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Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Going Beyond Basic ADA and S508 Compliance with Universal Design for Learning Dr. Melissa Engleman Dr. Tara Jeffs.

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Presentation on theme: "Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Going Beyond Basic ADA and S508 Compliance with Universal Design for Learning Dr. Melissa Engleman Dr. Tara Jeffs."— Presentation transcript:

1 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Going Beyond Basic ADA and S508 Compliance with Universal Design for Learning Dr. Melissa Engleman Dr. Tara Jeffs East Carolina University Greenville, NC

2 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Overview of Today’s Session 8-8:30Welcome 8:30-9:00The Future is Now: Rationale & Legal Requirements 9:00-9:15Universal Design 9:15-9:30University Compliance and Universal Design Simple Steps to Designing for “All” 9:30-10:00Going Beyond Compliance to Excellence What’s Your Learning Style? 10:00-10:30Morning Break 10:30-11:00Personality Preferences & Universal Design for Learning 11:00-11:30Universal Design for Learning in University Online Courses 11:30- noonBringing it All Together…Some Final Thoughts

3 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Why Worry About Those People? Those People are You and Me. Most people will have a disability or experience a limitation that will temporarily or permanently alter their lives. Many companies will no longer do business with companies whose products are inaccessible to people with disabilities. (IBM Report, 2005)

4 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Why Worry About Those People? Those People are You and Me. With our aging population, the "mature” customer is the fastest growing group. Changes in vision & hearing, dexterity & memory are results of aging that create accessibility issues Few organizations can afford to deliberately miss this market sector. (Access-IT)

5 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 750 million people worldwide have disabilities, and they control about $175 billion This number is increasing with the aging of the “baby boomers”. Number of adults with a severe disability has increased by 70% since 1966. 37 million Americans have disabling arthritis Why Universal Design on the World Wide Web? Fiscal Considerations (World Health Organization, 2005; Arthritis Foundation, 2005)

6 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007

7 The Web is displacing traditional sources of information and interaction  The internet is used increasingly by individuals of all ages.  An accessible Web has the potential for unprecedented access to information and resources for people with disabilities. (Access-IT)

8 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Why is Accessibility Important?  1 out of every 5 Americans over the age of 5 have a disability (2000 Census)  Barriers to accessibility affect the 8.5% of the population that has at least one disability that would impact internet use:  Visual, auditory, physical, speech, cognitive, and neurological disabilities

9 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Why is Accessibility Important?  If accessible, the Web could offer unprecedented independence to people with disabilities.  Web accessibility has benefits for other users.  The Law: See first 3 pp. in notebook (from “Speak-out” website)

10 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Legislation, Regulations and Standards Section 508 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act of 2000: Electronic and information technology MUST be accessible to federal employees and and the members of the public with disabilities who use that service. Section 255 of the Telecommunications Act of 1996 requires “manufacturers of telecommunications equipment…to ensure that the equipment is designed, developed, and fabricated to be accessible to and usable by individuals with disabilities, if readily achievable."

11 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, as amended in 1998 Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act Amendments require: –Federally funded websites are accessible –Any organization receiving federal funding have an accessible website –Enforcement provisions of section 508 are effective as of June 21, 2001.

12 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 The Americans with Disabilities Act (1990): ADA Regulation for Title IIIIII Appendix A to Part 38 - Standards for Accessible Design established by the “access board” prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in “places of public accommodation" (businesses and non-profit agencies that serve the public) and "commercial facilities” [websites are considered “places” & “facilities”] (See Gumson Vs. Southwest Airlines, 2004)

13 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 What the ADA Requires, According to the Office of Civil Rights NOT enough for public entities to wait to respond to individual NOT enough for public entities to wait to respond to individual [accessibility] complaints. " [accessibility] complaints. " p. 1, 1997 Provision should be in a manner and medium appropriate to the significance of the message and the abilities of the individual. There must be a comprehensive policy in advance of any request for auxiliary aids or services. Inclusion of persons with disabilities is required in developing such policy.

14 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Recent Litigation - 2004 2004-present –Banking - Legally binding agreements New York State Settlements of 2004 –Priceline.com, Ramada.com were required to pay costs of the investigation and redesign –Access Now, Inc. vs. Southwest Airlines –Target vs. NFB

15 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Litigation: Case Law The Toyota Case (2001) Barnes and Noble and Claire's Stores (settled) Wynne v. Tufts University School of Medicine (1992) Tyler v. City of Manhattan (1994) National Federation of the Blind vs. AOL (1999) Gumson v. Southwest Airlines(2004) Ninth Circuit in Wong v. Regents (2004) Tennessee v. Lane (2004) Rush v. National Board of Medical Examiners, (2003) Stern v. University of Osteopathic Medicine and Health Services (2000)

16 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Key Language in the Laws Must “effectively communicate” (Office of Civil Rights) –1. Timeliness –2. Accuracy –3. Appropriate Medium Department of Justice, Disability Rights Division –“accessible features” –Equal degree of access

17 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 So, how do we do it? Many resources exist for finding guidelines: Some simpler than others.

18 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Compliance is Perceived as More Difficult than it Actually is Legalese and “tech talk” Piecemeal information - no condensed versions Unknown needs

19 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Web Accessibility Standards WCAG – Web Content Accessibility Guidelines –Recommended by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) –14 guidelines, over 60 checkpoints –Three priority levels Section 508 Standards –Developed by the United States Access Board –Provides 16 measurable standards –All standards are required for compliance

20 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 General Considerations Consistent navigation on every page Good color contrast Can the user understand the page without color? “Chunk” large amounts of information (content as well as links) Use descriptive links Use real-text rather than text imbedded in a graphic?

21 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Use alt tags for all non-text elements Use header tags where appropriate If tables are used, identify row and column headings If frames are used, include descriptive labels If videos are used on the site, use captioning, and for audio, a text transcript Other Considerations

22 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 General Recommendations Avoid flashing animations or flashes between 2 and 55 hertz (Prevent seizure triggers and distraction. Also they are generally annoying.) Use relative rather than absolute unit (percentages vs. pixels) This ensures that content fits well no matter the scale. In hypertext links, text should be specific to context, and “less is more”In hypertext links, text should be specific to context, and “less is more”

23 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Accessibility is a Cross-Disability Issue  visual disabilities  hearing disabilities  physical disabilities  cognitive or neurological disabilities Einstein’s Elevator…

24 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 STARS! Substance vs. Style Text Considerations Alternative Representation Routing Standards (See p. 4 of notebook)

25 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 People who are Blind or Visually Impaired Access Methods –Screen readers –Refreshable Braille Displays –Screen Enlarging Software Issues –Reading Images.webaim.org/simulations/screenrea der-sim.htm –Text layout does not make sense –Pixilation of text that is embedded in an image therefore can not be read

26 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Color blindness Issue Using color alone to convey meaning

27 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Another Example

28 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Color Contrast Avoid use of color to convey essential information. This wouldn’t be legible. Neither would this. This wouldn’t be legible.

29 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Hearing Impairment or Deafness Captioning –Synchronized Captions for auditory content is most beneficial

30 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Motor or Physical Impairments Access Methods –Voice Recognition –HeadMouse –Head wand –Expanded keyboards –Switch Access Issues –Keyboard access –Timed Response –Target Areas

31 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Cognitive Impairments Issues Text only pages Animated GIFS Tob eornot t obe Benefit from illustrations and graphics, as well as from properly-organized content with headings, lists, and visual cues in the navigation.

32 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Image Dependency: A Problem for Low-Vision

33 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 1. This page is designed with exact font sizes set. Then each element on the page (paragraph, image, etc.) is placed at exact x/y coordinates that depend on that font size. 2. When the text is zoomed, the carefully placed elements do not change their positions accordingly, so they now overlap. The content is more unreadable than it was before. From Homestead.com What’s wrong with these? 1. 2.

34 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Traditionally, what we have done in education is to accommodate individual needs without changing courses. For examples, we have told deaf students to arrange for sign language interpreters; blind students to secure a Brailled or tape –recorded version of printed materials. (Bowie, 1999)

35 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 “the design of products and environments to be usable by all people, to the greatest extent possible, without the need for adaptation or specialized design.” What is Universal Design? Ron Mace (NC State, 1997)

36 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Captioning and alternate text make indexing easier and more efficient for search engines Captioning and alternate text make indexing easier and more efficient for search engines More consistent user interfaces make surfing easier for anyone More consistent user interfaces make surfing easier for anyone On the Web, Universal Design Benefits All Users.

37 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Also, young children, nonreaders and people who are elderly Also, young children, nonreaders and people who are elderly “Backward" access: slow connection speeds or older equipment and software “Backward" access: slow connection speeds or older equipment and software Reduces fatigue for all users On the Web, Universal Design Benefits All Users.

38 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Impact on Universities E-Learning requires accessible web access and accessible learning materials

39 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 University Legal Requirements Obligated to provide accessibility unless doing so would “fundamentally alter” the content (not the method) Must not impose an “undue burden” Choice of inaccessible software that must later be fixed is not an “undue burden” Academic freedom is about ideas, not accessibility requirements

40 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 University Legal Requirements Whether a university is obligated under S508 standards is individual, depending on their policy statements. They are obligated under S504, ADA and the Telecommunications Act. For a comprehensive list of links to laws and discussion of these issues: http://www.washington.edu/accessit/webpslegal. html

41 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 University Legal Requirements If the university has a policy statement concerning what students must be able to access before they can take an online course, it may get them off the hook - for now. On request, the university must provide needed assistive technology, but not necessarily that of the student’s choice.

42 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 So, how are we doing so far?

43 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Schmetzke, 2001 Schmetzke, (2001) found that 81% of distance education “home pages” had major accessibility errors. The most commonly found problem was failure to provide alternate text. (Picture of a man, lost in a maze)

44 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Schmetzke, 2001 In a related study, this researcher found major accessibility errors across higher education internet sites, as follows: General academic units/programs 25-28% General academic units/programs 25-28% Special education programs 27% Special education programs 27% Colleges of Communication & Schools of Journalism 21% Colleges of Communication & Schools of Journalism 21% Schools of Library and Information Science: 23% Schools of Library and Information Science: 23% Online databases were also found to have numerous accessibility errors. Online databases were also found to have numerous accessibility errors.

45 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Blaser’s Findings at For-Profit Online Universities -confused responses -referrals to “special” offices : 2001 Response from the “accessibility experts” at one for-profit online university: ”Please specify the kind of accessibility you would need and what a screen reader is."

46 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Through the Looking-Glass… ECU’s subcommittee report on S508b compliance

47 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 A Few “One Size Fits All” Accommodations Are Typically Offered, Regardless of Individual Needs. Typically provided accommodations for students with learning disabilities: Scribe or reader Note-taker Extra time Solitary space for testing They don’t actually fit all.

48 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Other Commonly Offered Accommodations (NCES Study):

49 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 More Than One Barrier to Access People with disabilities do NOT tend to have the higher income, education, and employment that are usual accompaniments to computer use. For online education, one needs more than just a computer. That computer must be hooked up to the Internet, at a reasonable "speed" -- and one must stay on the computer for hours at a time. Another barrier is availability of high speed services

50 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Accommodations can’t be “one size fits all” But…they can be “many sizes fit all”

51 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Are Course Management System Tools Accessible? According to their explanations on the Bb 6.0 website, this course management system does adhere to S508 rules, However, there are still places in this CMS that are limited in accessibility options. Persons with disabilities are referred to another site, and instructors are given instruction about how to vary assignments, as necessary. Alternative! Find options that provide flexibility in taking advantage of each student’s strengths.

52 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 The Good news and the Bad News about Course Management Systems Courseware provides a consistent format Most products now have text and meaningful titles, alternate text, and so on. Many products have accessibility limits with optional parts such as virtual chat and assessment tools

53 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 The Bottom Line… No student is disconnected from any part of the course due to his or her functional impairment. Schenker, K. & Scadden, L., 2002

54 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Pathways to Assure Student-Course Connection See notebook section “Online Design” 1. Consumer evaluation should be conducted at formative stages of development 2. Captions of audio, or audio of visual content are provided. 3. Universal Design approach - takes into consideration all needs of potential users before development. Source: http://www.washington.edu/accessit/articles?203 Source: http://www.washington.edu/accessit/articles?203 http://www.washington.edu/accessit/articles?203 (Access IT, Fact Sheet 211) (Access IT, Fact Sheet 211)

55 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Pathways to Assure Student-Course Connection 4. Steps to planning accessible video production: consult individuals with disabilities regarding content, format, and presentation. 5. During scripting, be sure most important content is given. 6. Consider captions in large font and in upper and lower-case letters, or low vision. Source: http://www.washington.edu/accessit/articles?203http://www.washington.edu/accessit/articles?203 (Access IT, Fact Sheet 211)

56 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Lissner, (1995) About 10-15% of the Total Student Population on Any Given Campus Acknowledge a Disability

57 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Student Needs Inside and Outside Courses: Bb Survey Results (2001) Use of the InternetPercentage of Institutions Who Use Regularly or Require Use Email54% Web page as part of course42% Course Web Sites30% Instructor Home Pages23% Courses offered 100% on the Web >50%

58 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 In a Nationally Representative Sample of 21,000 Undergraduates: (NPSAS, 2000)

59 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 About 30% of Students with Disabilities Report Learning Disabilities (Horn, Berktold, & Bobbitt,1999; Lewis & Farris, 1999; NCES, 2005) (Horn, Berktold, & Bobbitt,1999; Lewis & Farris, 1999; NCES, 2005) Total students of students who disclose a disability Learning Disabilities All other disabilities combined

60 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 The group of students with learning disabilities continues to be the fastest growing group of persons with disabilities in colleges

61 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Question: If students with Learning Disabilities are the most prevalent in our universities and the most rapidly increasing group, why is most accessibility focus for the WWW on physical and sensory accessibility, with little attention to learning needs?

62 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Learning Styles… Do your students ask profound questions such as “How long should the paper be?” or “Why do I have to take this class?”

63 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Are you bewildered and frustrated with your students because they seem hopelessly under prepared?

64 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Chipmunks?

65 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Learning Styles Inventory Activity!

66 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 What’s Your Learning Style? (See section in notebook) Yellow –A. visual B. verbal Blue –A. sequential B. global Green –A. active B. reflective Pink –A. sensory B. intuitive

67 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Break!

68 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Understanding the Learner Past 15 years studied new students. 4000 students administered Myers-Briggs Type Indicator test By understanding how students learn can help us meet the needs of new students that sit in our classrooms

69 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 They have difficulty with complex concepts and low tolerance for ambiguity. Less independent in thought and judgment and more dependent on ideas of those of authority Also more dependent on immediate gratification and exhibit more difficulty with basic academics such as reading and writing Sensing Learners

70 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Sensing vs. Intuition” 60% “sensing” learning style prefers direct, concrete experiences; moderate to high degrees of structure, linear sequential learning, and often need to know why before doing something. In general, students who prefer sensing learning patterns prefer the concrete, the practical, and the immediate.

71 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Many Paths to Learning Schroeder suggests that this research indicates that “there are many paths to excellence and perhaps the greatest contributions we can make to student learning is recognizing and affirming paths that are different from our own”.

72 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Personality Preferences Activity

73 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 What’s Your Sign? Yellow –A. extrovert (E)B. introvert (I) Blue –A. sensing (S)B. intuitive (N) Green –A. thinking (T)B. feeling (F) Orange –A. judging (J)B. perceiving (P)

74 The Online Course Design Study at ECU: College of Education Graduate MAEd Students 282 responses over 3 years Sampled from SPED 6002 Addressing Differences in Human Learning in Schools

75 How did the students compare in their personality preferences? They were very different from faculty! They differed in many different ways.

76 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Faculty Types: Mostly INFJs and ENFJs

77 Students: Mostly ISFJs and ESFJs

78 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Faculty: Mostly NFPs &NFJs

79 Students: Mostly SFJs - some NFJs

80 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Faculty Types: Mostly NFs, with some NTs

81 Students: Mostly SJ s, with some NFs

82 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 FACULTYSTUDENTS INFJ22%9% ENFJ21% 15% % INFP13%<1% INTJ10%5% ISFJ8%24% INTP8%<1% ENFP5%<1% ESFJ5%26% ENTJ5%1% ISTP3%0 ISTJ010% ESTJ05% ESFP03% ESTP01%

83 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 More Type Comparisons Students were primarily: Sensory (S) Judging (J) Faculty were primarily: Intuitive (N) Feeling (F)

84 Sensing-Judging (SJ): May be called traditionalist, stabilizer, or consolidator. They value caution, carefulness, and accuracy Like clear, sequential steps, see “the trees”, teacher-pleasing, like things to be right Intuitive-Feeling (NF): A spokesperson and energizer, they value harmony and self-determination. Likes the big picture (what box?), see “the forest”, searching for meaning, like things to be intriguing and fulfilling These preferences imply very different styles for teaching and learning online - or face-to-face - but online learning can either be rigid or flexible, according to instructor design...

85 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 What About Learning Styles? First, the students...

86 Students Preferred... Active Sensory Visual Sequential Learning Styles: Only One in Common Faculty Preferred... Reflective Intuitive Visual Global

87 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Implications One-size does NOT fit all Instructors who primarily design online courses the way they like learning will fail to use the best strategies for most of their audience This is why we drive each other crazy! and most importantly....

88 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Providing simultaneous options for how to access learning will provide the best experience for everyone. (See notebook section “Faculty Information and UDL” for evaluations of common teaching methods)

89 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Universal Design for Learning 1990’s challenged us to think about who should be responsible for accessibility. –The Intersection of educational initiatives. For example, integrated units, multi-sensory teaching, multiple intelligences, differentiated instruction, use of computers in schools, and performance-based assessment to name a few.

90 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 The task for educators is to understand how students learn and use the technology available in this digital age to provide selected supports where they are needed and position the challenge appropriately for each learner.

91 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Learning Networks Learning is distributed across three interconnected networks: 1.the recognition networks ……what 2.the strategic networks …….how 3.the affective networks ……..why

92 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Recognition Network Exercise your recognition networks' processing by quickly listing the individual objects you recognize in this picture

93 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Strategic Network Exercise your strategic networks by examining this image for a few different purposes. Notice how you look at the image differently depending on your purpose. 1.How old are the people in this picture? 2.What time historical time period or geographical location might it represent? 3.How might the people be feeling in this picture?

94 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Affective Network Exercise your affective networks' processing by looking at the picture once again. What strikes you about the picture? Note something about your self that may have led you to this conclusion.

95 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Comparison of UD and UDL: Benefits and Pitfalls “Typical” DesignUniversal designUniversal Design & UDL *many accommodation requests or potential lawsuits *dramatically reduces number of accommodation requests *virtually no accommodation requests *may lose students who have disabilities *attracts students with sensory and physical disabilities *attracts more students with learning disabilities *not in strict compliance with the law. compliance: to the “letter” of the law *beyond compliance to best practice

96 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Comparison of 3 Designs: “typical”, using UD and using UDL “Typical” DesignUniversal DesignUniversal Design and Universal Design for Learning Initial costs, training & design time are low Later costs may be very high Initial costs for training, and design time a little higher Later costs will be lower Higher initial costs for training and design time Virtually no costs later

97 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Universal Design Framework Universal Design for Learning calls for... Multiple means of representation, to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge, Multiple means of expression, to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know, Multiple means of engagement, to tap into learners' interests, offer appropriate challenges, and increase motivation.

98 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Multiple means of representation Present information in multiple ways. Anything written or otherwise offered visually is also spoken aloud or vice versa.

99 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Multiple means of expression Offer multiple ways for students to interact with and respond to curricula and materials. (Talking, writing, typing, videoing, etc)

100 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Multiple means of engagement, Provide multiple ways for students to find meaning in the material and thus motivate themselves. Students may work independently, or in teams. They may show that they master principles by applying their favorite activities.

101 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Universal Design for Learning Various means of –Representation –Engagement –Expression addresses individual learning needs and preferences by designing for all potential users By designing learning experiences for many possible learners with various characteristics, ALL learners benefit Example: The spelling test.

102 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Universal Design for Learning: Applications to Online Courses Okay, UDL is a good idea. How do we do it?

103 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Multiple Means of Representation: Example View the video clip of Martin Luther King giving the “I Have a Dream” speech. Read Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech. Listen to audio clip of Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech. Find and read at least 5 pertinent pieces of historical literature on Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech Read the Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech to a partner. Listen to a partner reading Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech. Watch a documentary on Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech. Find at least 5 pertinent pieces of critical literature on Martin Luther King’s “I Have a Dream” speech.

104 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 University Examples

105 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 Example

106 Engleman, M. & Jeffs, T. Educause, 2007 For more information, contact: Dr. Melissa Engleman or Dr. Tara Jeffs Special Education East Carolina University Greenville, NC 27858-4353 englemanm@ecu.edu or jeffst@ecu.edu englemanm@ecu.edujeffst@ecu.edu


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