3LOTO Protects You Use proper Lock-Out / Tag-Out procedures Please be careful when working on equipment
4Killed By The Moving Parts Of A Saw Case Study #1Killed By The Moving Parts Of A SawNarrative: An Employee Was Cleaning the Unguarded Side of an Operating Granite Saw. The Employee Was Caught in the Moving Parts Of The Saw and Pulled Into a Nip Point Between The Saw Blade and the Idler Wheel, Resulting In Fatal Injuries.Citation: Failure to Shutdown or Turn off Equipment To Perform Maintenance.17171717
5Circumstances of Injury How Most Injuries Occur In Order Of Occurrence Injured by Moving Machinery Part.Made Contact With Energized Part.Injured by Physical Hazard (Heat, Chemicals).Injured by Falling Machine Part.12121212
6Circumstances of Injury Activity At Time Of AccidentFrequency Of Occurrence1. Unjamming Object(S) From Equipment2. Cleaning Equipment3. Repairing Equipment4. Performing Routine Maintenance5. Installing Equipment13131313
7Circumstances of Injury Activity At Time Of AccidentFrequency Of Occurrence6. Adjusting Equipment7. Doing Set-up Work8. Performing Electrical Work9. Inspecting Equipment10. Testing Materials14141414
8Circumstances of Injury Reasons For Equipment Not Being Turned Off Afraid of Slow Down in Production.Afraid It Would Take Too Long.Not Required by Company Procedure.Worker Didn't Know Power Was on.Worker Didn't Know How to Turn Off.Did Not Think It Was Necessary.Task Could Not Be Done With Power Off.ON OFFSYSTEMCONTROLSWITCH15151515
9Circumstances of Injury Reasons For Equipment Being Turned On Accidentally Turned on by Injured EmployeeCo-Worker Accidentally Turned Equipment OnEquipment Moved When Jam-up ClearedEquipment Unexpectedly "Cycled"Parts Still in Motion (Coasting)ON OFFSYSTEMCONTROLSWITCH16161616
10Definition of Employees Authorized EmployeeThe Person Who Locks or Tags Out Machines To Perform Servicing or Maintenance.Affected EmployeeAn Employee Whose Job Requires Him or Her To Operate or Use a Machine or Piece of Equipment On Which Servicing or Maintenance Is Being Performed.20202020
11Definitions Lock-Out / Tag-Out Lock-Out Device The placement of a lock/tag on an energy isolating device, in accordance with an established procedure, to ensure that the energy isolating device and the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lock and tag is removed .In addition to tag/lock out, the equipment must be blocked against motion and any residual energy removed.Lock-Out DeviceA device that utilizes a positive means such as a key lock to hold an energy isolating device in the safe position and prevents the energizing of equipmentRed TagØ Means “Extreme Danger. Do not Operate and do not Remove."Ø Used whenever there is a hazard or someone working on or near a piece of equipment or electrical system.Ø Shall be used to tag out a piece of equipment or system that is unsafe to operate in its present state or condition.Ø Must be filled out completely, including Name, Date, and Reason for Red Tag. Whenever unsafe equipment is red tagged, contact Dispatch. Notify them of the unit number, equipment failure, and that the equipment is down and red tagged. The dispatcher will enter Unit #, cause for being Red Tagged. Unauthorized removal of a Red Tag or utilization of a system or piece of equipment TAGGED OUT will result is disciplinary action up to and including discharge. Ø Will be available to every TransAlta Centralia Mining employee required to work on or near equipment or facilities that when energized or operated would present a personal safety hazard.Ø Shall be used in conjunction with a Safety Lock whenever possible.May be removed only by the individual whose name is on the tag or by the appropriate Maintenance Foreman who will determine that the condition has been corrected and that all persons are in the clear. Failure to remove a Red Tag prior to leaving the property if the necessary repairs or corrected unsafe conditions are completed, or failure to remove the Red Tag and replace it with the appropriate Departmental Red Tag if the repair or unsafe condition/s are not corrected, will result in disciplinary action up to and including dischar
12Definitions De-Energized Risk Assessment Energy Isolating Device Disconnected from all energy sources so no residual or stored energy.Risk AssessmentComprehensive evaluation of likelihood & extent of possible injury or damage, undertaken to choose proper safety precautions.Energy Isolating DeviceA mechanical Device That Physically Prevents The Transmission or Release of Energy. Examples include: circuit breakers, disconnect switches, slide gates, valves, blocks, and blind flanges. E-Stops-push button selector switches are not included in isolation devices.
13Training Requirements Authorized EmployeeRecognition of Hazardous Energy Sources.Type and Magnitude Energy Sources.Energy Isolation and Control Methods.1st step in any risk assessment of machines, equipment, & processes is the systematic IDn of possible hazardous situations & how they can lead to harm during various phases of their life cycle by:IDing hazardsHow they can lead to harmControl measures to reduce riskOften requires team approach. Depends on complexity of the issue. In simple situations, comprehensive risk assessment may not be required where control points are simple & obvious, & safeguards are obvious and simple to control22222222
14Training Requirements Affected EmployeePurpose and Use of The Energy Control Program.23232323
15Training Requirements All Other EmployeesProcedures and Prohibitions Relating To Attempts toRestart or Reenergize Machines or Equipment Which AreLocked Out or Tagged Out..24242424
16Retraining Requirements Authorized and Affected EmployeesRetraining Provided When There Is a:Change in Job Assignment.Change in Machines, Equipment or Processes.Change in Energy Control Procedures.Close-Call Event.Failure in the Procedures.Reason to Doubt Employee Proficiency.25252525
17Energy Control Program 1. Energy Control Procedures2. Employee Training3. Periodic InspectionsThree Elements To The Program:26262626
18Definition of Lockout Lockout Is Defined as: The Placement of a Lockout Device on an Energy Isolating Device, in Accordance With an Established Procedure, Ensuring That the Energy Isolating Device and the Equipment Being Controlled Cannot Be Operated Until the Lockout Device Is Removed.27272727
19Lockout Prevents release of hazardous energy Lock placed on appropriate energy isolating device that is in the off or closed position
20Energy Isolating Device BlockLine ValveDisconnecting SwitchManually Operated SwitchAny Other Device That Isolates Energy28282828
21Types of Energy Sources HYDRAULICPNEUMATICMECHANICALRADIOACTIVETHERMALELECTRICALCHEMICALWATER/GASGravity, even stored energy in springs on a garage door for example can cause problemsThink about which different types of disconnects are in your work area.29292929
22Types of Energy States ACTIVE ENERGY STORED ENERGY 110 VOLTS AC HOT SURFACE30303030
23Types of Energy States ACTIVE ENERGY VOLTAGES EXTERNAL PRESSURIZED LINE FEEDS TO THEMACHINE31313131
24Types of Energy States STORED ENERGY INTERNAL LINE PRESSURES CAPACITORSSURFACE TEMPERATURESMECHANICAL TENSION (SPRINGS, ETC.)COASTING OF PARTSCHEMICAL (OPPOSING pH)GRAVITY32323232
25Mechanical Energy Kinetic - machinery in motion GearsBeltsPotential - stored energyWeights (gravity) & springsPistons under pressureHydraulic controls
27Activities Covered NORMAL OPERATIONS: 1. Covered If an Employee Must Remove or Bypass Guards or Devices2. Covered Where Employees Are Required to Put A Body Part in a Machine Process Area3. Covered Where Employees Are Required to Put A Body Part in a Machine Having a Danger Zone34343434
31Requirements if Tag-Out is Used SOME KEY POINTS ABOUT TAGS:Tags Are Only Warning Devices!Tags Must Be Securely Attached!May Evoke False Sense of Security!Tags Do Not Provide Physical Restraint!Tags Must Never Be Defeated or Ignored!Must Withstand Environmental Conditions!Tags Must Be Legible and Understandable!Tags Are Only Removed by the ResponsiblePerson.36363636
32Lock-Out Sequence of Events 1. Preparation for Shutdown2. Shutdown3. Machine or Equipment Isolation4. Application of Lockout/Tagout Devices5. Testing of LO/TO6. Servicing or Maintenance7. Removal of LO/TO Devices8. Re-energization9. Equipment Reactivation37373737
331. Prepare Plan your work & locate instructions Understand equipment hazardsNotify others of shutdown
342. Shutdown Turn all switches to OFF Normal shutdown procedure Shut all control valves
353. Isolate Sources Disable all energy sources Shut valves Open breakers & disconnects
364. Apply Locks Valves Breaker & electrical disconnects Block or disconnect all lines
38Use of LocksUse only locks issued to you – lock all energy isolation gearNever use another workers lock or tagTell supervisor if you need more LOTO equipment
395. VerificationPrior to servicing or maintenance, authorized employee must verify that equipment is isolated by turning it onTo Verify: The process of operating the start controls, engaging levers, measuring voltage, inspecting lockout devices valves,disconnect switches, blades, piping systems in an area to make sure that all energy sources have been isolated and controlled.
406. Control Stored Energy Block or release springs or other tension Block elevated partsStop rotating flywheelsRelieve system pressureDrain fluidsVent gases
417. Prepare for Startup Put all guards back Remove tools Inform others of startupRestore system connectionsRemove locks & tagsRestore equipment to normalConduct normal startup
42Who Can Remove Locks/Tags? Only the employee who placed the lock and/or tagA supervisor, after obtaining permission from the worker who placed the tag
43Written Program Requirements All Employers Must:Maintain a Written Program.Review the Program on an Annual Basis.Develop Detailed Energy Control Procedures.Review Individual LO/TO Procedures Annually.Make the Written Program Available to all Affected Employees During Each Work Shift.38383838
44Energy Control Procedures Procedures Must Contain:1. Statement of Intended Use.2. Steps for Shut-Down and Energy Control.3. Steps for LO/TO Device Placement, Transfer and Removal.4. Determination of Responsibility.5. Steps for Testing LO/TO.44444444
45Exceptions to the Requirement Exceptions to the Requirement to havewritten LOTO ProceduresAll Of The Following Eight Conditions Must Exist:No Potential for Residual, Stored or Reaccumulation of Energy.Contains Only One Energy Source Which Is Readily Identified and Isolated.Isolating & Locking Out Results in Complete De-Energization.4. The Machine or Equipment Is Isolated or Locked Out During Maintenance.45454545
46Exceptions to the Requirement 6. The Lockout Device Is Under Exclusive Control Of An Authorized Employee7. Servicing/Maintenance Does Not Produce Hazards For Other Employees8. No Previous Energy Control Accident History Exists for the Employer46464646
47Lock-Out Program Elements ID hazardous energy covered by programID types of energy isolating/de-energizing devices
48Energy Control Procedures Annual Inspections Must Include:DATE OF INSPECTIONIDENTIFICATION OF MACHINE OR EQUIPMENTEMPLOYEES INCLUDED IN INSPECTIONPERSON PERFORMING INSPECTION48484848
49Release From Lock-Out/Tag-Out The Authorized Employee Must: 1. INSPECT WORK AREA FOR HAZARDS2. CLEAR ALL EMPLOYEES3. NOTIFY ALL AFFECTED EMPLOYEES4. REMOVE ENERGY ISOLATING DEVICES49494949
50Important Points to Remember WHERE LOCKOUT CAN BE USED:IT MUST BE*WHERE LOCKOUT CANNOT BE USED:TAGOUT PROCEDURES MUST BE INITIATED* (Unless It Can Be Demonstrated That Full Protection Can Be Achieved by Other Means)50505050
51Group Lock-Out/Tag-Out FOUR SPECIFIC REQUIREMENTS1. Responsibility Vested in a Single Authorized Employee.2. The Authorized Employee Must Have the Authority To Determine Exposure Status of Group Members.3. With Multiple Crews the Authorized Employee Must Be Assigned the Responsibility of The Overall Job.The Authorized Employee Shall Affix an Individual LO/TO Device at the Beginning of Work and Remove It at Completion of the Work.51515151
52Group Lock-Out/Tag-Out When The Authorized Employee Is Unavailable PROCEDURES MUST INCLUDE, AS A MINIMUM:1. Proof That the Employee Who Applied the Device Is Unavailable.2. A Valid Attempt to Inform the Employee Who Applied the Device, That It Has Been Removed.3. Adequate Notice to the Employee Who Applied The Device, of the Removal of the Device Before That Employee Returns to Work.52525252
53Contractor Safety Requirements OUTSIDE CONTRACTORS MUST:Inform Representatives of the Facility Of Their LO/TO Procedures and Devices.COMPANY REPRESENTATIVES MUST:Inform the Contractor of Internal LO/TO Procedures and Devices.Ensure That the Contractor(S) Are Following LOTO Procedures.53535353
54TIPS For Using Contractors Remember, You Control Your Facility!Review Their Procedures With Them Before Starting the Job!Determine Their Safety Performance Record!Determine Who Is in Charge of Their People!Determine How They Will Affect Your Employees!Ensure Your Data on Your Facility Is Accurate!54545454
55Key Elements to an Effective Program 1. Develop and Strictly Adhere to LO/TO Procedures.2. Establish and Enforce Safe Work Practices.3. Ensure Proper Training and Supervision.4. Strengthen and Modify Present Policies.5. Understand the Relationship Between 29 CFR And the Business or Industry Involved.55555555
56Equipment Requirements DEVICES AND TAGS MUST BE:1. Durable2. Standardized3. Identifiable4. SubstantialDEVICES AND TAGS ARE:1. Designed to Prevent Accidental Energization.2. Not Designed As a Substitution for Security.56565656
57Worker Killed By Mixing Machine Case Study #1Worker Killed By Mixing MachineNARRATIVE: An employee was assigned the task of cleaning the inside of a sand mixer. The task was conducted during a break in the production cycle, caused by routine maintenance work. He did this without anyone else’s knowledge. While he was engaged in this, out of sight and hearing of the others, an electrician started the machine, killing the man inside. This plant had a written lockout procedure, training had been given, and all affected employees (including the deceased), were issued keys and locks.58585858
58Questions to be Considered What caused the death of the worker?Do you believe there are multiple causes?Are multiple OSHA Standard violations involved?What could upper management have done?What could the supervisor have done?What could the co-workers have done?To what extent was attitude responsible?To what extent is a lack of written policy responsible?To what extent is a lack of training responsible?Do you believe there is a single cause to this accident that, if removed would have prevented it?59595959
59Worker Killed By High Voltage Case Study #2Worker Killed By High VoltageNARRATIVE: A 13,800-volt main circuit breaker was under routine inspection. A test instrument was used to check for electrical energy. No electrical energy was detected at the primary power contacts in the circuit breaker. To verify the operation of the tester, the sensitivity was readjusted and checked against a known 120-volt receptacle. The tester was found to be operable. As the journeyman electrician approached one of the contacts with a shop towel, an explosion, engulfed him in flames. The power from the public utility company to the main circuit breaker had not been shut off.60606060
60Questions to be Considered What caused the death of the worker?Do you believe there are multiple causes?Are multiple OSHA Standard violations involved?What could upper management have done?What could the supervisor have done?What could the co-workers have done?To what extent was attitude responsible?To what extent is a lack of written policy responsible?To what extent is a lack of training responsible?Do you believe there is a single cause to this accident that, if removed would have prevented it?61616161
61Energy Control Program Review 1. ENERGY CONTROL PROCEDURES2. EMPLOYEE TRAINING3. PERIODIC INSPECTIONSTHREE ELEMENTS TO THE PROGRAM:70707070
63What a typical Lock-Out / Tag-Out looks like with an equipment lock. Sample Equipment LockWhat a typical Lock-Out / Tag-Out looks like with an equipment lock.
64Sample Protection Lock What a typical Lock-Out / Tag-Out looks like with a personal protection lock.
65Sample Protection Lock What a Lock-Out / Tag-Out looks like with a contractor & personal protection lock.
66Yellow Tag / No LockOccasionally you may see a yellow tag without a lock on equipment that is out of service. This machine is Tagged Outbecause it will not runThe tag will tell you what iswrong with the equipment Never attempt to operateequipment that has beentagged
67In order to properly block or secure any piece of mobile equipment, you must block or pin all articulation joints. Failure to properly secure articulation could result in vehicle movement when it is blocked in the raised position.
69YES! Question Equipment already has a lock and tag on it. Do I have to place my own locks & tags?YES!everyone working on equipment must place their own locks and tags
70Tampered Lock-Out Hasps The following examples illustrate tampered lockout hasps. These hasps are easily pried open with minimal effort. The construction and design does not provide adequate protection based on policies we have set or industry standards.
72This picture illustrates the new lockout hasp. New Lock-Out HaspsThis picture illustrates the new lockout hasp.4 lock (stock code )8 lock (stock code )The heavy-duty hinge-style hasp offers added pry resistance. Steel construction with 9/32" diameter shackles. This new hasp will restore lockout security.
73Authorized Employees Properly plan the job. Notify all affected employees in the area of work.Shut down the equipment at the operating controls.Isolate all energy sources to equipment.Lock and tag all isolating devicesDissipate all stored or residual energy sources.Verify the isolation.<ENTER> <ENTER> <ENTER> <ENTER> <ENTER> <ENTER> <ENTER>Those who perform the work from the planning to the re-start.MAJOR POINT Authorized employees should tell affected employees job is complete before they remove their locks and tags and turn the equipment back on.
74Affected Employees Stay clear of the area as much as possible. Never attempt to assist .Never interfere or tamper with a lock or tag.Report all unusual situation to your supervisor or foreman.<ENTER> <ENTER> <ENTER> <ENTER>Those who may be in the area and need to give the job a wide berth.
76Visual InspectionPortable cord and plug connected equipment and flexible cord sets (extension cords) shall be visually inspected before use on any shift for external defects:Loose partsDeformed or missing pinsDamage to outer jacket or insulationEvidence of possible internal damage
77Portable Electric Tools & Cords Portable equipment must be handled in a manner which will not cause damage.Flexible electric cords connected to equipment may not be used for raising or lowering the equipment.Flexible cords may not be fastened with staples or otherwise hung in such a fashion as could damage the outer jacket or insulation.
78Always Use a GFCI Outlet A GFCI is device intended for the protection of persons that functions to de-energize a circuit.
79How Does the GFCI Work?GFCIs constantly monitor electricity flowing in a circuit.If the electricity flowing into the circuit differs by even a slight amount from that returning, the GFCI will quickly shut off the current flowing through that circuit.GFCIs work quickly, so they can help protect persons from severe electric shocks and electrocution.GFCI do not require a ground.
81Recommended Areas for GFCI’s Bathrooms over your sink or tubKitchens (sink area)Basements unfinished.GaragesCord and Plug Deicing and Snow Melting Equipment.On any portable electric equipmentPools and hot tubsFountainsBoat housesWet Bar
82Electrical Breaker Procedure Was something NEW plugged in?Unplug Device& Reset BreakerReset Breaker ONCEContact Maintenance SupervisorTry Device inNew CircuitHave device inspected by qualified personDoes it Trip Again?CompleteElectrical outletbreaker tripsYesNo