belt and its only dwarf planet. It has a diameter of slightly under 1000 km, large enough for its own gravity to pull it into a spherical shape. Ceres was considered a planet when it was discovered in the 19th century, but was reclassified as an asteroid in the 1850s as further observation revealed additional asteroids. It was again reclassified in 2006 as a dwarf planet. Asteroid Belt: Ceres

43 Gas Giants Separated from the 1 st zone by the asteroid belt, the 2 nd Zone contains the gas giants. Made of the lightweight elements Hydrogen, Helium, Carbon, Oxygen, and Nitrogen. All are much larger than the Earth, with times the mass, and 4-11 times the diameter. Not believed to have solid surfaces. Have rings and many satellites.

44 JUPITER Here are a few of Jupiter’s moons Jupiter, the fifth planet from the Sun, is the largest planet in our solar system. Jupiter is so big that over 1,000 planets the size of Earth could fit into it. It has over 60 moons and 2 rings. Can life exist on Jupiter's moon, Europa? The “Great Red Spot” Is actually a huge Storm system!

45 Jupiter Named for Jove, the King of the Roman Gods. Roman name for the Greek god Zeus. Often the term Jovian is used to describe things pertaining to Jupiter. Example: the Jovian moons.

46 Believed to be a failed star, lacking the mass to become a small star. Most massive planet in solar system. Has over 60 satellites. Density is 1.33g/cm 3. Rotates every 10 hours. Takes 12 years to orbit the sun. Gravity almost 2.5 times that of the Earth. Jupiter

47 The red spot is a huge storm that has been continuously going on Jupiter for over 400 years. Winds inside this storm reach speeds of about 270 mph. With a diameter of 15,400 miles, this storm is almost twice the size of the entire Earth. Period of Rotation = days Period of Revolution = years

48 Moons of Jupiter The New Horizons Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) captured these two images of Jupiter's outermost large moon, Callisto, as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter in late February. New Horizons' closest approach distance to Jupiter was 2.3 million kilometers (1.4 million miles), not far outside Callisto's orbit, which has a radius of 1.9 million kilometers (1.2 million miles). However, Callisto happened to be on the opposite side of Jupiter during the spacecraft's pass through the Jupiter system, so these images, taken from 4.7 million kilometers (3.0 million miles) and 4.2 million kilometers (2.6 million miles) away, are the closest of Callisto that New Horizons obtained.

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50 SATURN Saturn, the sixth planet from the Sun, is the second largest planet in our solar system. It is often called the ringed planet because many rings of dust and rocks surround it. Saturn also has over 31 moons. Some of Saturn’s rings Saturn with some of its moons Titan is a moon of Saturn that may have some Conditions necessary for life! The picture on the right shows an artist’s drawing of how Titan might have looked when the Cassini-Huygen’s probe dropped into its atmosphere in Dec., 2004.

51 Saturn Saturn was the Roman God of the Harvest and of Time. Father of Jupiter, Neptune, and Pluto. The Roman name for the Greek god Cronos. Saturnalia was the mid-winter festival in Saturns honor. It lasted seven days, and there was much merrymaking. Public business was suspended and schools were closed. Parents gave presents to their children.

52 Saturn 2 nd largest planet in solar system. A “day” on Saturn is a little over 10 hours long! It takes 29 years to orbit the sun. Almost 10 times larger than Earth. Most visible rings of any planet. Density is 0.69 g/cm 3. If a large enough ocean could be found, Saturn would float in it! Period of Rotation = 1,427 days Period of Revolution = years

53 URANUS Black rings Uranus is a very unusual planet because it sits on its side with north and south poles sticking out the sides. It rotates around this axis, making it look like a ball rolling around in a circle around the Sun. some of Uranus’s moons

54 Uranus URANUS: Great primeval God of the Sky. Born of GAIA, the Earth, he covered the world in the form of a vast bronze dome and ruled over everything.

55 Uranus Diameter is like 4 Earth’s. Mass is 14.5 Earth’s. Takes 84 years to revolve around the sun. Day is a little over 17 hours long. Has more than 20 moons.

56 Uranus Axis Uranus is considered unusual because the planet is tipped on its side. The poles actually point towards the Sun. This is due to the fact that its magnetic field is tilted 60 degrees from the axis of rotation. It is believed that Uranus was struck by a large object that knocked Uranus on its side.

57 NEPTUNE Tiny Dark Moon Neptune, usually the eighth planet from the Sun, is a very cold place. Occasionally, Pluto crosses Neptune’s orbit and becomes the eight planet. Its bluish color comes from its atmosphere of methane gas.

58 Neptune Neptune is the Roman god of the sea. The Romans modeled him after the Greek god Poseidon.

59 Neptune Neptune revolves on its axis every 18 hours. It takes 165 years to revolve around the sun once. Has the mass of 17 Earths. Has 13 moons. Diameter is almost 4 times larger than Earths. Blue-green color is from the methane in the atmosphere. At times it is the furthest planet from the sun.

60 Neptune Diameter: 4 times the size of Earth Distance: 30 Au Atmosphere: 80% Hydrogen 19% Helium 1.5% Methane Features: At times it is the furthest planet from the sun. Icy clouds and enormous storms Life:possible life on one of its moons called Triton

61 PLUTO Clearest view to date Of Pluto and Charon Pluto, usually the ninth planet from the Sun, is the smallest planet in our solar system. Some scientists believe that Pluto once was one of Neptune’s moons, and that it pulled out away from Neptune and made its own orbit.

62 Pluto Usually the furthest planet from the sun. 2/3rds the size of our moon. Has one moon, Charon. So cold that oxygen and nitrogen in its atmosphere is frozen solid. Only planet not visited by a spacecraft. Pluto takes 248 years to make one orbit around the sun!

63 Pluto When Pluto comes close enough to the sun, the surface of solid Nitrogen sublimates to produce a substantial atmosphere with winds and clouds. Because the planet is so small, however, it does not have enough gravity to bind an atmosphere for very long. Thus Pluto's atmosphere is being rapidly produced and rapidly lost at the same time. This means that the atmosphere is not in equilibrium.

64 Pluto Pluto (39 AU average), a dwarf planet, is the largest known object in the Kuiper belt. When discovered in 1930 it was considered to be the ninth planet; this changed in 2006 with the adoption of a formal definition of planet.

65 Pluto has a relatively eccentric orbit inclined 17 degrees to the ecliptic plane and ranging from 29.7 AU from the Sun at perihelion (within the orbit of Neptune) to 49.5 AU at aphelion. New Horizons Pluto Kuiper Belt Flyby The mission is expected to arrive at Pluto sometime in 2015.

66 COMETS Comet Halley in 1910 Comets are sometimes called dirty snowballs or "icy mudballs". They are a mixture of ices (both water and frozen gases) and dust that for some reason didn't get incorporated into planets when the solar system was formed. This makes them very interesting as samples of the early history of the solar system. Comets have elliptical orbits. When we see a comet, we are seeing the tail of the comet as comes close to the Sun.

67 Kuiper belt The Kuiper belt, the region's first formation, is a great ring of debris similar to the asteroid belt, but composed mainly of ice. It extends between 30 and 50 AU from the Sun. This region is thought to be the source of short-period comets, such as Halley's Comet. It is composed mainly of small solar system bodies, but many of the largest Kuiper belt objects, such as Quaoar, Varuna, and Orcus, may be reclassified as dwarf planets.

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