Presentation on theme: "Dark Energy & overview of Cosmological parameters Today: Review last time Revisit the accelerating universe Look at values of cosmological parameters from."— Presentation transcript:
Dark Energy & overview of Cosmological parameters Today: Review last time Revisit the accelerating universe Look at values of cosmological parameters from different methods Discuss the final exam and review lecture
Last Time We heard about methods used to determine the ultimate fate of the universe –average density of matter –expansion rate in the distant past –large-scale geometrical properties of universe –motions of galaxies/clusters relative to smooth expansion –abundances of light elements synthesized shortly after the Big Bang
Last Time Most successful recent technique has been determining expansion rate as a function of time by measuring the apparent brightness of distant supernovae We discussed this a bit back in lecture 8
Type 1A Supernovae
SNe 1a What produces a SNe1a? –Start off with a binary star system –One star comes to end of its life – forms a “white dwarf” (made of helium, or carbon/oxygen) –White Dwarf starts to pull matter off other star… this adds to mass of white dwarf (accretion) –White dwarfs have a maximum possible mass… the Chandrasekar Mass (1.4 M Sun ) –If accretion pushes White Dwarf over the Chandrasekar Mass, it starts to collapse.
An accreting White Dwarf
SNe 1a White Dwarf starts to collapse… –Rapidly compresses matter in white dwarf –Initiated runaway thermonuclear reactions – star turns to iron/nickel in few seconds –Liberated energy blows star apart –Resulting explosion briefly outshines rest of galaxy containing it… these are the SNe1a events SNe1a –No remnant (neutron star or black hole) left –Since white dwarf always has same mass when it exploded, these are “standard candles” (i.e. bombs with a fixed yield)
Hubble’s constant with SNe1a’s The program: –Search for SNe1a in distant galaxies –Compare expected power with observed power to determine distance –Measure velocity using redshift “Low redshift” galaxies give measurement of H 0 “High redshift” galaxies allows you to look for deceleration of universe
The results… This program gives Hubble’s constant –H=65 km/s/Mpc and find acceleration, not deceleration! –Very subtle, but really is there in the data! –Profound result!
What are we trying to do ? Filippenko & Riess (2000) Low-z SNe Ia High-z SNe Ia ? If expansion rate does not change w/ time, expect all the data to lie along here If expansion rate was lower in the past - distant objects should be closer than the H=constant case So data will be here Further/ fainter than expected Brighter /closer than expected
So, where’s the data? Filippenko & Riess (2000) =1, =0, q =0.5 We see Acceleration ! Further/ fainter than expected
Sne Ia for Cosmology (z > 0.1) In the mid/late 1990s, as SNe 1a were detected out to greater distances (z > 0.1) became clear that the observed fluxes of SNe 1a at 0.3 < z < 0.8 were systematically lower than expected eg. for a critical density (matter-dominated) universe, & even for a constant-velocity (empty of matter) universe. The SNe must have gotten farther than expected for some epoch of the universe The universe appears to have been accelerating between the epoch equivalent to z ~ 0.5 and now ! i.e. expanding faster and faster !
The cosmic concordance What is our universe like? –Geometry (flat, spherical, hyperbolic)? –Matter content? –Anything else strange? Remarkable agreement between very different experimental techniques Cosmologists, it seems (amazingly!), really do know what they’re talking about!
Measurements of the matter content of the Universe (recap) Primordial nucleosynthesis –Theory predicts elemental abundances as a function of baryon density –Observed abundances B Galaxy/galaxy-cluster dynamics –Look at motions of stars in galaxies, or galaxies in galaxy-clusters… –Infer presence of large quantities of “dark” matter which is gravitationally affected observed objects.
from DM Analysis of galaxy motions suggests a dark matter density of DM 0.3 Same conclusion from gravitational lensing by clusters
estimates First stunning conclusion: –Compare B and DM 0.3 –Normal matter only accounts for about 1/8 of the matter that’s out there! –We’re made of the minority stuff!
estimates Confirmed by taking an inventory of a cluster… –Find that about 1/8 of a cluster’s mass is in baryons –We believe that clusters should be representative samples of the universe… –Confirms DM 0.3
Geometry Distribution of galaxies versus z shows… –The universe is so close to flat we can’t see any deviations
The accelerating Universe Back to those observations of Type-1a Supernovae (SN1a) –Very good “standard candles” –Can use them to measure relative distances very accurately –they show the universe expansion is accelerating
Dark Energy There is an “energy” in the Universe that is making it accelerate –Call this “Dark Energy” –This makes up the rest of the gravitating energy in the Universe, and causes it to be flat! –Completely distinct from “Dark Matter” Remember Einstein’s cosmological constant…? –Dark Energy has precisely the same effect as Einstein’s cosmological constant –So, he was probably right all along!
Inflationary Cosmology Dark Energy, inflationary cosmology, universe all refer to this accelerating expansion Recall the period of inflation in the early universe –that had the universe undergoing a brief period of exponential expansion-perhaps due to vast energy liberated by a symmetry break Inflationary Cosmology has the same thing happening …galaxy separations increasing with time (not so dramatic as the initial period of inflation)
Inflation/Dark Energy Solves 3 problems with the Big Bang Model: Horizon Problem We worried about how long things were causally-connected and could equilibrate, need equilibrium to explain uniformity of CBR - include and things could equilibrate and then expand suddenly…so OK
Dark Energy Solves 3 problems with the Big Bang Model: The Structure problem Models match observed structure better than simple BB models The Relic problem Theories had predicted production of particles and other stuff which should be around today, but which are not observed, e.g. the magnetic monopole. Predictions from inflationary cosmology match observation better The magnetic monopole density is v. small under inflation, so lack of detection expected
Dark Energy Read Chapter 15 for some more details….
INVENTORY OF THE UNIVERSE So… our best guess for the inventory of the Universe is: –Small fraction is radiation we are familiar with. –3.6% is baryonic matter –About 30% is dark matter –Rest (about 70%) is dark energy! Second stunning fact… most of the Universe isn’t even made of matter! – B DM 1
Energy/Matter Density Results… get good agreement between theory and observed structure if: – DM 0.3 (mostly “cold” dark matter) – 0.7 Remarkable agreement with SNe1a results (but a completely independent method!).
The Age of the Universe Using this cosmological model, we can figure out the age of the Universe. –Answer – 13 to 14 Gyr Prediction… –There should be no object in the Universe that is older than 13 or 14 Gyr. –This agrees with what’s seen… there’s no object in the Universe that appears to be older than this! –This was a big problem with old cosmological models that didn’t include dark energy.
Again, what is “dark energy”? An “energy” that is an inherent component of space… Consider a region of vacuum –Take away all of the radiation –Take away all of the matter –What’s left? Dark energy! –But we have little idea what it is…
Final Exam Thursday May 15 10:30am - 12:30pm Room 107 Closed Book Bring a calculator
Final Exam Excluded topics: Telescope session Luminosity functions of planetary nebulae & globular clusters Far distant fate of the universe (details out to years) Included topics: Everything else, note, ancient cosmology (which was excluded from the mid-term) is in the final exam You will have a section of straightforward questions to test breadth of knowledge plus section of more involved questions for depth of knowledge (some choice of questions)