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Supernovae and nucleosynthesis of elements > Fe Death of low-mass star: White Dwarf White dwarfs are the remaining cores once fusion stops Electron degeneracy.

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Presentation on theme: "Supernovae and nucleosynthesis of elements > Fe Death of low-mass star: White Dwarf White dwarfs are the remaining cores once fusion stops Electron degeneracy."— Presentation transcript:

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2 Supernovae and nucleosynthesis of elements > Fe

3 Death of low-mass star: White Dwarf White dwarfs are the remaining cores once fusion stops Electron degeneracy pressure supports them against gravity Cool and grow dimmer over time

4 A white dwarf can accrete mass from its companion

5 Tycho’s supernova of 1572

6 Expanding at 6 million mph

7 Kepler’s supernova of 1609

8 Supernovae outshine the whole galaxy!

9 Type I: White dwarf supernova White dwarf near 1.4 M sun accretes matter from red giant companion, causing supernova explosion Type II: Massive star supernova Massive star builds up 1.4 M sun core and collapses into a neutron star, gravitational PE released in explosion Two kinds of supernovae

10 light curve shows how luminosity changes with time

11 r process and s process elements Nuclear fusion in all stars only produces up to Fe-56 Slow neutron capture (s process) forms up to Bi-209 in low-mass stars High temps in SN creates elements up to Ca-254 Rapid neutron capture (r process) create neutron-rich isotopes which decay into more stable neutron-rich elements Neutron flux during SN is neutrons per square centimeter per second neutron captures occur much faster than decays

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13 A neutron star: A few km in diameter, supported against gravity by degeneracy pressure of neutrons

14 Discovery of Neutron Stars Using a radio telescope in 1967, Jocelyn Bell discovered very rapid pulses of radio emission coming from a single point on the sky The pulses were coming from a spinning neutron star—a pulsar

15 Pulsar at center of Crab Nebula pulses 30 times per second

16 Pulsars

17 Thought Question Could there be neutron stars that appear as pulsars to other civilizations but not to us? A. Yes B. No

18 Thought Question Could there be neutron stars that appear as pulsars to other civilizations but not to us? A. Yes B. No

19 What happens if the neutron star has more mass than can be supported by neutron degeneracy pressure? 1.It will collapse further and become a black hole 2.It will spin even faster, and fling material out into space 3.Neutron degeneracy pressure can never be overcome by gravity

20 Neutron degeneracy pressure can no longer support a neutron star against gravity if its mass is > about 3 M sun

21 18.3 Black Holes: Gravity’s Ultimate Victory A black hole is an object whose gravity is so powerful that not even light can escape it.

22 Escape Velocity Initial Kinetic Energy Final Gravitational Potential Energy = Where m is your mass, M is the mass of the object that you are trying to escape from, and r is your distance from that object

23 Light would not be able to escape Earth’s surface if you could shrink it to < 1 cm

24 “Surface” of a Black Hole The “surface” of a black hole is the distance at which the escape velocity equals the speed of light. This spherical surface = event horizon. The radius of the event horizon is known as the Schwarzschild radius.

25 The event horizon of a 3 M Sun black hole is a few km Neutron star

26 A black hole’s mass strongly warps space and time in vicinity of event horizon

27 What would it be like to visit a black hole?

28 Light waves take extra time to climb out of a deep hole in spacetime, leading to a gravitational redshift

29 Time passes more slowly near the event horizon

30 Thought Question Is it easy or hard to fall into a black hole? A. Easy B. Hard

31 Tidal forces near the event horizon of a 3 M Sun black hole would be lethal to humans Tidal forces would be gentler near a supermassive black hole because its radius is much bigger

32 Do black holes really exist?

33 Black Hole Verification Need to measure mass —Use orbital properties of companion —Measure velocity and distance of orbiting gas It’s a black hole if it’s not a star and its mass exceeds the neutron star limit (~3 M Sun )

34 Some X-ray binaries contain compact objects of mass exceeding 3 M Sun which are likely to be black holes

35 One famous X-ray binary with a likely black hole is in the constellation Cygnus

36 Thought Question How does the radius of the event horizon change when you add mass to a black hole? A. Increases B. Decreases C. Stays the same

37 Thought Question How does the radius of the event horizon change when you add mass to a black hole? A. Increases B. Decreases C. Stays the same

38 Thought Question Is it easy or hard to fall into a black hole? A. Easy B. Hard Hint: A black hole with the same mass as the Sun wouldn’t be much bigger than a college campus

39 Thought Question Is it easy or hard to fall into a black hole? A. Easy B. Hard Hint: A black hole with the same mass as the Sun wouldn’t be much bigger than a college campus

40 If the Sun shrank into a black hole, its gravity would be different only near the event horizon Black holes don’t suck!

41 Event horizon is larger for black holes of larger mass Black holes have only mass, spin and charge


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