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1 EARTH-450 Satellites of Saturn & Jupiter Amir Salaree Monday / May 20, 2013 Pluto Auditorio di Nihilo.

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Presentation on theme: "1 EARTH-450 Satellites of Saturn & Jupiter Amir Salaree Monday / May 20, 2013 Pluto Auditorio di Nihilo."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 EARTH-450 Satellites of Saturn & Jupiter Amir Salaree Monday / May 20, 2013 Pluto Auditorio di Nihilo

2 2 Saturn...!

3 3 Roadmap Who is pluto?! Timeline Facts Pluto System New Horizon Mission

4 4 Papé Satàn, papé Satàn aleppe!!

5 5 WHO is Pluto? Theogony (Hesiod) – CowEyed Plouto! Pluto – Plouton (Demter and Lasion's son) -- Hades Plutus – Ploutos (God of Wealth -- Conflated with ) The J. Paul Getty Museum, Malibu, California, USA, ca BC Antikensammlungen, Munich, Germany, ca BC

6 6 Timeline February 18, 1930: Clyde Tombaugh discovers Pluto : Pluto's lopsided orbit brings it slightly closer to the sun than Neptune. It will be at least 230 years before Pluto moves inward of Neptune's orbit for 20 years. 1978: American astronomers James Christy and Robert Harrington discover Pluto's unusually large moon, Charon. 1988: Astronomers discover that Pluto has an atmosphere. 2005: Scientists using the Hubble Space Telescope announce the discovery of two additional moons of Pluto. Named Nix and Hydra, the little moons may have formed at the same time as Charon did, perhaps all three splitting off from Pluto in a giant impact event. 2006: NASA's New Horizons mission launches on a path to explore Pluto and the Kuiper Belt region. The spacecraft is scheduled to reach Pluto in : The International Astronomical Union classifies Pluto as a dwarf planet and recognizes similar worlds beyond the orbit of Neptune as plutoids. 2011: Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope discovered a fourth moon orbiting the icy dwarf planet. 2012: Astronomers using the Hubble Space Telescope to search for potential hazards to the New Horizon mission discovered a fifth moon orbiting the icy dwarf planet. NASA (2005) NASA (2011) NASA (2012)

7 7 FACTS * Pluto's orbital plane is off the planetary plane by 17° * Pluto has an atmosphere * Pluto exhibits variations in albedo (0.49 – 0.66) * Pluto has Seasons * Pluto has 5 moons (Charon, Nix, Hydra, P4, P5) Hubble Space Telescope (2005) Grundy, et al (2013) NASA 2012

8 8 Pluto System Pluto: HST, 2010

9 9 Pluto System Pluto: Binzel (1990)

10 10 Pluto's Albedo Stern et al, 1988

11 11 Pluto System Pluto has 5 moons... Pluto: Semi- major axis (10 6 km ) Sidere al period of Rev. (days) Eccentr icity Inclinati on (deg) Eq. Radiu s (km) Mass (10 24 kg) Density (kg/m 3 ) Siderea l period of Rotatio n (days) Surfac e Temper ature (K) Pluto593690, EART H

12 12 Pluto System Pluto has 5 moons... Pluto: ESTIMATED SIZE AND MASS of Pluto initially were biased upward because some astronomers erroneously thought Pluto's gravity was disturbing the orbits of Uranus and Neptune. After decades of downward revisions, some astronomers whimsically noted that a curve fitted to the plummeting estimates of Pluto's mass indicated that the planet would vanish in 1980! Analyses of Charon's orbit finally revealed the system's true mass, about 1/400 that of the earth.

13 13 Pluto System

14 14 Pluto System Pluto has 5 moons... Charon FERRYMAN OF HADES Charon, Gustave Dore, The Divine Comedy, 1861 HST, 2011

15 15 Pluto System Pluto has 5 moons... Charon FERRYMAN OF HADES Pluto and Charon (1978)

16 16 Pluto System Pluto has 5 moons... Nyx GREEK GODDESS OF NIGHT Nyx, Ahmolean Meuseum, Oxford, UK, ca 425 – 375 BC

17 17 Pluto System Pluto has 5 moons... Hydra THE NINE_HEADED SERPENT The Hydra and Heracles, C6th B.C., J. Paul Getty Museusm, Malibu,

18 18 Pluto System Pluto has 5 moons... P4 & P5 Vulcan & Cerberus ? SETI Institute (2013)

19 19 Two bodies with: a) the same mass orbiting a common barycenter (similar to the 90 Antiope system) b) a difference in mass orbiting a common barycenter external to both bodies, as in the Pluto–Charon system c) a major difference in mass orbiting a common barycenter internal to one body (similar to the Earth–Moon system) d) an extreme difference in mass orbiting a common barycenter internal to one body (similar to the Sun–Earth system) e) the same mass orbiting a common barycenter, external to both bodies, with eccentric elliptic orbits (a common situation for binary stars) (a)(b)(c) (d)(e)

20 20 New Horizon New Horizons Mission Objectives - Map surface composition of Pluto and Charon - Characterize geology and morphology of Pluto and Charon - Characterize the neutral atmosphere of Pluto and its escape rate - Search for an atmosphere around Charon - Map surface temperatures on Pluto and Charon - Search for possible rings and additional satellites around Pluto - Conduct similar investigations of one or more Kuiper Belt Objects

21 21 Kuiper Built

22 22 Kuiper Built

23 23 New Horizon

24 24 New Horizon

25 25 Why Pluto Is No Longer a Planet...

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