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Administration of medications

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Presentation on theme: "Administration of medications"— Presentation transcript:

1 Administration of medications
Jana HeŘmanovÁ ICM II, 24 February 2014

2 What does it involve? Prescribing – MD, nurse practitioner, medical student Administering – RN, health care assistant, NA, radiology assistant, MD Taking – the patient What’s missing? Who’s missing? Dispensing – clinical pharmacist, pharmacology assistant ICM II, 24 February 2014

3 What is a medication? a substance given to a person (or animal) with the aim to cure disease, relieve symptoms, prevent disease or help with diagnosis ICM II, 24 February 2014

4 What’s in the picture? ICM II, 24 February 2014

5 Forms of medications Solid
Powder, tablets, capsules, coated tablets, lozenges Semisolid Suppositories, creams, ointments, gels, patches Liquid Solutions, suspensions, syrups, elixirs, drops, mouth wash Inhalants/sprays ICM II, 24 February 2014

6 ICM II, 24 February 2014

7 Routes of administration
Enteral By mouth p.o. Rectal p.r. Parenteral Intradermal i.d. Subcutaneous s.c. Intramuscular i.m. Intravenous i.v. Intraarticular i.a. Intraosseal i.o. Intrathecal i.t. Topical Skin Nose Ear Vaginal Intrauterine Inhalation – sprays, inhalers, nebulization ICM II, 24 February 2014

8 Let’s play a game! Can you name the forms and methods of administration? ICM II, 24 February 2014

9 What are the roles of the persons involved?
MD Know the patient – medical history, other drugs taken, allergies, weight, height, dietary habits, activities Know the drug – recent developments, references, dosing, available products (positive list) Write legibly, follow the prescription guidelines Inform/educate the patient Monitor the effects of medications ICM II, 24 February 2014

10 Pharmacist Check the order Consult with doctor if in doubt
Check for possible incompabilities Inform the patient Educate the medical and nursing staff ICM II, 24 February 2014

11 Nursing staff Read the order carefully Consult with MD when in doubt
Know the medication, consult when giving new drugs Identify the patient! Follow the administration guidelines Document ICM II, 24 February 2014

12 The patient Compliance – to what extent does the patient follows the doctor’s orders, recommendations, treatment regime Compliance is influenced by many factors – age, level of patient information, side effects, food interference, doctor – patient communication, patient’s expectations, impact on ADL, leisure activities Communication – honest, open ICM II, 24 February 2014

13 Increase the compliance - For the little ones
ICM II, 24 February 2014

14 Hooray for the apps! ICM II, 24 February 2014

15 Prescription guidelines – be complete!
Name of the drug Form of the drug Strength of the drug Route of administration Dose Time/frequency Ibalgin tbl. 400 mg p.o. 1 – 1 - 1 ICM II, 24 February 2014

16 Complete ICM II, 24 February 2014

17 Not so complete ICM II, 24 February 2014

18 Specifics Antibiotics – use exact times for timed adm
Chemotherapy – dose prescribed by BSA (body surface area) Infusions – define the drip rate or length of administration PRN orders – define criteria for adm., the maximal daily dose Define measurable goals/target effect in specific meds such as insulin, hypertensives, etc. ICM II, 24 February 2014

19 Examples of prescription
Wrong Right Paralen 1 – 1 – 1 Unasyn 1,5 g a 6h i.v. Novalgin 1 amp i.m. prn Actrapid 50U/50ml FR 1-10ml/hr Paralen 500 mg tbl. 1–1–1 p.o. Unasyn 1,5g/100 ml FR i.v. give over 30 min at Novalgin 1amp (5ml) i.m. by VAS over 3, max a 6 hours Actrapid 50U/50ml FR continuously 1 – 10ml/hr according to glycemia (goal 3,5 – 6,5mmol/l) ICM II, 24 February 2014

20 Prescription guidelines – be legible!
ICM II, 24 February 2014

21 …and clear ICM II, 24 February 2014

22 Administration guidelines
According to doctor’s order Do not transcribe orders (might differ within countries) Prepare at bedside From original container (might be problematic with patient’s meds brought to the hospital) Avoid giving all daily doses at one time Use protective equipment when giving chemotherapy Do not give when exspiration over Follow the “5 Rights” rule ICM II, 24 February 2014

23 The 5 Rights of Medication Administration
Right patient Right drug Right time and frequency administration Right dose Right route of administration ICM II, 24 February 2014

24 The 6th Right - documentation
ICM II, 24 February 2014

25 Monitoring the effects
ICM II, 24 February 2014

26 Medication errors “A preventable event that may cause or lead to inappropriate medication use or patient harm while the medication is in the control of the healthcare professional, patient or consumer” “Any error in the prescribing, dispensing, or administration of a drug whether there are adverse consequences or not” National Coordination Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prescription ICM II, 24 February 2014

27 The most common causes of medication errors
Missing patient information Missing drug information Illegible, incomplete, misheard order Look alike/sound alike, faulty drug identification Drug storage or delivery problems Drug delivery device problems Environmental, staffing, workflow Lack of staff education, patient education, physician’s knowledge Failure to monitor closely ICM II, 24 February 2014

28 Sentinel events related to medication errors
Medication not given Medication given to wrong patient Wrong rate of administration Wrong dose/concentration/form Wrong time of administration Wrong route of administration Wrong medication ICM II, 24 February 2014

29 Prevention of medication errors
Prescription related Good patient history Be legible, type or print orders Use computerized prescription systems Know the drugs Avoid abbreviations (PRN, AZT, FeSO4) Always use zero, e.g. 0.5 mg, never .5 mg Be aware of LASA (Lasix - furosemide, Losec – omeprazol, Amiloride, Amlodipine) Follow guidelines for verbal orders (only in emergency, always follow with written order, read back the order to the physician, document immediately, never use verbal orders for chemotherapy or high alert drugs) ICM II, 24 February 2014

30 Prevention of medication errors
Administration related Identify the patient! Check for allergies Double-check dosage calculation of high alert drugs by another staff member (insulin, KCl, chemotherapy) Store LASA separately Store high alert drugs separately, label properly Prepare medication at bedside Minimize interruptions ICM II, 24 February 2014

31 Label safely ICM II, 24 February 2014

32 Store safely ICM II, 24 February 2014

33 Real life clinical stories
1. Warfarin order 11/2 – 11/2 – 0 (What was the meant dose? What dose was given?) 2. Verbal order of 500ml 10% G to run at 100ml/hr for the patient with critical hypoglycemia (Doctor fell asleep, did not follow with written order. Dose too low, what could have happened?) 3. Wrong rate of insulin infusion (10 x faster) due to mistake with managing the i.v. lines, poor work organization (What are the risks? What should change?) ICM II, 24 February 2014

34 Summary…let’s go to the movies 
Administering oral medications ICM II, 24 February 2014

35 Safety of the patient first!
Assess..Diagnose…Treat…Monitor…Communicate ICM II, 24 February 2014

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