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Galaxies in the Universe

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1 Galaxies in the Universe
Chapter 4 Our backyard: the Local Group Yin Jun 09/20/06

2 Outline Brief introduction 4.1 Satellites of the Milky Way
4.2 Spirals of the Local Group 4.3 How did the Local Group galaxies form ? 4.4 Dwarf galaxies in the Local Group 4.5 Past and future of the Local Group

3 Brief Introduction

4 Members Local Group contains roughly three dozen galaxies within a sphere about a Mpc in radius Three most prominent: M31, MW, M33 They emit 90% of the visible light of Local Group. Only one small elliptical : M32 Irregular galaxies, less luminous dwarf irregulars ,dwarf ellipticals, dwarf spheroidals

5 208

6 Distribution Distance: measure m, estimate M, get d.
Centred between the MW and M31: MW has 11 known satellites (close to a plan); M31 has its brood of satellites; Many small systems are “free fliers” As is typical of groups, it is rich in ‘late type’ galaxies, spirals, and irregulars, and poor in the ‘early type’ giant ellipticals and S0 galaxies.


8 Sub-Structure in the Local Group
M31 M32 M Andromeda subgroup NGC 147 NGC185 M33 IC10 NGC 6822 IC 1613 WLM LMC SMC Galaxy subgoup Galaxy Only galaxies with Mv<-14.0 listed

9 Distribution Galaxies within about 30 Mpc form a roughly flattened distribution. They lie near the super-galactic plane, approximately perpendicular to the MW’s disk About half of all galaxies are found in clusters or groups, which are dense enough that their gravity has by now halted the cosmological expansion. The other half lie in looser clouds and associations within large walls and long filaments. These structures are collapsing, or at least expand much more slowly than the Universe as a whole.

10 Motion MW and M31 are approaching each other at a speed of 120 km s-1;
The satellites’ radial velocities are almost within 60 km s-1 of common motion of the MW and M31; The Local Group galaxies have too little kinetic energy to escape.

11 Just as the Sun is a typical star, intermediate in its mass and luminosity, so the Local Group represents a typical galactic environment: it is less dense than a galaxy cluster like Virgo or Coma, but contains enough mass to bind the galaxies together.

12 4.1 Satellites of the Milky Way


14 Members Main companion: LMC & SMC Dwarf spheroidal companions
easily visible to the naked eye gas rich and forming new stars and star clusters in abundance contain variable stars and calibrate for use as “standard candles” in estimating distance to galaxies beyond the Local Group Dwarf spheroidal companions diffuse, almost invisible on sky almost no gas to make fresh stars

15 LMC SMC Image by Roger Smith/NOAO/AURA/NSF

16 The Magellanic Clouds Large Magellanic Cloud 15°×13°on the sky, so its
long dimension is about 14kpc L~1.7×109L⊙, about 10% of the MW’s luminosity. a flat disk, tilted by about 45°. It has a strong bar, with only one stubby spiral arm rotation speed measured from the HI gas reaches 80 km/s. The orbits are centred about 0.9kpc or 1°to the Northwest of the brightest region.


18 HI gas distribution in LMC

19 The Magellanic Clouds Small Magellanic Cloud
7°×4°on the sky, extending roughly 8kpc L~0.34×109L⊙, about ten times fainter. It is an elongated “cigar” structure seen roughly end-on, with a depth of about 15kpc along the line of sight. Its stars show no organized motions


21 The Magellanic Clouds Common Characteristic (both Irr?)
Have a profusion of young stars Less dust to block starlight than in MW Clouds are blue in visible light and very bright in the ultraviolet. Star-forming regions are spread throughout, and they are rich in hydrogen gas, the raw material of star formation.

22 The Magellanic Clouds There are holes, loops, and filaments centred on sites of recent starbirth, where supernovae and the winds of hot stars have given the surrounding interstellar gas enough momentum to push the cooler HI gas aside, forming a large hot bubble.

23 The Magellanic Clouds The ratio of the HI mass to the luminosity in blue light is a useful measure of a galaxy’s progress in converting gas into stars. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: M(HI)/LB~0 early MW: M(HI)/LB~0.1 LMC: M(HI)/LB~0.3 SMC and Irrs: M(HI)/LB~ late

24 Problem 4.1 Use the data of Tables 1.2, 1.3, and 1.4 to estimate approximate spectral types for the brightest stars of the LMC, in the right panel of Figure 4.5 A0; K0

25 Magellanic Stream A “bridge” of gas, containing young star clusters ,connects the two Clouds wraps a third of the way around the sky, approximately on a Great Circle through l=90°and l=270° contains a further 2×108M⊙ of HI gas


27 Magellanic Stream The Magellanic Clouds are in orbit about each other, and they also orbit the MW in a plane passing almost over the Galactic pole, with a period of ~2Gyr. The centers of the Large and Small Clouds are now about 20kpc apart, but they probably came within 10kpc of each other during their last perigalactic passage. At that time, the gravitational pull of the LMC pulled out of the SMC the gas that now forms the Magellanic Stream. The combined gravity of the MW and the LMC has obviously distorted the SMC, and perhaps even destroyed it as a bound system; the different pieces are now drifting slowly apart. (Putman et al. 1998) (Gardiner & Noguchi 1996)

28 Clusters in MCs The MCs are extremely rich in star clusters. We can use CMDs of these clusters to find their ages, distances, and chemical compositions. LMC: 50kpc from the Sun (apparent brightness of MS stars in LMC’ cluster vs Galactic open clusters) SMC: ~60kpc (giant branch in SMC’s old clusters vs those in Galactic GCs, and from its variable stars)

29 Clusters in LMC LMC has some globular clusters similar to MW. They are old(>10Gyr) and poor in heavy elements (<1/100 of solar), but they lie in a thickened disk. Almost none of the LMC’s clusters have ages in the range 4-10 Gyr There are many younger clusters and associations (some formed ~50Myr ago, when the LMC & SMC had their last close passage.) Some are 100 times more populous than most Galactic open clusters; they may be young versions of the LMC’s globular clusters.

30 Clusters in SMC They cover the same age range as in the LMC, but there is no gap in time during which few clusters were formed. The bulk of their stars may have intermediate ages, between a few gigayears and ~12Gyr. The gas and youngest star clusters are poorer in metals than those of the LMC, with only about 10% of the solar proportion of heavy elements.

31 Variable stars as “standard candles”
RR Lyrae stars (section 2.2) low-mass helium-burning stars L~50L⊙ periods ~ half a day Cepheid variable stars massive helium-burning stars L rang up to 1000L⊙ periods ~ from one to fifty days brighter stars, longer periods

32 Variable stars as “standard candles”
Care is needed: Cepheids in the disk of the MW, where the metal abundance is high, are brighter than stars with the same period but fewer metal. Correct for the effect of interstellar dust in dimming and reddening the stars. RR are useful within 2-3 Mpc; Cepheids are useful to about 30 Mpc.

33 Variable stars as “standard candles”
This technique of finding objects in a far-off galaxy which resemble those found closer by, and assuming that the distant objects have the same luminosity as their nearby counterparts, is called the method of standard candles But this method can lead us badly astray: Distance of Cepheids in the MW’s disk, and thus their luminosities, had been underestimated because dust. W Virginis stars in Galactic GCs, which were thought to be as bright as the Cepheids, are in fact much dimmer.

34 Dwarf spheroidal galaxies
MW has 9 dwarf spheroidal galaxies; They are effectively gas free, almost no stars younger than 1-2 Gyr; Many of them contain RR Lyrae variables, which require >8Gyr to evolve to that stage. These systems maybe as old as “giant” galaxies like the MW; Their surface brightness is about a hundred times less than that of the MCs. The smallest of the dSph galaxies are only about as luminous as the larger globular clusters, although their radii are much larger.

35 Fornax dSph(天炉座矮星系) Sagittarius dSph(人马座矮星系) Sculptor dSph(玉夫座矮星系) Leo II dSph(狮子座矮星系II) Leo I dSph(狮子座矮星系I)

36 Carina dSph (船底座矮星系) Sextans dSph (六分仪座矮星系) Ursa Minor dSph (小熊座矮星系) Draco dSph (天龙座矮星系)

37 Dwarf spheroidal galaxies
In the past, often thought as merely large, low density globular clusters detailed studies over the last 20 years or so have revealed that the dSph galaxies possess a more diverse set of properties and contain more complex stellar populations than the globular cluster analogy would predict. Indeed an alternative definition of a dSph might now be a low luminosity M(V)> -14, non-nucleated dwarf elliptical galaxy with low surface brightness (fainter than 22 V magnitude per square arcsecond). Since the individual stars in dSph galaxies can be resolved, their study will contribute to the understanding of the origin and evolution of dwarf galaxies in general.

38 Dwarf spheroidal galaxies
Our satellite dSph galaxies are really galaxies, not just another form of star clusters within MW. Unlike star clusters in MW, the dwarf galaxies did not form all their stars at once; they all include stars born over several gigayears (Fig.4.9), from gas with differing proportions of heavy elements. Even the most luminous of the dSphs are only about 1/30 as rich in heavy elements as the sun, and the less luminous systems are even more metal poor. Their low metallicity suggests that these galaxies lost much of their metal-enriched gas into intergalactic space.

39 Dwarf spheroidal galaxies
There is evidence that these satellite galaxies can be disrupted by the gravitational pull of the Milky Way. Theoretical work has shown that stars can be torn from galaxies orbiting the Milky Way, resulting in thin streams of debris trailing or leading the satellite around its orbit. Interaction of a small dwarf galaxy with a Milky Way-like parent galaxy, made by Key Project team member Kathryn Johnston. Sagittarius, the most recently discovered dSph, is clearly showing signs of having been disrupted. Nearly in the plane of the Galactic disk, it lies only 16kpc from Galactic center. It is strongly distorted and spreads over 22°×7°in the sky, corresponding 10kpc×3.5kpc .

40 Dwarf spheroidal galaxies
Stellar random speeds are similar to GC, but stars spread over distances ten or a hundred time greater; If they are in steady state virial theorem M/L is much greater than that in GCs For lowest-luminosity dSphs, is even higher than that measured for MW or spiral galaxies dSph galaxies may consist largely of dark matter, with luminous stars as merely the “icing on the cake” Or they are not in equilibrium, but are being torn apart by the MW’s gravitational field (Sagittarius).

41 Problem 4.2 The Carina dwarf spheroidal galaxy has a velocity dispersion σthree times less than that at the center of the globular cluster ω Centauri, while Carina’s core radius is 40 times greater. Use the viral theorem to show that Carina is about four times as massive as ω Centauri, so that M/L must be 20 times larger. KE ≈ 3Mσr2/ KE+PE=0 PE ≈ -GM2/2rc M ≈ 3σr2rc/G (3.43) Carina dSph σr 40rc L M=?m Centauri GC 3σr rc l =5L m M ≈ 3σr2(40rc)/G m ≈ 3(3σr)2rc/G M/m=40/9≈4  M/L=20m/l

42 Life in orbit: the tidal limit
Three-body problem: Due to the combined gravitational force changing in time, they can no longer conserve their energies according to (3.25) Many of the possible orbits are chaotic; A small change to a star’s position or velocity has a huge effect on its subsequent motion. If the satellite follows a circular orbit, and the gravitational potential is constant in a frame of reference rotating uniformly about the center of mass of the combined system, we can find a substitute for the no-longer-conserved energy: effective potential Φeff

43 Life in orbit: the tidal limit
Jacobi constant EJ Rotating frame: where EJ does not change along the star’s path. Inertial frame: Write the Jacobi constant in terms of E and L

44 Life in orbit: the tidal limit
Simplest problem x Ω D x=DM/(M+m) m Satellite center of mass M main galaxy

45 Life in orbit: the tidal limit
Φeff has three maxima: Lagrange points L2 L3 L1 m M x The middle point L1 is the lowest; the next lowest point, L2, lies behind the satellite, and L3 is behind the main galaxy. If a star has EJ < Φeff (L1), it must remain bound to either M or m; it cannot wander between them.

46 Life in orbit: the tidal limit
If the satellite’s mass is much less than that of the main galaxy, L1 and L2 will lie close to m. So L1 and L2 is: ,where Stars that cannot stray further from the satellite than rJ, the Jacobi radius, will remain bound to it L1 is not the point where the gravitational forces from M & m are equal, but lies further from the less massive body. The Lagrange points are important for close binary stars; if the outer envelope of one star expands beyond L1, its mass begins to spill over onto the other.

47 moon rEM rSM Problem 4.3 1 AU earth sun Show that the gravitational pull of the Sun (mass M) on the Moon is stronger than that of the Earth (mass m), but the Moon remains in orbit about the Earth, because its orbital radius r < rJ FGS/ FGE=(M/m)(rEM/rSM)2≈2.2 So, the gravitational pull of the Sun is stronger. rJ=D(m / 3M+m)1/3=1AU(6/3* ) 1/3=0.01AU rEM=(3.84*105km) / (1.5*108km/AU)= AU<rJ So, moon remains in orbit about the Earth

48 Life in orbit: the tidal limit
When M>>m, the mean density in a sphere of radius rJ surrounding the satellite, 3m/4πrJ3, is exactly three times the mean density within a sphere of radius D around the main galaxy. M>>m, so rJ=D(m/3M)1/3  rJ3=D3(m/3M) ρm=3m/4πrJ3=3m/4π[D3(m/3M)]=9m/4πD3=3ρM Ignoring for the moment the force from the main galaxy, equation (3.23) tell us that the period of a star orbiting the satellite at distance rJ would be roughly equal to the satellite’s own orbital period. The satellite can retain those stars close enough to circle it in less time than its own orbit about the main galaxy, but it will lose its hold on any that are more remote.

49 Problem 4.4 4πGρH(r)=VH2/(r2+aH2) (2.9) M(<r)=∫ 4πρH(r)r2dr= rVH2/G
If the mass M is replaced by the ‘dark halo’ potential of Equation 2.19, show that the mass enclosed within radius r>>aH of its center is M(<r) ≈rVH2/G. A satellite orbits at distance D>>aH, show that when its mass m<<M(<D), then instead of Equation 4.10 we have 4πGρH(r)=VH2/(r2+aH2) (2.9) M(<r)=∫ 4πρH(r)r2dr= rVH2/G

50 Life in orbit: the tidal limit
The LMC’s disk is now safely stable against disruption by the MW. By equation (4.11) rJ≈50kpc×[1010M⊙/2×5×1011 M⊙]1/3≈11kpc The LMC’s disk is safely within this radius. The SMC is too distant from the LMC to remain bound to it. The problem below shows that some dwarf galaxies are probably being torn apart by the MW’s gravitational field.

51 Problem 4.5 The Sagittarius dwarf spheroidal galaxy is now about 15kpc from the Galactic center: find the mass of the Milky Way within that radius, assuming that the rotation curve remains flat with V(R) ≈200km s-1. Show that this dwarf galaxy would need a mass of about 1010M⊙ if stars at 5kpc from its center are to remain bound to it. What mass-to-light ratio M/L in the V band would this require? (It is much larger than those listed in Table 4.2) M(<15kpc)=RV2/G=15000×2002/(4.5×10-3)=1.3×1011 M⊙ rJ=5kpc, D=15kpc, M= 1.3×1011 M⊙ so we can get m≈ 1010 M⊙ m/L= 1010 M⊙/ 107 L⊙=1000! so m must less than 1010 M⊙ and rJ less than 5kpc.

52 4.2 Spirals of the Local Group

53 Three spiral galaxies: MW, M31, M33
M31 (770kpc) is the most distant object that can easily be seen with the unaided eye M33 (850kpc) is much harder to spot Comparing these three systems with each other, we see what properties spiral galaxies have in common, and how they differ.


55 The Andromeda galaxy Compare with MW ~50% more luminous;
disk scale length hR~6-7kpc, twice as large as MW’s rotates faster: V(R)~260km s-1, 20-30% higher than MW’s ~300 known GCs, over twice as many as MW’s has its own satellite galaxies: M32, 3 dwarf ellipticals, and at least 6 dwarf spheroidals: Andromeda I, II, III, V, VI, VII, Cassiopeia dSph


57 The Andromeda galaxy Bulge
Larger in proportion than MW’s, providing 30-40% of the measured luminosity; Apparent long axis of the bulge dose not line up with the major axis of the disk further out; Either the bulge is not axisymmetric and would look somewhat oval if seen from above the disk, Or its equator must be tipped relative to the plane of the disk. Stars are all at lease a few gigayears old, generally rich in heavy elements. Contains dilute ionized gas, a few denser clouds of HI & dust (dark nebulae) At its center is a compact semistellar nucleus

58 The Andromeda galaxy Nucleus
In HST images the nucleus proves to have 2 separate concentrations of light about 0.5’’ or 2pc apart; One harbors a dense central object, probably a black hole of mass ~106M⊙; The other may be a star cluster which has spiralled in to the center under the influence of dynamical friction Unlike MW, the nucleus of M31 is impressively free of either gas or dust

59 The Andromeda galaxy Globular clusters:
Metal-poor GCs of M31 follow deeply plunging orbits; The cluster system shows little or no ordered rotation. However, the bulge also continues smoothly outward as a luminous spheroid. Most of the stars a few kpcs above the disk plane are not those of a metal-poor halo; they are relatively metal rich, and they probably form a fast-rotating system. It is as if M31’s bulge has ‘overflowed’, largely swamping the metal-poor halo

60 The Andromeda galaxy Ring ~10kpc, star-forming ‘ring of fire’
Most of the young disk stars lie in this ring or just outside it; Stars is forming at s slower rate (~1M⊙yr-1) than that of MW Just outside this ring, dark dust lanes and strings of HII regions in the disk trace segments of fairly tightly wound spiral arms, where gas, dust, and stars have been compressed to a higher density. There is no clear large-scale spiral pattern.

61 The Andromeda galaxy Gas
HI ~4-6×109M⊙, about 50% more than MW, concentrated at the “ring of fire”; H2 is probably a smaller fraction of the total, so the ratio of gas mass to stellar luminosity is lower than in MW Gas extends to larger radii than the stellar disk, as in the Milky Way

62 The Andromeda galaxy Holes
In the region of the spiral arms, high-resolution maps show holes in the HI disk, up to a kpc across; At their edges, shells containing M⊙ of dense HI gas are moving outward at km s-1. Need a few megayears to reach their present sizes. Winds from massive O & B stars which lies within the hole, and recent SN explosions, have blown away the cool gas. Holes in the inner parts of the disk tend to be smaller, perhaps because the gas is denser or the magnetic field stronger, making it harder to push cool material out of the way.

63 The Andromeda galaxy The outer part of the gas disk is “S” shape;
The stellar disk is visibly warped in the same sense; “S” warp is quite common in spirals; As in our MW, the HI layer flares out to become thicker at greater distances from the center. Because of its large bulge and moderately tightly wound spiral arms, and the relative paucity of gas and recent star formation in the inner disk, we classify M31 as an Sb galaxy, while our Milky Way is Sbc or Sc.


65 M33: a late-type spiral M33 is definitely an Sc or Scd galaxy
Bulge is tiny The spiral arms: more open , not so smooth, consist mainly of bright blue concentrations of recently formed stars. smaller and much less luminous (5.5×109L⊙) Scale length ~ 1.7kpc , small Rotation speed V(R) rises only to 120 km s-1

66 Radio & Optical Combination Image of M33
M33: a late-type spiral Complex network of loops, filaments, and shells, like LMC SN explosions, and the winds from stars, heat the surrounding gas and drive it away, thus affecting the location and rate of future starbirth. Such feedback has a strong effect on the way that galaxies came into being from lumps of primordial gas, and on their subsequent develop-ment. Radio & Optical Combination Image of M33

67 M33: a late-type spiral Gas relatively richer in HI gas than M31 or MW
Compared to the MW, relatively more of the HI gas in the warm component and less in cold dense clouds. HI layer has large holes, often centred on SF regions. HI gas disk is very extended, ~30kpc Little CO emission  Lack of molecular gas or A smaller ratio of CO to H2 than in the MW (more likely, stars born in the dense cores of H2 clouds) outer disk is warped, possibly by tides from M31

68 M33: a late-type spiral At the center of M33, we find a dense nuclear star cluster, with no more than a small bulge around it. Luminous than any Galactic globular (2.5×106L⊙) Its core is less than 0.4pc The density of stars exceeds 107L⊙pc-3 Nucleus contains old, middle-aged, and young stars, not a single generation of stars. No sign of a black hole with MBH~106M⊙, but we do see evidence for a power source other than ordinary stars. M33’s nucleus is the single brightest X-ray source in LG An unusual optical spectrum, with strong emission lines of nitrogen.

69 M33: a late-type spiral M33 is only 2 or 3 times more luminous than the LMC It has a much more symmetrical spiral pattern. Low-L galaxies are in general more likely than larger systems to resemble LMC have a strong central bar brightest parts of the galaxy lying off center form the disk. However, the morphology clearly depends on factors other than the galaxy’s luminosity alone

70 4.3 How did the Local Group galaxies form ?

71 A picture for the formation
years after Big Bang, photons no longer had enough energy to ionize H and He nuclei + electrons  gas of neutral atoms. Light could freely propagate; Universe became transparent. The gas was no longer supported by pressure of photons trapped within it  form galaxies If its gravity was strong enough, a region that was denser than average  collapse inward The denser the gas, the earlier cosmic expansion would halt, giving way to contraction.

72 A picture for the formation
Clumps near the center of a large infalling region would fall toward each other, eventually merging into a single big galaxy; Those further out might become smaller satellite galaxies. The protogalaxies lay closer together than the galaxies do now, because the Universe was smaller. Not neat spheres, but irregularly shaped lumps, tugging at each other by gravity. Mutual tidal torques would have pulled them into a slow rotation Clouds within each protogalaxy collide with each other  lose part of energy  fall inward  rotation increases (angular momentum approximately conserves)

73 Earliest stars Observe stellar light and the emission lines of hot gas ionized by early stars: z~5 (Universe was less than 1 Gyr) The first stars could not form too early : the cosmic background radiation had to cool sufficiently, so star-sized lumps of gas could radiate heat away, and collapse  using equation (1.28): z≤6, hundreds of millions of years after Big Bang.

74 Making the Milky Way Stars The first star
born: pure H and He lived: in a smaller lumps of gas, with masses perhaps M⊙ die: contaminated the remaining gas with metals. One or two SN were enough to add elements to the gas in 1/1000 or even 1/100 of the solar proportion  the oldest stars, metal-poor globular clusters Stars in each clusters generally have very closely the same composition  we think that GCs formed in smaller parcels of gas, where the nucleosynthetic products of earlier stars had been thoroughly mixed.

75 Making the Milky Way Halo (GCs)
When gas clouds ran into each other, fell together to form the MW  some GCs bron. The collisions would have compressed the gas, raising its density so that many stars formed in a short time. Stars, unlike gas, do not lose significant energy through collisions; so their formation halts the increase in ordered rotation. The orbits of the old metal-poor globulars and halo stars are not circular but elongated. Stellar orbits: in random directions. So metal-poor halo: no ordered rotation. This is probably because the material did not fall far into the Galaxy before it became largely stellar


77 Making the Milky Way Disk
By contrast, the material that became the MW’s rotating disk had to lose a considerable amount of its energy. A circle is the orbit of lowest energy for a given angular momentum (section 3.3) Thin-disk stars occupy nearly circular orbits  because they were born from gas that had lost almost as much energy as possible; Thick disk stars & more metal-rich GCs (predate most of the thin disk) may have born from gas clouds that lost less of their energy. But they still formed a somewhat flattened rotating system 8-10Gyr ago, earliest thin-disk stars were born, heavy elements enriched the gas, perhaps to 10-20% of the solar abundance.

78 Making the Milky Way Disk gas
If tidal torques gave disk gas a rotational speed only 5% of that needed for a circular orbit, the gas must fall inward until it reached an orbit appropriate for its momentum; If the MW’s V(R) is constant this gas must have fallen in from a distance R~100kpc; the gas around galaxies must have extended much further out at earlier times; The disk material (much less dense) had to remain gaseous as it moved inward, so that it could continue to lose energy through collisions.

79 Making the Milky Way Bulge
CMD shows no horizontal branch in Galactic bulge. The overwhelming majority of stars have ages less than 8-10Gyr, some may be much younger, few as old as GC. We do not yet know how the bulge stars were made. may have formed in the dense center of the protogalactic gas that was to make up the MW; might have grown out of a dense inner region of the disk; may be the remains of dense clusters that fell victim to dynamical friction, and spiralled into the center.

80 Making the Milky Way The central kpc of galaxies such as M33 and the LMC is not dense as the inner MW; the low density may have prevented a bulge from developing Once the dense central bulge formed, the gravitational force of the whole Galaxy would have helped it to hold onto its gas, trap debris from SN the bulge formed large numbers of metal-rich stars. Stars of more luminous galaxies , and closer to the center of galaxies, contain a higher fraction of heavy elements: the stronger gravity prevents metal-rich gas from escaping, and it is incorporated into stars.

81 Making the Milky Way Dark matter
Much in the outskirts, beyond most of the stars of the disk. If we presume that all forms of matter were mixed evenly at early times  the dark matter must have less opportunity to loss energy, so it was left on orbits far from the Galactic center. If the dark matter consists of compact objects such as brown dwarfs or black holes, we would expect that these formed very early in the Milky Way’s collapse, probably predating even the globular clusters.

82 Making the Milky Way The MW is still under construction today
Stars of the Sagittarius dSph galaxy are being added to MW’s halo Near the Sun, groups of young metal-poor halo stars have been found, that may be the remnants of another partially digested galaxy. The orbit of the MCs has been shrinking, and the LMC will probably fall into the Milky Way within the next 5 to 10 Gyr.

83 The buildup of heavy elements
A “clock” for galactic aging AMR: old disk stars in general contain little iron; incomplete mixing could explain the large dispersion OCs of thin disk : younger and more metal rich stars and GCs of the thick disk: in the middle GCs of the halo: oldest & poorest in metal Pop I: young metal-rich stars in disk Pop II: old metal-poor stars in bulge & halo oversimplification: The bulge of M31 & MW (at lease a few Gyrs ) are metal rich dIrr galaxies and the outer parts of normal spirals contain young metal-poor stars born within the past 100Myr.

84 The buildup of heavy elements
One-zone instantaneous recycling model Gas is well mixed, same composition everywhere Stars return the nuclear fusion products rapidly, faster than the time to form a significant fraction of the stars. Close-box model: no gas escapes, no gas infall Mg(t): the mass of gas in the galaxy at time t Ms(t): the mass in low-mass stars and remnants of high-mass stars. The matter in these objects remain locked within them Mh(t): the total mass of elements heavier than He in gas Metal abundance: Z(t)=Mh(t)/Mg(t)

85 The buildup of heavy elements
yield p: represents an average abundance over the local stars; it depends on the IMF and on details of the nuclear burning. The distribution of angular momentum in the stellar material, its metal abundance, stellar magnetic fields, and the fraction of stars in close binaries can also affect p. at time t, △’Ms of stars is formed, left △Ms at the end, The heavy element return to interstellar medium: p △Ms

86 The buildup of heavy elements
Z△’Ms The buildup of heavy elements Z(△’Ms-△Ms) +p△Ms Z△Ms +… Heavy element in the interstellar gas alters: △Mh=p△Ms-Z△Ms=(p-Z)△Ms Metallicity of the gas increases by an amount: for close-box, △Ms+△Mg=0, so it will be △Z=-p△Mg/Mg If p is independent of Z, we can integrate the equation:

87 The buildup of heavy elements
The mass of stars Ms(t) formed before time t, and so with metallicity less than Z(t), is just Mg(0)-Mg(t): Time does not appear explicitly here; the mass Ms(<Z) of slowly evolving stars that have abundance below the given level Z depends only on the quantity of gas remaining in the galaxy when its metal abundance has reached that value. Explains a basic fact: where the gas density is high in relation to the number of stars formed, the average abundance of heavy elements is low In gas-rich regions such as MCs, or outer disk of spiral galaxies, the stars and gas are relatively poor in metals (Fig. 4.15)

88 The buildup of heavy elements
Once all the gas is gone, the mass of stars with metallicity between Z and Z+△Z For the Galactic bulge, the model is good if the gas originally lacked any metals and the yield p≈0.7Z⊙. The bulge may have managed to retain all its gas, and turn it completely into stars.


90 The buildup of heavy elements
In other cases, the simple model is clearly wrong. GC: no gas, and stars are all metal-poor These clusters must have formed out of gas that mixed very thoroughly after its initial contamination with heavy elements; Any material not used in making their single generation of stars must also have been expelled promptly. Most of the heavy elements have been lost. Interstellar gas could easily escape the weak gravitational force, and perhaps only a small fraction of the hot metal-rich material from SN would have mixed with cool gas. dSph galaxies: little gas, metal abundance times lower than Galactic bulge Maybe it formed very few massive stars, so produced only few metals

91 The buildup of heavy elements
Effective yield p: take into account metals lost. For GC, p~0 p is always less than the true yield of metal produced. Solar neighborhood: Stars: M⊙pc-2 Gas: 13 M⊙pc-2 Total: ~50 M⊙pc-2 The average abundance in the gas: 0.7Z⊙ So, if heavy elements were originally absent and no gas flow: Z(now)≈0.7Z⊙≈p ln(50/13), so p≈0.5Z⊙, lower than bulge.  the disk had been less efficient than the bulge in retaining metal-rich gas from its supernovae.

92 The buildup of heavy elements
G-dwarf problem Close-box model: Observation: a sample of 132 G-dwarf stars in solar neighborhood 33 below 25% of the solar fraction of iron (25%) 1 below 25% of the solar fraction of oxygen (<0.01%) Possible solution Pre-enrich: Z(0) ≈0.15Z⊙ (problem 4.8) Infall (more likely) (problem 4.9) Subsequent inflow of fresh metal-deficient gas would dilute that material, preventing abundance from rising fast. Long-lived stars formed at early times should also return metal-poor gas as their age. If enough of this gas was released, the fraction of metals in newly made stars might even decline with time



95 The buildup of heavy elements
Stars with low metal abundance have more oxygen relative to the amount of iron than stars like the Sun These elements are made in stars of differing mass SN II (>10M⊙): release back mainly lighter element such as O, S, Mg Most of the heavier nuclei such as Fe are mainly swallowed up into the remnant neutron star or black hole. These massive stars go through their lives within 100Myr, so the IRA is reasonable Not all of the “lighter” heavy elements are produced in very massive stars: AGB. These stars often take far longer than 100Myr to contribute metal; for them, IRA is a poor approximation.

96 The buildup of heavy elements
SN Ia (binary system): main source of iron heats the interior, triggering nuclear burning, blows the star apart No remnant is left; all the Fe, Ni, and elements of similar atomic weight are released back to the interstellar gas. Stars that explode as SN Ia only do so at ages of a Gyr or more. So in stars formed over the first few Gyrs of a galaxy’s life, we expect O/Fe and Mg/Fe higher than it is in the sun. At the present day, slowly evolving stars that were born early on should be returning metal-poor gas to ISM. The abundance of heavy elements in the gas is now increasing only slowly, or may even be falling with time.

97 4.4 Dwarf galaxies in the Local Group

98 2 main types of dwarf galaxies
Dwarf ellipticals & much diffuse dwarf spheroidals Almost all the stars are at least a few Gyrs old; Contain little gas to make any new stars. Dwarf irregulars Diffuse systems; Tiny, gas-rich, active star formation, a profusion of recently formed blue stars All the dEs and most of dSphs orbit either MW or M31 But many of dIrrs are ‘free fliers’

99 dEs and dSphs dSph: not much more luminous than a GC (table 4.2) but so diffuse as to be almost invisible on the sky dE: more luminous versions of the dSph (L>3×107M⊙ or MV<-14) representation: 3 M31’s satellites: NGC147, NGC185, NGC205 but similar sizes, so higher stellar density. vulnerable to tidal damage. NGC205 is clearly interacting with Andromeda. The random speed of its stars is greater at large radii Both dSph and dE appear quite oval rather than round, yet their stars show no pattern of ordered rotation.  may no axis of symmetry, probably triaxial.

100 dEs and dSphs NGC 205 and NGC 185 NGC 147 a few patches of dust
small amounts of cool gas by its HI & CO emission most of the stars date from at least 5Gyr ago But near the center, a small number is Myr age Gas lost by the old stars may have supplied the raw material NGC 147 no sign of very recent star formation Its nuclear region contains a very few stars in early middle-age, born only a few Gyrs ago In the outer parts, the overwhelming majority is at least 5Gyr old

101 dEs and dSphs M32 (NGC221, E2) Most luminous satellite of M31 No cool gas and no stars younger than a few Gyr Its central brightness is the highest (Fig. 4.18) No constant-brightness inner core (HST); the density continues to climb, to >106L⊙pc-3 within the central pc. maybe exist a BH M32’s luminosity within the normal range for dE, but its very high density suggests that M32 is a miniature version of a normal or ‘giant’ elliptical galaxy. Perhaps M32 is only the remnant center of a much larger galaxy. lacks GCs, whereas the less luminous dE do have stars at center are red, approximately as rich as the Sun typical of more massive galaxies (stronger gravity to confine gas)

102 dEs and dSphs The outer regions of M32 still have an elliptical shape, but its long axis is twisted away from that of inner regions tidal forces of M31 may effect the orbits of the outermost stars slightly flattened, stars orbit in a common direction, but they also have considerable random motions V/σ— measure the degree of ordered rotation MW’s disk: V/σ~200/30~ cold M32: V/σ~1 dSph: V/σ< hot The stronger the influence of ordered rotation, the more disklike an object must be Not all flattened galaxies rotate fast (section 6.2); but strongly rotating galaxies must always be flattened

103 Dwarf Irregular galaxies
Irregular galaxies (L>108L⊙) Messy and asymmetrical appearance Starbirth occurs in disorganized patches. Even quite small Irrs can produce OB associations Their disk have low average surface brightness; so the bright concentrations of young stars stand out Dwarf irregular systems (L<108L⊙) diffuse, and ordered rotational motion is much less important Contain gas and recently formed blue stars V/σ~ 4-5 for larger Irr, V/σ<1 in the smallest dIrr abundance is very low, <10% of the sun; the least luminous are the most metal poor brighter than the dSphs  only because of their populations of young stars contain relatively large amounts of gas (seen as HI) gas layer often extends well beyond the main stellar disk (IC 10)

104 Dwarf Irregular galaxies
Phoenix & LGS3 are classified between dIrr and dSph All their stars are more than a few Gyrs old, But, contain a little gas and a few young stars. Fornax dSph has a few young stars (~500 Myr) Carina dSph made most stars in a few discrete episodes Because of their similar structures, small Irrs may be at an early stage, while dSphs represent the late stages, in the life of a similar type of galaxy. In the dSph (close to MW or M31), gas may have been compressed by interactions with these lager galaxies, perhaps encouraging more stars to form earlier on. By now, there dSphs have used up or blown out all their gas, while the dIrr, perhaps benefiting from a quieter life, still retain theirs.

105 Dwarf Irregular galaxies
LMC: a transition class between S & dIrr LMC is basically a rotating disk (like spiral) Its lopsidedness is also common in dIrr Lacks regular or symmetric spiral structure random motions, V/σ~4 for old stars The brightest region (central bar) is off center with respect to the disk HI layer has “holes”, similar with IC 10 (Irr) , but smaller in proportion to the galaxy’s size.

106 Dwarf Irregular galaxies
Dwarf galaxies are not simply smaller or less luminous versions of bigger and brighter galaxies, but probably developed by different processes dwarf galaxies dE all have about the same physical size; the core radius is always rc~200 pc More luminous dwarfs have higher surface brightness (Fig. 4.18) normal or ‘giant’ ellipticals the most luminous galaxies are also most diffuse: core radius is so much larger at higher luminosity the central surface brightness is lower in the most luminous systems

107 4.5 Past and future of the Local Group

108 The galaxies of LG are no longer expanding away from each other
The galaxies of LG are no longer expanding away from each other. Their mutual gravitational attraction strong enough to pull the group members back toward each other. MW & M31 are now approaching each other; they will probably come near to a head-on collision within few Gyrs, and could merge to form a single larger system. In Section 5.6 we will see that collisions between group galaxies are fairly common




112 We can use the orbits to make an estimate of the total mass within the LG
Assume: all the mass of LG lies in or very close to MW or M31 treat these two as point masses m and M now separated by r ~ 770kpc closing on each other with dr/dt ~ -120km/s

113 Equations 4.22 & 4.24 tell us at the present time t0
Since dr/dt<0  sinη<0  π<η<2π nearly circular orbit (e~0): the seed of approach is a very small fraction of the orbital speed  Imply a large total mass straight line (e~1)  smallest combined mass For r ~770kpc,dr/dt ~ -120km/s,12Gyr<t0<18Gyr we find m+M~3-5×1012M⊙



116 We have about 5Gyr to go until η=2π.
there are no large concentrations of massive galaxies near the LG, that could have pulled on M31 & MW to give them an orbit of high angular momentum  e~1 In that case, we will come close to a direct collision Some astronomers believe that many of the giant elliptical galaxies are the remnant of galactic traffic accidents: At earlier time, Universe was denser, collisions were frequent As the disks crash into each other, their gas is compressed, swiftly converting much of it into stars Material from the outer disks will be stripped off as ‘tidal tails’ A few Gyrs later, we would be left with a red galaxy, largely free of gas or young stars

117 Thank you!

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