2When is your birthday?How do you usually celebrate it?
3Why is Laurence writing to you? What does she want you to bring to her dinner?
4Teaching writing: objectives By the end of the session you will have:Experienced writing in a foreign languageIdentified and discussed two approaches to teaching writingIdentified some of the skills good writers use at text, sentence and word levelExamined and shared ideas about how to help learners develop these skills
5A process approach to teaching writing Writing is ‘ a complex, cognitive process that requires sustained intellectual effort over a considerable period of time’. ( Arndt and White 1991)‘One of the most important facts about the composing process that seems to get hidden from students is that the process that creates precision is itself messy’. (Shaughnessy 1977, quoted in Hedge)What are the key features of a process approach to writing?
6A process approach to writing Learning to write through writing.Focus on contextualised communication: on the message more than the detailsHigher order choices determine lower order onesResearch shows that successful writers focus on organising ideas before paying attention to spelling, punctuation and grammar’Importance of awareness of the audienceThe focus is on the steps involved in drafting and redrafting a piece of workResearch shows feedback between drafts is more useful than corrections written on work returned to the students after the process has finishedWriting can be done collaboratively as well as individuallyThe readers can be other students as well as the teacher:Students become more aware of audience if they know they are writing for each otherStudents develop the ability to evaluate their own and others’ writing.
7How do good writers plan? I don’t know what I think until I see what I’ve said. E.M. ForsterI write to find out what I’m talking about. Edward Albee
8What does research tell us about the planning process? Planning is not a single phase but a thinking activitydifferent writers plan in different wayswriting process is recursive and generativeRevising takes place through the whole processAll writers pay attention to surface level features, but better writers deal with these at the end of the process.Good writers focus on purpose and audience
9How can I use elements of a process approach in the classroom? How do you motivate students to write?Do you give students time to generate ideas for writing?Do you let students spend time writing in class?Do you give students opportunities to draft and redraft work?Do you get students writing in pairs or groups?Do you get students to look at and evaluate each other’s work?How do you get students to focus on the message as well as the language?How do you help students to be aware of the audience for their writing?
10To summarise….focus on meaning rather than form (grammatical correctness )encourages writing development; writing should be contextualised and content should be meaningful and relevant to learners; learners need some degree of overt instruction which includes talk about writing, substantive, specific feedback, and multiple opportunities for revision; socio-cultural variation in writing practices and genres need to be taken into account; all writing pedagogy reflects a stance about the learner in relation to the social order.Elsa Auerbach'Making meaning making change; Participatory Curriculum Development for Adult ESL Literacy' (1992?)
11Process approach- evauluation What were the weaknesses of this approach? How could I have done it differently? What’s the other approach called?
12Process and product compared learning to write through writingFocus on contextualised communicationFocus on the steps involved in drafting and redraftingWriting can be done collaboratively as well as individuallyThe readers can be other students as well as the teacherProductLearning to write through imitating modelsFocus on features of texts and getting Ss to use these accuratelyFocus is on the finished product: ‘the coherent, error free text’. (Nunan 272)Traditionally writing is done by the individual and often for homeworkTraditionally the work is marked by the teacher
13A product approach What do good writers do? What do we need to teach our learners to do?What skills do learners need to develop at Entry 3?TextSentenceWord
14Entry 3 writing criteria TextPlan and draft writing – including awareness of audience and genreOrganise writing in short paragraphsSequence chronological writingProof-read and correct writing for grammar and spellingSentenceWrite in complete sentencesUse correct basic grammarUse punctuation correctlyWordCorrectly spell common words and relevant key words for work and special interestProduce legible text
15Match activities and curriculum descriptors Have you tried any of these ideas?Could you try them?Any other ideas for developing the same skills?
16Choose one idea you’d like to try out. Tell your group about it.
18Responding to students’ writing Use a correction code and train students in how to use itRespond to content as well as languageMark positively as well as negatively (Petty: medals and missions):Tell them what they’ve done rightGive clear goals for improvementAssess at all three levels: text, sentence and wordLet students know what they are being assessed on and involve them in the assessment process. Give them a simplified version of the criteria example of marksheet: Tick if you/your partner met the criteriaGet them assessing each others’ workGet them assessing their own workFind ways of making them aware of an audience (ie not only the teacher is responding):Display their work on the wallMake little booklets of their writing and display them on the wallGet them writing to each otherIf possible get them writing to real audiences (the council, the local paper, etc)Pick out common errors and put on handout/IWB. Students in pairs correct the errorsReformulation: take one student’s work. Keep the same basic ideas but improve it in terms of accuracy, organisation, appropriacy, etc. Students in groups compare the original and reformulated work and discuss reasons for reformulation. This is best done between first and final draft, so the students can apply to their own final draft.