Presentation on theme: "BM109 Computer Applications For Media. Text Overview Importance of text in a multimedia presentation. Understanding fonts and typefaces. Using text elements."— Presentation transcript:
Overview Importance of text in a multimedia presentation. Understanding fonts and typefaces. Using text elements in a multimedia presentation. Computers and text. Font editing and design tools. Multimedia and hypertext.
Text came into use about 6,000 years ago Text in History
Revolution in Communication Using symbols for communication relatively recent - 6,0000 years old 15th Century- Johann Gutenburg printing press revolutionized information Recently - another revolution - the World Wide Web and its native language - HTML
The Power of Meaning and the Importance of Text Titles Menus Navigational aids Words must be chosen carefully Words appear in: Test the words you plan to use Keep a thesaurus handy
Using Text in Multimedia Type terminology Typeface Arial Courier Times Fonts Points Styles Leading Kerning
Fonts and Faces A typeface is a family of graphic characters that includes many type sizes and styles (such as Times, Arial, Helvetica) A font is a collection of characters of a single size and style belonging to a typeface family (such as bold, italic) Font sizes are in points 1 point = 1/72 inch (measured from top to bottom of descenders in capital letter) X-height is the height of the lower case letter x
Types of fonts There are three types of fonts you need to be awareof: TrueType, PostScript and OpenType.
True Type TrueType Fonts Truetype fonts only require one file to be submitted but a separate file needs to be submitted for each instance of the font. For example, a different file is needed for normal, bold, italic, bold italic, etc. TrueType typefaces are generally intended for business office use and can be less reliable for publishing applications. TrueType fonts (.ttf/.ttc) can be scaled to any size and are clear and readable in all sizes. They can be sent to any printer or other output device supported by Windows.
PostScript PostScript Fonts Has main components. The first file contains the actual PostScript typeface itself and is often called the “binary” or “printer” file. The second file contains the typeface’s complete name, the spacing characteristics (font metrics) and information to help the computer display the typeface on the screen and for printing the font. PostScript fonts are fonts created by Adobe Systems that are smooth, detailed, and of high quality. They are often used for printing, especially professional-quality printing, such as books or magazines.
OpenType Fonts OpenType Fonts OpenType fonts are cross-platform compatible making it easier to share files across operating systems. Font management is simpler since there is just one file involved. An OpenType font file contains all the outline, metric and bitmap data in one file. It can contain TrueType (.ttf extension) or PostScript (.otf extension) font data and uses ATM to render the font on-screen. Adobe® InDesign® and Adobe® Photoshop® support OpenType which allows them to use the expanded character sets and layout features.
Factors affecting legibility of text –Size. –Background and foreground color. –Style. –Leading (pronounced “ledding”).
Styles Examples of styles are boldface and italic Italic Bold Underlined
Leading and Kerning Computers can adjust the line spacing (called leading) leading and the space between pairs of letters, called kerning
Cases When type was set by hand, the type for a font was kept in a drawer or case, The upper drawer held the capital letters, and the lower drawer held the smaller letters From this we get the terms uppercase and lowercase
Case Sensitive Password, and paths in a URL are case sensitive ( that is “home” is different from “HOME”) It is easier to read words that have a mixture of upper and lower case letters rather than all upper case Computer terms use an intercap for readability as in PageMaker, or LastName
Serif and Sans Serif Type either has a little decoration at the end of the letter - called a serif or it doesn’t - sans serif ( “sans” from the French meaning without) Examples ( Times - serif “ T ” ) ( Arial - sans serif “ T ”) Use what is appropriate to convey your message
Using Text In Multimedia WYSIWYG - What you see is what you get! Aim for a balance between too much text and too little Make web pages no more than 1 to 2 screenfuls of text Bring the user to the destination with as few actions as possible
Text Font Design Tips Use the most legible font available Use as few different faces as possible ( too many called “ransom-note” typography Use bold and italics to convey meaning Adjust line spacing ( leading) Adjust the spacing between letters in headings to remove gaps Use colors and background to make type stand out Use meaningful word for links and menus
Menus For Navigation A Multimedia project or web site should include: –content or information –navigation tools such as menus, mouse clicks, key presses or touch screen –some indication or map of where the user is in the presentation
Buttons for Interaction Buttons are objects that make things happen when they are clicked Use common button shapes and sizes Label them clearly BE SURE THEY WORK!
Fields for Reading Reading from a computer screen is slower than from a book People blink 3-5 times/minute, using a computer and 20-25 times/minute reading a book This reduced eye movement causes fatigue, dryness Try to present only a few paragraphs per page
Portrait vs. Landscape Monitor use wider-than-tall aspect ratios called landscape Most books use taller-than- wide orientation, called portrait Don’t try to shrink a full page onto a monitor portrait landscape
HTML Documents Standard document format on the web is called Hypertext Markup Language ( HTML) Originally designed for text not multimedia - now being redesigned as Dynamic HTML ( DHTML), which uses CSS (Cascading Style sheets) and permits defining text choices. Specify typefaces, sizes colors and properties by “marking up” the text with tags (such as, )
HTML Documents The Font tag is used to specify the font to be displayed (if present)
Symbols and Icons Symbols act like “visual words” to convey meaning, (called icons) –MAC - trash can –Windows - hourglass Icons and sound are more easily remembered than words It is useful to label icons for clarity
Animating Text To grab a viewer’s attention: –let text “fly” onto screen –rotate or spin text, etc. Use special effects sparingly or they become boring
Computers and Text Mac standard - 72 pixels/ inch PC - VGA - 96 pixels/inch Screen ( 640 pixels across x 480 down, called 640 x480 resolution) Today much higher resolution possible
Fonts “Wars” Apple - Adobe PostScript page description font language –describes an image in terms of mathematical constructs (Bezier curves) –Can be scaled larger or smaller –Currently > 6,000 typefaces available Apple & Microsoft created TrueType
Computers and Text Allow text to be drawn at any size without “jaggies”, by anti-aliasing the edges of the characters
Fonts and Characters Fonts smaller than 12 point are not very legible on a monitor Never assume the fonts installed on your computer are on all computers Stay with TrueType fonts ordinarily ASCII character set - most common Extended Character set - used for HTML UNICODE –supports characters for all known languages
Unicode Developed in 1989 for multilingual text Contains 65,000 characters form all known languages and alphabets Where several languages share a set of symbols, they are grouped into a collection called scripts ( eg. Latin, Arabic, Cyrillic, Greek, Tibetan, etc.) Shared symbols are unified into collections called scripts
Mapping Text Across Platforms Viewing a presentation on either MAC and PC reveals differences Fonts must be mapped from one machine to another If same font doesn’t exist on the other machine, one is substituted ( called font substitution) To avoid this, convert to bitmaps
Font Editing and Design Tools Allow you to create your own fonts –ResEdit for MAC –Fontographer (from Macromedia) caan be used to create Postscript, TrueType and bitmapped fonts for MAC, PB, SUN includes a freehand drawing tool –3D programs, such as COOL 3D and HotTEXT, create special effects –See text for descriptions